Professional Education


  • Doctor of Philosophy, Northwestern University (2018)
  • Master of Science, Northwestern University (2017)
  • Bachelor of Science, University of California San Diego (2009)

Stanford Advisors


All Publications


  • Amygdala subregional structure and intrinsic functional connectivity predicts individual differences in anxiety during early childhood. Biological psychiatry Qin, S., Young, C. B., Duan, X., Chen, T., Supekar, K., Menon, V. 2014; 75 (11): 892-900

    Abstract

    Early childhood anxiety has been linked to an increased risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders. Little, however, is known about its effect on the brain during a period in early childhood when anxiety-related traits begin to be reliably identifiable. Even less is known about the neurodevelopmental origins of individual differences in childhood anxiety.We combined structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging with neuropsychological assessments of anxiety based on daily life experiences to investigate the effects of anxiety on the brain in 76 young children. We then used machine learning algorithms with balanced cross-validation to examine brain-based predictors of individual differences in childhood anxiety.Even in children as young as ages 7 to 9, high childhood anxiety is associated with enlarged amygdala volume and this enlargement is localized specifically to the basolateral amygdala. High childhood anxiety is also associated with increased connectivity between the amygdala and distributed brain systems involved in attention, emotion perception, and regulation, and these effects are most prominent in basolateral amygdala. Critically, machine learning algorithms revealed that levels of childhood anxiety could be reliably predicted by amygdala morphometry and intrinsic functional connectivity, with the left basolateral amygdala emerging as the strongest predictor.Individual differences in anxiety can be reliably detected with high predictive value in amygdala-centric emotion circuits at a surprisingly young age. Our study provides important new insights into the neurodevelopmental origins of anxiety and has significant implications for the development of predictive biomarkers to identify children at risk for anxiety disorders.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.10.006

    View details for PubMedID 24268662

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3984386

  • Cortico-limbic-striatal Reactivity in Depression and its Relationship with Anhedonia Young, C. B., Nusslock, R., Keller, J., Schatzberg, A. F., Menon, V. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2014: 196S
  • Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE Rosenberg-Lee, M., Ashkenazi, S., Chen, T., Christina, Y. B., Geary, D. C., Menon, V. 2014: 351–72

    Abstract

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/desc.12216

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4320038

  • Trait anhedonia is associated with reduced reactivity and connectivity of mesolimbic and paralimbic reward pathways. Journal of psychiatric research Keller, J., Young, C. B., Kelley, E., Prater, K., Levitin, D. J., Menon, V. 2013; 47 (10): 1319-1328

    Abstract

    Anhedonia is the inability to experience pleasure from normally pleasant stimuli. Although anhedonia is a prominent feature of many psychiatric disorders, trait anhedonia is also observed dimensionally in healthy individuals. Currently, the neurobiological basis of anhedonia is poorly understood because it has been mainly investigated in patients with psychiatric disorders. Thus, previous studies have not been able to adequately disentangle the neural correlates of anhedonia from other clinical symptoms. In this study, trait anhedonia was assessed in well-characterized healthy participants with no history of Axis I psychiatric illness. Functional magnetic resonance imaging with musical stimuli was used to examine brain responses and effective connectivity in relation to individual differences in anhedonia. We found that trait anhedonia was negatively correlated with pleasantness ratings of music stimuli and with activation of key brain structures involved in reward processing, including nucleus accumbens (NAc), basal forebrain and hypothalamus which are linked by the medial forebrain bundle to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Brain regions important for processing salient emotional stimuli, including anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex were also negatively correlated with trait anhedonia. Furthermore, effective connectivity between NAc, VTA and paralimbic areas, that regulate emotional reactivity to hedonic stimuli, was negatively correlated with trait anhedonia. Our results indicate that trait anhedonia is associated with reduced reactivity and connectivity of mesolimbic and related limbic and paralimbic systems involved in reward processing. Critically, this association can be detected even in individuals without psychiatric illness. Our findings have important implications both for understanding the neurobiological basis of anhedonia and for the treatment of anhedonia in psychiatric disorders.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.05.015

    View details for PubMedID 23791396

  • Hippocampal-Prefrontal Engagement and Dynamic Causal Interactions in the Maturation of Children's Fact Retrieval JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Cho, S., Metcalfe, A. W., Young, C. B., Ryali, S., Geary, D. C., Menon, V. 2012; 24 (9): 1849-1866

    Abstract

    Children's gains in problem-solving skills during the elementary school years are characterized by shifts in the mix of problem-solving approaches, with inefficient procedural strategies being gradually replaced with direct retrieval of domain-relevant facts. We used a well-established procedure for strategy assessment during arithmetic problem solving to investigate the neural basis of this critical transition. We indexed behavioral strategy use by focusing on the retrieval frequency and examined changes in brain activity and connectivity associated with retrieval fluency during arithmetic problem solving in second- and third-grade (7- to 9-year-old) children. Children with higher retrieval fluency showed elevated signal in the right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), lingual gyrus (LG), fusiform gyrus (FG), left ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC), bilateral dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and posterior angular gyrus. Critically, these effects were not confounded by individual differences in problem-solving speed or accuracy. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed significant effective connectivity of the right hippocampus with bilateral VLPFC and DLPFC during arithmetic problem solving. Dynamic causal modeling analysis revealed strong bidirectional interactions between the hippocampus and the left VLPFC and DLPFC. Furthermore, causal influences from the left VLPFC to the hippocampus served as the main top-down component, whereas causal influences from the hippocampus to the left DLPFC served as the main bottom-up component of this retrieval network. Our study highlights the contribution of hippocampal-prefrontal circuits to the early development of retrieval fluency in arithmetic problem solving and provides a novel framework for studying dynamic developmental processes that accompany children's development of problem-solving skills.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307045400004

    View details for PubMedID 22621262

  • Immature integration and segregation of emotion-related brain circuitry in young children PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Qin, S., Young, C. B., Supekar, K., Uddin, L. Q., Menon, V. 2012; 109 (20): 7941-7946

    Abstract

    The human brain undergoes protracted development, with dramatic changes in expression and regulation of emotion from childhood to adulthood. The amygdala is a brain structure that plays a pivotal role in emotion-related functions. Investigating developmental characteristics of the amygdala and associated functional circuits in children is important for understanding how emotion processing matures in the developing brain. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) are two major amygdalar nuclei that contribute to distinct functions via their unique pattern of interactions with cortical and subcortical regions. Almost nothing is currently known about the maturation of functional circuits associated with these amygdala nuclei in the developing brain. Using intrinsic connectivity analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we investigated developmental changes in functional connectivity of the BLA and CMA in twenty-four 7- to 9-y-old typically developing children compared with twenty-four 19- to 22-y-old healthy adults. Children showed significantly weaker intrinsic functional connectivity of the amygdala with subcortical, paralimbic, and limbic structures, polymodal association, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Importantly, target networks associated with the BLA and CMA exhibited greater overlap and weaker dissociation in children. In line with this finding, children showed greater intraamygdala connectivity between the BLA and CMA. Critically, these developmental differences were reproducibly identified in a second independent cohort of adults and children. Taken together, our findings point toward weak integration and segregation of amygdala circuits in young children. These immature patterns of amygdala connectivity have important implications for understanding typical and atypical development of emotion-related brain circuitry.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1120408109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304369800076

    View details for PubMedID 22547826

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3356602

  • The Neurodevelopmental Basis of Math Anxiety PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Young, C. B., Wu, S. S., Menon, V. 2012; 23 (5): 492-501

    Abstract

    Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction to situations involving mathematical problem solving. Math anxiety has a detrimental impact on an individual's long-term professional success, but its neurodevelopmental origins are unknown. In a functional MRI study on 7- to 9-year-old children, we showed that math anxiety was associated with hyperactivity in right amygdala regions that are important for processing negative emotions. In addition, we found that math anxiety was associated with reduced activity in posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions involved in mathematical reasoning. Multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct multivoxel activity patterns, which were independent of overall activation levels in the right amygdala. Furthermore, effective connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions that regulate negative emotions was elevated in children with math anxiety. These effects were specific to math anxiety and unrelated to general anxiety, intelligence, working memory, or reading ability. Our study identified the neural correlates of math anxiety for the first time, and our findings have significant implications for its early identification and treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0956797611429134

    View details for PubMedID 22434239

  • Burnout in Premedical Undergraduate Students ACADEMIC PSYCHIATRY Young, C., Fang, D., Golshan, S., Moutier, C., Zisook, S. 2012; 36 (1): 11-16

    Abstract

    There has been growing recognition that medical students, interns, residents and practicing physicians across many specialties are prone to burnout, with recent studies linking high rates of burnout to adverse mental health issues. Little is known about the trajectory and origins of burnout or whether its roots may be traced to earlier in medical training, specifically, during undergraduate studies. Here, the authors surveyed undergraduates at UC San Diego (UCSD) to assess the relationship of burnout to premedical status while controlling for depression severity.Undergraduate students at UCSD were invited to participate in a web-based survey, consisting of demographic questions; the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS), which gauged the three dimensions of burnout; and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), to assess depression severity.A total of 618 premedical students and 1,441 non-premedical students completed the questionnaire. Premedical students had greater depression severity and emotional exhaustion than non-premedical students, but they also exhibited a greater sense of personal efficacy. The burnout differences were persistent even after adjusting for depression. Also, premedical women and Hispanic students had especially high levels of burnout, although differences between groups became nonsignificant after accounting for depression.Despite the limitations of using a burnout questionnaire not specifically normed for undergraduates, the unique ethnic characteristics of the sample, and the uncertain response rate, the findings highlight the importance of recognizing the unique strains and mental health disturbances that may be more common among premedical students than non-premedical students. Results also underscore the close relationship between depression and burnout, and point the way for subsequent longitudinal, multi-institutional studies that could help identify opportunities for prevention and intervention.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300753100004

    View details for PubMedID 22362430

  • Multivariate Searchlight Classification of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children and Adolescents with Autism BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY Uddin, L. Q., Menon, V., Young, C. B., Ryali, S., Chen, T., Khouzam, A., Minshew, N. J., Hardan, A. Y. 2011; 70 (9): 833-841

    Abstract

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with a prevalence of nearly 1:100. Structural imaging studies point to disruptions in multiple brain areas, yet the precise neuroanatomical nature of these disruptions remains unclear. Characterization of brain structural differences in children with ASD is critical for development of biomarkers that may eventually be used to improve diagnosis and monitor response to treatment.We use voxel-based morphometry along with a novel multivariate pattern analysis approach and searchlight algorithm to classify structural magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from 24 children and adolescents with autism and 24 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched neurotypical participants.Despite modest voxel-based morphometry differences, multivariate pattern analysis revealed that the groups could be distinguished with accuracies of approximately 90% based on gray matter in the posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and bilateral medial temporal lobes-regions within the default mode network. Abnormalities in the posterior cingulate cortex were associated with impaired Autism Diagnostic Interview communication scores. Gray matter in additional prefrontal, lateral temporal, and subcortical structures also discriminated between groups with accuracies between 81% and 90%. White matter in the inferior fronto-occipital and superior longitudinal fasciculi, and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, achieved up to 85% classification accuracy.Multiple brain regions, including those belonging to the default mode network, exhibit aberrant structural organization in children with autism. Brain-based biomarkers derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging data may contribute to identification of the neuroanatomical basis of symptom heterogeneity and to the development of targeted early interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.07.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296228000010

    View details for PubMedID 21890111

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3191298

  • Functional dissociations between four basic arithmetic operations in the human posterior parietal cortex: A cytoarchitectonic mapping study NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA Rosenberg-Lee, M., Chang, T. T., Young, C. B., Wu, S., Menon, V. 2011; 49 (9): 2592-2608

    Abstract

    Although lesion studies over the past several decades have focused on functional dissociations in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) during arithmetic, no consistent view has emerged of its differential involvement in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. To circumvent problems with poor anatomical localization, we examined functional overlap and dissociations in cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), superior parietal lobule (SPL) and angular gyrus (AG), across these four operations. Compared to a number identification control task, all operations except addition, showed a consistent profile of left posterior IPS activation and deactivation in the right posterior AG. Multiplication and subtraction differed significantly in right, but not left, IPS and AG activity, challenging the view that the left AG differentially subserves retrieval during multiplication. Although addition and multiplication both rely on retrieval, multiplication evoked significantly greater activation in right posterior IPS, as well as the prefrontal cortex, lingual and fusiform gyri, demonstrating that addition and multiplication engage different brain processes. Comparison of PPC responses to the two pairs of inverse operations: division versus multiplication and subtraction versus addition revealed greater activation of left lateral SPL during division, suggesting that processing inverse relations is operation specific. Our findings demonstrate that individual IPS, SPL and AG subdivisions are differentially modulated by the four arithmetic operations and they point to significant functional heterogeneity and individual differences in activation and deactivation within the PPC. Critically, these effects are related to retrieval, calculation and inversion, the three key cognitive processes that are differentially engaged by arithmetic operations. Our findings point to distribute representation of these processes in the human PPC and also help explain why lesion and previous imaging studies have yielded inconsistent findings.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.04.035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293611600034

    View details for PubMedID 21616086

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3165023

  • Depression in Asian American and Caucasian undergraduate students JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS Young, C. B., Fang, D. Z., Zisook, S. 2010; 125 (1-3): 379-382

    Abstract

    Depression is a serious and often under-diagnosed and undertreated mental health problem in college students which may have fatal consequences. Little is known about ethnic differences in prevalence of depression in US college campuses. This study compares depression severity in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students at the University of California San Diego (UCSD).Participants completed the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire and key demographic information via an anonymous online questionnaire.Compared to Caucasians, Asian-Americans exhibited significantly elevated levels of depression. Furthermore, Korean-American students were significantly more depressed than Chinese-American, other minority Asian-American, and Caucasian students. In general, females were significantly more depressed than males. Results were upheld when level of acculturation was considered.The demographic breakdown of the student population at UCSD is not representative to that of the nation.These findings suggest that outreach to female and Asian-American undergraduate students is important and attention to Korean-American undergraduates may be especially worthwhile.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.124

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281377100055

    View details for PubMedID 20303181