Stanford Advisors

  • Wendy Gu, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor

All Publications

  • Correlating chemistry and mass transport in sustainable iron production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Zheng, X., Paul, S., Moghimi, L., Wang, Y., Vilá, R. A., Zhang, F., Gao, X., Deng, J., Jiang, Y., Xiao, X., Wu, C., Greenburg, L. C., Yang, Y., Cui, Y., Vailionis, A., Kuzmenko, I., Llavsky, J., Yin, Y., Cui, Y., Dresselhaus-Marais, L. 2023; 120 (43): e2305097120


    Steelmaking contributes 8% to the total CO2 emissions globally, primarily due to coal-based iron ore reduction. Clean hydrogen-based ironmaking has variable performance because the dominant gas-solid reduction mechanism is set by the defects and pores inside the mm- to nm-sized oxide particles that change significantly as the reaction progresses. While these governing dynamics are essential to establish continuous flow of iron and its ores through reactors, the direct link between agglomeration and chemistry is still contested due to missing measurements. In this work, we directly measure the connection between chemistry and agglomeration in the smallest iron oxides relevant to magnetite ores. Using synthesized spherical 10-nm magnetite particles reacting in H2, we resolve the formation and consumption of wüstite (Fe1-xO)-the step most commonly attributed to whiskering. Using X-ray diffraction, we resolve crystallographic anisotropy in the rate of the initial reaction. Complementary imaging demonstrated how the particles self-assemble, subsequently react, and grow into elongated "whisker" structures. Our insights into how morphologically uniform iron oxide particles react and agglomerate in H2 reduction enable future size-dependent models to effectively describe the multiscale aspects of iron ore reduction.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2305097120

    View details for PubMedID 37847734