Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • BS, Stanford University, Biological Sciences (2010)
  • MS, Stanford University, Biology (2012)

2023-24 Courses

All Publications

  • Oxidative Stress in Ischemic Brain Damage: Mechanisms of Cell Death and Potential Molecular Targets for Neuroprotection ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING Chen, H., Yoshioka, H., Kim, G. S., Jung, J. E., Okami, N., Sakata, H., Maier, C. M., Narasimhan, P., Goeders, C. E., Chan, P. H. 2011; 14 (8): 1505-1517


    Significant amounts of oxygen free radicals (oxidants) are generated during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, and oxidative stress plays an important role in brain damage after stroke. In addition to oxidizing macromolecules, leading to cell injury, oxidants are also involved in cell death/survival signal pathways and cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Experimental data from laboratory animals that either overexpress (transgenic) or are deficient in (knock-out) antioxidant proteins, mainly superoxide dismutase, have provided strong evidence of the role of oxidative stress in ischemic brain damage. In addition to mitochondria, recent reports demonstrate that NADPH oxidase (NOX), an important pro-oxidant enzyme, is also involved in the generation of oxidants in the brain after stroke. Inhibition of NOX is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia. We propose that superoxide dismutase and NOX activity in the brain is a major determinant for ischemic damage/repair and that these major anti- and pro-oxidant enzymes are potential endogenous molecular targets for stroke therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ars.2010.3576

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288851000011

    View details for PubMedID 20812869

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3061196

  • Reperfusion and Neurovascular Dysfunction in Stroke: from Basic Mechanisms to Potential Strategies for Neuroprotection MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY Jung, J. E., Kim, G. S., Chen, H., Maier, C. M., Narasimhan, P., Song, Y. S., Niizuma, K., Katsu, M., Okami, N., Yoshioka, H., Sakata, H., Goeders, C. E., Chan, P. H. 2010; 41 (2-3): 172-179


    Effective stroke therapies require recanalization of occluded cerebral blood vessels. However, reperfusion can cause neurovascular injury, leading to cerebral edema, brain hemorrhage, and neuronal death by apoptosis/necrosis. These complications, which result from excess production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, significantly limit the benefits of stroke therapies. We have developed a focal stroke model using mice deficient in mitochondrial manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD2-/+) to investigate neurovascular endothelial damage that occurs during reperfusion. Following focal stroke and reperfusion, SOD2-/+ mice had delayed blood-brain barrier breakdown, associated with activation of matrix metalloproteinase and high brain hemorrhage rates, whereas a decrease in apoptosis and hemorrhage was observed in SOD2 overexpressors. Thus, induction and activation of SOD2 is a novel strategy for neurovascular protection after ischemia/reperfusion. Our recent study identified the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as a transcription factor of the mouse SOD2 gene. During reperfusion, activation of STAT3 and its recruitment into the SOD2 gene were blocked, resulting in increased oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. In contrast, pharmacological activation of STAT3 induced SOD2 expression, which limits ischemic neuronal death. Our studies point to antioxidant-based neurovascular protective strategies as potential treatments to expand the therapeutic window of currently approved therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12035-010-8102-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278095800012

    View details for PubMedID 20157789

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2877155