Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Cardiology

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology (2018)
  • Fellowship: Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital Advanced Cardiology Fellowships (2018) CA
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship (2017) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2014)
  • Residency: Childrens Hospital Los Angeles Pediatric Residency (2014) CA
  • Medical Education: University of California at Irvine School of Medicine Registrar (2011) CA

Clinical Trials

  • A Study of Vismodegib (GDC-0449) in Patients Treated With Vismodegib in a Previous Genentech-sponsored Phase I or II Cancer Study Not Recruiting

    This was a multicenter, open-label extension study. Patients who received vismodegib (GDC-0449) in a Genentech-sponsored study and who had completed the parent study or who continued to receive vismodegib at the time the parent study closed were eligible for continued treatment in this protocol.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Shruthi Rangaraj, (650) 721 - 7159.

    View full details

All Publications

  • "Echo pause" for postoperative transthoracic echocardiographic surveillance. Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) Cox, K., Arunamata, A., Krawczeski, C. D., Reddy, C., Kipps, A. K., Long, J., Roth, S. J., Axelrod, D. M., Hanley, F., Shin, A., Selamet Tierney, E. S. 2019


    BACKGROUND: No guidelines exist for inpatient postoperative transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) surveillance in congenital heart disease. We prospectively evaluated indications for postoperative TTEs in patients with congenital heart disease to identify areas to improve upon (Phase 1) and then assessed the impact of a simple pilot intervention (Phase 2).METHODS: We included patients with RACHS-1 (Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery) scores of 2 and 3 to keep the cohort homogenous. During Phase 1, we collected data prospectively to identify postoperative TTEs for which there were no new findings and no associated clinical management decisions ("potentially redundant" TTEs). During Phase 2, prior to placement of a TTE order, an "Echo Pause" was performed during rounds to prompt review of prior TTE results and indication for the current order. The number of "potentially redundant" TTEs during Phase 1 vs. Phase 2 was compared.RESULTS: During Phase 1, 98 postoperative TTEs were performed on 51 patients. Potentially "redundant" TTEs were identified in two main areas: (a) TTEs ordered to evaluate pericardial effusion and (b) TTEs ordered with the indication of "postoperative," "follow-up," or "discharge" in the setting of a prior complete postoperative TTE and no apparent change in clinical status. During Phase 2, 101 TTEs were performed on 63 patients. The number of "potentially redundant" TTEs decreased from 14/98 (14%) to 5/101 (5%) (P=.026).CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the number of "potentially redundant" TTEs during inpatient postoperative surveillance of patients with congenital heart disease can be decreased by a simple intervention during rounds such as an "Echo Pause."

    View details for DOI 10.1111/echo.14505

    View details for PubMedID 31628768

  • Bridge to success: A better method of cryoablation for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia in children HEART RHYTHM Reddy, C. D., Ceresnak, S. R., Motonaga, K. S., Avasarala, K., Feller, C., Trela, A., Hanisch, D., Dubin, A. M. 2017; 14 (11): 1649–54


    Cryoablation for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is associated with higher recurrence rates than radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Junctional tachycardia marks procedural success with RFA, but no such indicator exists for cryoablation.The purpose of this study as to determine the impact of voltage mapping plus longer ablation lesions on midterm success of cryoablation for children with AVNRT.We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of pediatric patients with AVNRT who underwent cryoablation from 2011 to 2015. Patients ablated using a standard electroanatomic approach (control) were compared with patients ablated using voltage mapping (voltage group). In the voltage group, EnSite NavX navigation and visualization technology (St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN) was used to develop a "bridge" of lower voltage gradients (0.3-0.8 mV) of the posteroseptal right atrium to guide cryoablation. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine freedom from recurrence of supraventricular tachycardia.In all, 122 patients were included (71 voltage, 51 control). There was no difference between groups regarding age, sex, or catheter-tip size. Short-term success was similar in both groups (98.5% voltage vs 92% control; P = .159), but recurrence rates were lower in the voltage group (0% vs 11%, P = .006). Follow-up time was shorter in the voltage group (15 ± 7 months vs 22 ± 17 months, P < .05). The 1-year freedom from recurrence was lower in the voltage group (100% vs 91.5%, P <.05). Ablation times were longer in the voltage group (43.7 ± 20.9 minutes vs 34.3 ± 20.5 minutes, P = .01), but overall procedure times were shorter in the voltage group (157 ± 40 minutes vs 198 ± 133 minutes; P = .018). No significant complication was seen in either group.Voltage gradient mapping and longer lesion time can decrease recurrence rates in pediatric patients with AVNRT.

    View details for PubMedID 28716699

  • A Comparison of AV Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia in Young Children and Adolescents: Electrophysiology, Ablation, and Outcomes. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE Reddy, C. D., Silka, M. J., Bar-Cohen, Y. 2015; 38 (11): 1325-32


    Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) typically occurs in adolescents and adults with limited data regarding AVNRT in young children.All patients with AVNRT who underwent electrophysiology study and ablation between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively studied. Patients were stratified by age <10 years (young AVNRT) or ≥10 years (older AVNRT). Young AVNRT patients were also compared to age-matched patients with orthodromic reentrant tachycardia (ORT).A total of 275 studies in 272 patients were evaluated including 38 young AVNRT patients (7.7 ± 1.5 years) and 202 older AVNRT patients (14.9 ± 2.1 years). An atrial-His jump ≥50 ms was demonstrated in 56% of young and 64% of older patients. Slow pathway modification was attempted in all but one older patient with acute ablation success achieved in all. RF ablation was the primary ablation modality with cryoablation used in 10 patients (three young and seven older). Recurrences were rare (zero young and three older patients) despite residual AVNRT echo beats postablation in 34% of young and 40% of older patients. One older AVNRT patient (0.5%) required a pacemaker for heart block while no complications occurred in the young patients. Electrophysiologic parameters were comparable to the 35 age-matched young ORT group (7.7 ±1.7 years) in whom supraventricular tachycardia was more inducible.Slow pathway modification for AVNRT in children resulted in high success and low complication rates, regardless of age. Recurrence of tachycardia was infrequent despite persistence of AVNRT echo beats in 34-40% of patients following slow pathway modification.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pace.12699

    View details for PubMedID 26234164

  • 50 is the new 70: Short ventriculoatrial times are common in children with atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. Heart rhythm Ceresnak, S. R., Doan, L. N., Motonaga, K. S., Avasarala, K., Trela, A. V., Reddy, C. D., Dubin, A. M. 2015; 12 (7): 1541-1547


    One of the basic electrophysiological principles of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) is that ventriculoatrial (VA) times during tachycardia are >70 ms. We hypothesized, however, that children may commonly have VA times <70 ms in AVRT.This study sought to determine the incidence and characteristics associated with short-VA AVRT in children.A retrospective single-center review of children with AVRT from 2000 to 2014 was performed. All patients ≤18 years of age with AVRT at electrophysiology study were included. Patients with persistent junctional reciprocating tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, and tachycardia not unequivocally proven to be AVRT were excluded. VA time was defined as the time between earliest ventricular activation and earliest atrial activation in any lead and was confirmed by 2 electrophysiologists. Patients with VA times <70 ms (SHORT-VA) and those with standard VA times ≥70 ms (STD-VA) were compared. Logistic regression analysis identified characteristics of SHORT-VA patients.A total of 495 patients with AVRT were included (mean age 11.7 ± 4.1 years). There were 265 patients (54%) with concealed accessory pathways (APs) and 230 (46%) with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. AP location was left-sided in 301 patients (61%) and right-sided in 194 (39%). The mean VA time in AVRT was 100 ± 33 ms. A total of 63 patients (13%) had VA times <70 ms (SHORT-VA). The shortest VA time during AVRT was 50 ms. There was no difference in age, AV nodal block cycle, or body surface area between SHORT-VA and STD-VA patients, but SHORT-VA patients had lower weight (43 ± 17 vs 51 ± 23 kg, P = .02), lower AV nodal effective refractory period (AVNERP; 269 ± 50 vs 245 ± 52 ms, P < .01), and more left-sided APs (50 [79%] vs 251 [58%]; P < .01]. On multivariate logistic regression, factors associated with SHORT-VA included left-sided AP (odds ratio [OR] 5.79, confidence interval [95% CI] 2.21-15.1, P < .01), shorter AVNERP (OR 0.99, CI 0.98-0.99, P < .01), and lower weight (OR 0.97, CI 0.95-0.99, P < .01).Children with AVRT can frequently have VA times <70 ms, with 50 ms being the shortest VA time. This finding debunks the classic electrophysiology principle that VA times in AVRT must be >70 ms. SHORT-VA AVRT was more common in children with left-sided APs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.03.047

    View details for PubMedID 25828598

  • Testosterone concentrations in early pregnancy: relation to method of conception in an infertile population REPRODUCTIVE BIOMEDICINE ONLINE Lathi, R. B., Moayeri, S. E., Reddy, C. D., Gebhardt, J., Behr, B., Westphal, L. M. 2012; 24 (3): 360-363


    This prospective cohort study of infertility patients compared testosterone concentrations in early pregnancy in infertility patients who conceived naturally or after treatment. Although all groups demonstrated some increase in pregnancy testosterone from baseline concentrations, subjects who conceived following ovulation induction showed a significantly increased rise in testosterone as compared with controls (P<0.01).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.rbmo.2011.11.018

    View details for PubMedID 22285241