Bio


Professor Chidsey’s research interests lie in electrochemistry and electrocatalysis, and in building the chemical base for molecular electronics. He has investigated the role of chemical bonding in promoting long-distance electron tunneling across interfaces and contributed to the development of silicon and germanium surface chemistry, including the self-assembly of complex molecular monolayers on silicon. Today his lab develops molecular systems, analytical tools and theoretical approaches to understand electron transfer between electrodes and among redox species, with applications in sustainable battery technology, fuel chemistry, and biochemical analysis.

Born in 1957, Christopher Chidsey studied chemistry at Dartmouth College (A.B. 1978) and physical chemistry at Stanford University (Ph.D. 1983). After postdoctoral work in electrochemistry with Royce Murray at the University of North Carolina, he joined the technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories, where he probed long-distance electron transfer across interfaces and contributed to developments in scanning tunneling microscopy, nonlinear optical materials and optical materials processing. He joined the Stanford Department of Chemistry as Associate Professor in 1992, and in 2009 was also appointed Senior Fellow at the Precourt Institute for Energy. He has received the Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award and Bing and Hertz Foundation fellowships, and was elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

The Chidsey Lab at Stanford uses surface chemistry and electrochemistry to control and investigate a number of important interfacial phenomena.

Water Oxidation

The group has shown that a 2 nm film of TiO2, created by atomic layer deposition, protects otherwise unstable semiconductor surfaces to achieve efficient and stable photoelectrolysis of water to produce hydrogen and oxygen fuels. Current work involves tailoring alloyed RuO2/TiO2 catalyst layers to optimize the turnover frequency for oxygen evolution, with the aim of achieving comparable electrocatalytic activity at a fraction of prior noble metal usage.

Electrocatalysis for Fuel Cells and CO2 Reduction

A major effort involves covalent attachment of electrocatalysts to carbon electrodes and other oxidation-resistant conductive substrates for use in ambient-temperature fuel cells and related energy- and chemical-conversion systems. A new covalent chemistry on graphitic carbon surfaces, based on the ‘click’ reaction of azides and alkynes, has been developed. Another effort involves the formation of electroactive self-assembled thiol monolayers on gold surfaces – an area Professor Chidsey pioneered beginning 15 years ago.

Another project employs transfer hydrogenation catalyts as alcohol oxidation electocatalysts for fuel cells. Lab members study the thermodynamics and kinetics of metal hydride formation from a metal precatalyst and an alcohol fuel, and examine the electro-oxidation of the formed metal hydrides. Running this cycle in the microscopic reverse direction leads to a strategy for CO2 reduction. The aim is to extend this knowledge from working examples to catalyst design for such transformations.

Battery Technology

Many of the electrolyte components used in lithium-ion batteries are not electrochemically stable at the low potentials reached by the anode when the battery charges. However, with the right electrolyte mixture, the decomposition products on the first charge create a solid electrolyte interphase that acts as a lithium-ion conductive, but otherwise passivating layer, slowing electrolyte degradation. Chidsey group members study the formation and useful contributions of this layer.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Associate Professor by Courtesy, Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University (2008 - 2011)
  • Associate Professor, Department of Photon Science SLAC, Stanford University (1997 - 2010)
  • Member of Technical Staff, AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984 - 1992)

Honors & Awards


  • Fellow, National Science Foundation (1978-1981)
  • Fellow, Fanny and John Hertz Foundation (1982-1983)
  • Teacher-Scholar, Camille and Henry Dreyfus (1993)
  • Bing Fellow, Stanford University (1995)
  • Fellow, AAAS (2007)

Professional Education


  • Postdoctoral Fellow, University of North Carolina, Electrochemistsry (1983)
  • Ph.D., Stanford University, Physical Chemistry (1983)
  • A.B., Dartmouth College, Chemistry (1978)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


The Chidsey group research interest is to build the chemical base for molecular electronics. To accomplish this, we synthesize the molecular and nanoscopic systems, build the analytical tools and develop the theoretical understanding with which to study electron transfer between electrodes and among redox species through insulating molecular bridges. Members of the group have synthesized several series of saturated and conjugated oligomers with which we have studied the fundamental aspects of electron tunneling through well-defined molecular bridges. The oligophenylenevinylene bridge of these molecules promotes rapid tunneling over remarkably long distances compared with other unsaturated and saturated bridges we have studied. For instance, starting in the activated complex, the tunneling rate between a gold electrode and an appended ferrocene through 3.5nm of an oligophenylenevinylene (OPV) bridge is 8 x 109 s-1 whereas the tunneling rate through an alkane bridge of the same length is expected to be slower than 1s-1.

To date our electron-tunneling studies have largely focused on what we casually denote as a "one-electrode" measurement with the molecular bridge connecting one electrode to a redox species which acts as a molecular capacitor to an ionically conducting solution. The other electrodes necessary to measure the tunneling conduction are remotely located in an electrochemical cell. We are currently embarked on a broad based effort to make conduction measurements with two electrodes, one on each end of a single molecule. We are also developing strategies to include one or more additional electrodes so that molecular circuits with electrical power gain can be assembled. This effort is leading us to develop nanostructured wiring schemes and self-assembly methods for the construction of whole circuits of wired molecules. We will be examining nanowires formed from doped silicon and other substances. This emerging effort in nanowiring will be greatly aided by the previous work in the Chidsey lab on the surface chemistry of silicon, particularly the self-assembly of complex molecular monolayers on silicon surfaces.

2017-18 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Titanium Oxide Crystallization and Interface Defect Passivation for High Performance Insulator-Protected Schottky Junction MIS Photoanodes ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES Scheuermann, A. G., Lawrence, J. P., Meng, A. C., Tang, K., Hendricks, O. L., Chidsey, C. E., McIntyre, P. C. 2016; 8 (23): 14596-14603

    Abstract

    Atomic layer deposited (ALD) TiO2 protection layers may allow for the development of both highly efficient and stable photoanodes for solar fuel synthesis; however, the very different conductivities and photovoltages reported for TiO2-protected silicon anodes prepared using similar ALD conditions indicate that mechanisms that set these key properties are, as yet, poorly understood. In this report, we study hydrogen-containing annealing treatments and find that postcatalyst-deposition anneals at intermediate temperatures reproducibly yield decreased oxide/silicon interface trap densities and high photovoltage. A previously reported insulator thickness-dependent photovoltage loss in metal-insulator-semiconductor Schottky junction photoanodes is suppressed. This occurs simultaneously with TiO2 crystallization and an increase in its dielectric constant. At small insulator thickness, a record for a Schottky junction photoanode of 623 mV photovoltage is achieved, yielding a photocurrent turn-on at 0.92 V vs NHE or -0.303 V with respect to the thermodynamic potential for water oxidation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsami.6b03688

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378195000038

    View details for PubMedID 27196628

  • Engineering Interfacial Silicon Dioxide for Improved Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Silicon Photoanode Water Splitting Performance ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES Satterthwaite, P. F., Scheuermann, A. G., Hurley, P. K., Chidsey, C. E., McIntyre, P. C. 2016; 8 (20): 13140-13149

    Abstract

    Silicon photoanodes protected by atomic layer deposited (ALD) TiO2 show promise as components of water splitting devices that may enable the large-scale production of solar fuels and chemicals. Minimizing the resistance of the oxide corrosion protection layer is essential for fabricating efficient devices with good fill factor. Recent literature reports have shown that the interfacial SiO2 layer, interposed between the protective ALD-TiO2 and the Si anode, acts as a tunnel oxide that limits hole conduction from the photoabsorbing substrate to the surface oxygen evolution catalyst. Herein, we report a significant reduction of bilayer resistance, achieved by forming stable, ultrathin (<1.3 nm) SiO2 layers, allowing fabrication of water splitting photoanodes with hole conductances near the maximum achievable with the given catalyst and Si substrate. Three methods for controlling the SiO2 interlayer thickness on the Si(100) surface for ALD-TiO2 protected anodes were employed: (1) TiO2 deposition directly on an HF-etched Si(100) surface, (2) TiO2 deposition after SiO2 atomic layer deposition on an HF-etched Si(100) surface, and (3) oxygen scavenging, post-TiO2 deposition to decompose the SiO2 layer using a Ti overlayer. Each of these methods provides a progressively superior means of reliably thinning the interfacial SiO2 layer, enabling the fabrication of efficient and stable water oxidation silicon anodes.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsami.6b03029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000376825800069

    View details for PubMedID 27096845

  • Experimental and Theoretical Study of CO2 Insertion into Ruthenium Hydride Complexes. Inorganic chemistry Ramakrishnan, S., Waldie, K. M., Warnke, I., De Crisci, A. G., Batista, V. S., Waymouth, R. M., Chidsey, C. E. 2016; 55 (4): 1623-1632

    Abstract

    The ruthenium hydride [RuH(CNN)(dppb)] (1; CNN = 2-aminomethyl-6-tolylpyridine, dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane) reacts rapidly and irreversibly with CO2 under ambient conditions to yield the corresponding Ru formate complex 2. In contrast, the Ru hydride 1 reacts with acetone reversibly to generate the Ru isopropoxide, with the reaction free energy ΔG°298 K = -3.1 kcal/mol measured by (1)H NMR in tetrahydrofuran-d8. Density functional theory (DFT), calibrated to the experimentally measured free energies of ketone insertion, was used to evaluate and compare the mechanism and energetics of insertion of acetone and CO2 into the Ru-hydride bond of 1. The calculated reaction coordinate for acetone insertion involves a stepwise outer-sphere dihydrogen transfer to acetone via hydride transfer from the metal and proton transfer from the N-H group on the CNN ligand. In contrast, the lowest energy pathway calculated for CO2 insertion proceeds by an initial Ru-H hydride transfer to CO2 followed by rotation of the resulting N-H-stabilized formate to a Ru-O-bound formate. DFT calculations were used to evaluate the influence of the ancillary ligands on the thermodynamics of CO2 insertion, revealing that increasing the π acidity of the ligand cis to the hydride ligand and increasing the σ basicity of the ligand trans to it decreases the free energy of CO2 insertion, providing a strategy for the design of metal hydride systems capable of reversible, ergoneutral interconversion of CO2 and formate.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b02556

    View details for PubMedID 26835983

  • Conductance and capacitance of bilayer protective oxides for silicon water splitting anodes ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Scheuermann, A. G., Kemp, K. W., Tang, K., Lu, D. Q., Satterthwaite, P. F., Ito, T., Chidsey, C. E., McIntyre, P. C. 2016; 9 (2): 504-516

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c5ee02484f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369744500017

  • Design principles for maximizing photovoltage in metal-oxide-protected water-splitting photoanodes NATURE MATERIALS Scheuermann, A. G., Lawrence, J. P., Kemp, K. W., Ito, T., Walsh, A., Chidsey, C. E., Hurley, P. K., McIntyre, P. C. 2016; 15 (1): 99-?

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT4451

    View details for Web of Science ID 000366690600028

    View details for PubMedID 26480231

  • Understanding Photovoltage in Insulator-Protected Water Oxidation Half-Cells JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Scheuermann, A. G., Chidsey, C. E., McIntyre, P. C. 2016; 163 (3): H192-H200
  • Rapid oxidative hydrogen evolution from a family of square-planar nickel hydride complexes CHEMICAL SCIENCE Ramakrishnan, S., Chakraborty, S., Brennessel, W. W., Chidsey, C. E., Jones, W. D. 2016; 7 (1): 117-127

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c5sc03189c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000366826900011

  • Electrooxidation of alcohols catalyzed by amino alcohol ligated ruthenium complexes. Journal of the American Chemical Society Brownell, K. R., McCrory, C. C., Chidsey, C. E., Perry, R. H., Zare, R. N., Waymouth, R. M. 2013; 135 (38): 14299-14305

    Abstract

    Ruthenium transfer hydrogenation catalysts physisorbed onto edge-plane graphite electrodes are active electrocatalysts for the oxidation of alcohols. Electrooxidation of CH3OH (1.23 M) in a buffered aqueous solution at pH 11.5 with [(η(6)-p-cymene)(η(2)-N,O-(1R,2S)-cis-1-amino-2-indanol)]Ru(II)Cl (2) on edge-plane graphite exhibits an onset current at 560 mV vs NHE. Koutecky-Levich analysis at 750 mV reveals a four-electron oxidation of methanol with a rate of 1.35 M(-1) s(-1). Mechanistic investigations by (1)H NMR, cyclic voltammetry, and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry indicate that the electroxidation of methanol to generate formate is mediated by surface-supported Ru-oxo complexes.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja4055564

    View details for PubMedID 24044700

  • Effects of catalyst material and atomic layer deposited TiO2 oxide thickness on the water oxidation performance of metal-insulator-silicon anodes ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Scheuermann, A. G., Prange, J. D., Gunji, M., Chidsey, C. E., McIntyre, P. C. 2013; 6 (8): 2487-2496

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3ee41178h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321983800022

  • Squish and CuAAC: Additive-Free Covalent Mono layers of Discrete Molecules in Seconds LANGMUIR Pellow, M. A., Stack, T. D., Chidsey, C. E. 2013; 29 (18): 5383-5387

    Abstract

    A terminal alkyne is immobilized rapidly into a full monolayer by squishing a small volume of a solution of the alkyne between an azide-modified surface and a copper plate. The monolayer is covalently attached to the surface through a copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, and the coverages of the immobilized electroactive alkyne species are quantified by cyclic voltammetry. A reaction time of less than 20 s is possible with no other reagents required. The procedure is effective under aerobic conditions using either an aqueous or aprotic organic solution of the alkyne (1-100 mM).

    View details for DOI 10.1021/la400172w

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318756200001

    View details for PubMedID 23551032

  • Gas-Phase Azide Functionalization of Carbon JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Stenehjem, E. D., Ziatdinov, V. R., Stack, T. D., Chidsey, C. E. 2013; 135 (3): 1110-1116

    Abstract

    Tailoring the surface and interfacial properties of inexpensive and abundant carbon materials plays an increasingly important role for innovative applications including those in electrocatalysis, energy storage, gas separations, and composite materials. Described here is the novel preparation and subsequent use of gaseous iodine azide for the azide modification of carbon surfaces. In-line generation of gaseous iodine azide from iodine monochloride vapor and solid sodium azide is safe and convenient. Immediate treatment of carbon surfaces with this gaseous stream of iodine azide provides a highly reproducible, selective, and scalable azide functionalization that minimizes waste and reduces deleterious side reactions. Among the possible uses of azide-modified surfaces, they serve as versatile substrates for the attachment of additional functionality by coupling with terminal alkynes under the mild copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" reaction. For instance, coupling ethynylferrocene to azide-modified glassy carbon surfaces achieves ferrocene coverage up to 8 × 10(13) molecules/cm(2) by voltammetric and XPS analyses. The 1,2,3-triazole linker formed during the CuAAC reaction is robust and hydrolytically stable in both aqueous 1 M HClO(4) and 1 M NaOH for at least 12 h at 100 °C.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja310410d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314141200027

    View details for PubMedID 23301920

  • ALD-TiO2 Preparation and Characterization for Metal-Insulator-Silicon Photoelectrochemical Applications 9th International Symposium on Atomic Layer Deposition Applications held during the 224th Meeting of the Electrochemical-Society (ECS) Scheuermann, A. G., Lawrence, J. P., Gunji, M., Chidsey, C. E., McIntyre, P. C. ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC. 2013: 75–86
  • Molecular Junctions of Self-Assembled Monolayers with Conducting Polymer Contacts ACS NANO Neuhausen, A. B., Hosseini, A., Sulpizio, J. A., Chidsey, C. E., Goldhaber-Gordon, D. 2012; 6 (11): 9920-9931

    Abstract

    We present a method to fabricate individually addressable junctions of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) that builds on previous studies which have shown that soft conductive polymer top contacts virtually eliminate shorts through the SAMs. We demonstrate devices with nanoscale lateral dimensions, representing an order of magnitude reduction in device area, with high yield and relatively low device-to-device variation, improving several features of previous soft contact devices. The devices are formed in pores in an inorganic dielectric layer with features defined by e-beam lithography and dry etching. We replace the aqueous PEDOT:PSS conductive polymer used in prior devices with Aedotron P, a low-viscosity, amphiphilic polymer, allowing incorporation of self-assembled monolayers with either hydrophobic or hydrophilic termination with the same junction geometry and materials. We demonstrate the adaptability of this new design by presenting transport measurements on SAMs composed of alkanethiols with methyl, thiol, carboxyl, and azide terminations. We establish that the observed room-temperature tunnel barrier is primarily a function of monolayer thickness, independent of the terminal group's hydrophilicity. Finally, we investigate the temperature dependence of transport and show that the low-temperature behavior is based on the energy distribution of sites from which carriers can tunnel between the polymer and gold contacts, as described by a model of variable-range hopping transport in a disordered conductor.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn3035183

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311521700061

    View details for PubMedID 23035989

  • Deposition of Dense Siloxane Monolayers from Water and Trimethoxyorganosilane Vapor LANGMUIR Lowe, R. D., Pellow, M. A., Stack, T. D., Chidsey, C. E. 2011; 27 (16): 9928-9935

    Abstract

    A convenient, laboratory-scale method for the vapor deposition of dense siloxane monolayers onto oxide substrates was demonstrated. This method was studied and optimized at 110 °C under reduced pressure with the vapor of tetradecyltris(deuteromethoxy)silane, (CD(3)O)(3)Si(CH(2))(13)CH(3), and water from the dehydration of MgSO(4)·7H(2)O. Ellipsometric thicknesses, water contact angles, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and electrochemical capacitance measurements were used to probe monolayer densification. The CD(3) stretching mode in the FTIR spectrum was monitored as a function of the deposition time and amounts of silane and water reactants. This method probed the unhydrolyzed methoxy groups on adsorbed silanes. Excess silane and water were necessary to achieve dense, completely hydrolyzed monolayers. In the presence of sufficient silane, an excess of water above the calculated stoichiometric amount was necessary to hydrolyze all methoxy groups and achieve dense monolayers. The excess water was partially attributed to the reversibility of the hydrolysis of the methoxy groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/la201333y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293662800036

    View details for PubMedID 21721567

  • Atomic layer-deposited tunnel oxide stabilizes silicon photoanodes for water oxidation NATURE MATERIALS Chen, Y. W., Prange, J. D., Duehnen, S., Park, Y., Gunji, M., Chidsey, C. E., McIntyre, P. C. 2011; 10 (7): 539-544

    Abstract

    A leading approach for large-scale electrochemical energy production with minimal global-warming gas emission is to use a renewable source of electricity, such as solar energy, to oxidize water, providing the abundant source of electrons needed in fuel synthesis. We report corrosion-resistant, nanocomposite anodes for the oxidation of water required to produce renewable fuels. Silicon, an earth-abundant element and an efficient photovoltaic material, is protected by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a highly uniform, 2 nm thick layer of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and then coated with an optically transmitting layer of a known catalyst (3 nm iridium). Photoelectrochemical water oxidation was observed to occur below the reversible potential whereas dark electrochemical water oxidation was found to have low-to-moderate overpotentials at all pH values, resulting in an inferred photovoltage of ~550 mV. Water oxidation is sustained at these anodes for many hours in harsh pH and oxidative environments whereas comparable silicon anodes without the TiO(2) coating quickly fail. The desirable electrochemical efficiency and corrosion resistance of these anodes is made possible by the low electron-tunnelling resistance (<0.006 Ω cm(2) for p(+)-Si) and uniform thickness of atomic-layer deposited TiO(2).

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT3047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291969500020

    View details for PubMedID 21685904

  • Electrocatalytic O-2 Reduction by Covalently Immobilized Mononuclear Copper(I) Complexes: Evidence for a Binuclear Cu2O2 Intermediate JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY McCrory, C. C., Devadoss, A., Ottenwaelder, X., Lowe, R. D., Stack, T. D., Chidsey, C. E. 2011; 133 (11): 3696-3699

    Abstract

    A Cu(I) complex of 3-ethynyl-phenanthroline covalently immobilized onto an azide-modified glassy carbon surface is an active electrocatalyst for the four-electron (4-e) reduction of O(2) to H(2)O. The rate of O(2) reduction is second-order in Cu coverage at moderate overpotential, suggesting that two Cu(I) species are necessary for efficient 4-e reduction of O(2). Mechanisms for O(2) reduction are proposed that are consistent with the observations for this covalently immobilized system and previously reported results for a similar physisorbed Cu(I) system.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja106338h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288889900004

    View details for PubMedID 21366244

  • Group IV semiconductor nanowire arrays: epitaxy in different contexts SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY McIntyre, P. C., Adhikari, H., Goldthorpe, I. A., Hu, S., Leu, P. W., Marshall, A. F., Chidsey, C. E. 2010; 25 (2)
  • Gold Removal from Germanium Nanowires LANGMUIR Ratchford, J. B., Goldthorpe, I. A., Sun, Y., McIntyre, P. C., Pianetta, P. A., Chidsey, C. E. 2009; 25 (16): 9473-9479

    Abstract

    We report the selective removal of gold from the tips of germanium nanowires (GeNWs) grown by chemical vapor deposition on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Selective removal was accomplished by aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions containing either potassium triiodide or iodine. Measurement of the residual number of gold atoms on the GeNW samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry shows that 99% of the gold was removed. Photoemission spectroscopy shows that the germanium surfaces of these samples were not further oxidized after treatment with these liquid etchants. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that AuNPs that did not yield GeNWs contain germanium and also that the addition of gaseous HCl to GeH(4) during GeNW growth increased the selectivity of germanium deposition to the AuNPs.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/la900725b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268719900088

    View details for PubMedID 19419180

  • Selective Anodic Desorption for Assembly of Different Thiol Monolayers on the Individual Electrodes of an Array LANGMUIR Collman, J. P., Hosseini, A., Eberspacher, T. A., Chidsey, C. E. 2009; 25 (11): 6517-6521

    Abstract

    The close proximity of two individually addressable electrodes in an interdigitated array provides a unique platform for electrochemical study of multicatalytic processes. Here, we report a "plug-and-play" approach to control the underlying self-assembled monolayer and the electroactive species on each individually addressable electrode of an interdigitated array. The method presented here uses selective anodic desorption of a monolayer from one of the individually addressable electrodes and rapid formation of a different self-assembled monolayer on the freshly cleaned electrode. We illustrate this strategy by introducing variations in the length of the linker to the electroactive species in the self-assembled monolayer, which determines the rate of electron transfer. In order to separate the assembly of the monolayer from the choice of the electroactive species, we use CuI-catalyzed triazole formation ("click" chemistry) to covalently attach an acetylene-terminated electroactive species to an azide-terminated thiol monolayer selectively on each electrode. The resulting variations in the electron-transfer rate to surface-attached ferrocene and in the rate of catalytic oxidation of ascorbate by the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple demonstrate an application of this approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/la8043363

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266604000071

    View details for PubMedID 19379005

  • Growth of germanium crystals from electrodeposited gold in local crucibles APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Ratchford, J. B., Goldthorpe, I. A., McIntyre, P. C., Chidsey, C. E. 2009; 94 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3074363

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262971800124

  • Oxide-encapsulated vertical germanium nanowire structures and their DC transport properties NANOTECHNOLOGY Leu, P. W., Adhikari, H., Koto, M., Kim, K., de Rouffignac, P., Marshall, A. F., Gordon, R. G., Chidsey, C. E., McIntyre, P. C. 2008; 19 (48)

    Abstract

    We demonstrate the p-type doping of Ge nanowires (NWs) and p-n junction arrays in a scalable vertically aligned structure with all processing performed below 400 °C. These structures are advantageous for the large scale production of parallel arrays of devices for nanoelectronics and sensing applications. Efficient methods for the oxide encapsulation, chemical mechanical polishing and cleaning of vertical Ge NWs embedded in silicon dioxide are reported. Approaches for avoiding the selective oxidation and dissolution of Ge NWs in aqueous solutions during chemical mechanical polishing and cleaning of oxide-encapsulated Ge NWs are emphasized. NWs were doped through the epitaxial deposition of a B-doped shell and transport measurements indicate doping concentrations on the order of 10(19) cm(-3).

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/19/48/485705

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260859400022

    View details for PubMedID 21836312

  • Kinetic and mechanistic studies of the electrocatalytic reduction of O-2 to H2O with mononuclear Cu complexes of substituted 1,10-phenanthrolines JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A McCrory, C. C., Ottenwaelder, X., Stack, T. D., Chidsey, C. E. 2007; 111 (49): 12641-12650

    Abstract

    Mononuclear Cu complexes with a 1,10-phenanthroline-based ligand adsorbed onto an edge-plane graphite electrode act as electrocatalysts for the 4-electron reduction of O2 to H2O. A mechanism is proposed for the electrocatalytic O2 reduction that accounts for the observed redox and kinetic dependences on coordinating anions and proton donors in the buffer. Systematic increases of ligand electron-withdrawing properties and/or the steric demands near the Cu center increase the E0 of the Cu catalysts but decrease the rate of O2 reduction. The kinetic rate of O2 reduction at E0, reported as kinetic current divided by catalyst redox charge, decreases as E0 increases: from 16 s(-1) measured at E0 in air-saturated solutions for adsorbed Cu(phen) to 0.4 s(-1) for Cu(2,9-Et2-phen). The maximum value of E for which catalytic activity can be attained is estimated to be +350 mV vs NHE. Near E0, the kinetic current deviates from that expected if O2 binding were the sole rate-limiting step. This indicates that one or more of the electrochemical reduction steps are rate limiting at potentials near E0.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp076106z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251518000062

    View details for PubMedID 18076134

  • Metastability of Au-Ge liquid nanocatalysts: Ge vapor-liquid-solid nanowire growth far below the bulk eutectic temperature ACS NANO Adhikari, H., Marshall, A. F., Goldthorpe, I. A., Chidsey, C. E., McIntyre, P. C. 2007; 1 (5): 415-422

    Abstract

    The vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of nanowire (NW) growth requires the presence of a liquid at one end of the wire; however, Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth by chemical vapor deposition can occur at approximately 100 degrees C below the bulk Au-Ge eutectic. In this paper, we investigate deep sub-eutectic stability of liquid Au-Ge catalysts on Ge NWs quantitatively, both theoretically and experimentally. We construct a binary Au-Ge phase diagram that is valid at the nanoscale and show that equilibrium arguments, based on capillarity, are inconsistent with stabilization of Au-Ge liquid at deep sub-eutectic temperatures, similar to those used in Ge NW growth. Hot-stage electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to test the predictions of nanoscale phase equilibria. In addition to Ge supersaturation of the Au-Ge liquid droplet, which has recently been invoked as an explanation for deep sub-eutectic Ge NW growth, we find evidence of a substantial kinetic barrier to Au solidification during cooling below the nanoscale Au-Ge eutectic temperature.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn7001486

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252022900011

    View details for PubMedID 19206662

  • Conditions for subeutectic growth of Ge nanowires by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Adhikari, H., McIntyre, P. C., Marshall, A. F., Chidsey, C. E. 2007; 102 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2803893

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250983700084

  • Vertically oriented germanium nanowires grown from gold colloids on silicon substrates and subsequent gold removal NANO LETTERS Woodruff, J. H., Ratchford, J. B., Goldthorpe, I. A., McIntyre, P. C., Chidsey, C. E. 2007; 7 (6): 1637-1642

    Abstract

    A linker-free method to deposit citrate-stabilized Au colloids onto hydrogen-terminated Si by acidifying the Au colloid solution with HF or HCl is presented. This method prevents oxide formation and provides a model system for studying orientation control of nanowires by epitaxy. Conditions are reported that result in vertically oriented Ge nanowires of uniform diameter and length on Si(111). We then present a method to remove Au catalysts from the nanowires with aqueous triiodide and HCl.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl070595x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247186800037

    View details for PubMedID 17530912

  • Azide-modified graphitic surfaces for covalent attachment of alkyne-terminated molecules by "click" chemistry JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Devadoss, A., Chidsey, C. E. 2007; 129 (17): 5370-?

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja071291f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245946400036

    View details for PubMedID 17425323

  • A cytochrome c oxidase model catalyzes oxygen to water reduction under rate-limiting electron flux SCIENCE Collman, J. P., Devaraj, N. K., Decreau, R. A., Yang, Y., Yan, Y., Ebina, W., Eberspacher, T. A., Chidsey, C. E. 2007; 315 (5818): 1565-1568

    Abstract

    We studied the selectivity of a functional model of cytochrome c oxidase's active site that mimics the coordination environment and relative locations of Fe(a3), Cu(B), and Tyr(244). To control electron flux, we covalently attached this model and analogs lacking copper and phenol onto self-assembled monolayer-coated gold electrodes. When the electron transfer rate was made rate limiting, both copper and phenol were required to enhance selective reduction of oxygen to water. This finding supports the hypothesis that, during steady-state turnover, the primary role of these redox centers is to rapidly provide all the electrons needed to reduce oxygen by four electrons, thus preventing the release of toxic partially reduced oxygen species.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1135844

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244934800049

    View details for PubMedID 17363671

  • An integrated phase change memory cell with Ge nanowire diode for cross-point memory Symposium on VLSI Technology 2007 Zhang, Y., Kim, S., McVittie, J. P., Jagannathan, H., Ratchford, J. B., Chidsey, C. E., Nishi, Y., Wong, H. P. JAPAN SOCIETY APPLIED PHYSICS. 2007: 98–99
  • Rate of interfacial electron transfer through the 1,2,3-triazole linkage JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Devaraj, N. K., Decreau, R. A., Ebina, W., Collman, J. P., Chidsey, C. E. 2006; 110 (32): 15955-15962

    Abstract

    The rate of electron transfer is measured to two ferrocene and one iron tetraphenylporphyrin redox species coupled through terminal acetylenes to azide-terminated thiol monolayers by the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (a Sharpless "click" reaction) to form the 1,2,3-triazole linkage. The high yield, chemoselectivity, convenience, and broad applicability of this triazole formation reaction make such a modular assembly strategy very attractive. Electron-transfer rate constants from greater than 60,000 to 1 s(-1) are obtained by varying the length and conjugation of the electron-transfer bridge and by varying the surrounding diluent thiols in the monolayer. Triazole and the triazole carbonyl linkages provide similar electronic coupling for electron transfer as esters. The ability to vary the rate of electron transfer to many different redox species over many orders of magnitude by using modular coupling chemistry provides a convenient way to study and control the delivery of electrons to multielectron redox catalysts and similar interfacial systems that require controlled delivery of electrons.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp057416p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239656100049

    View details for PubMedID 16898751

  • Nature of germanium nanowire heteroepitaxy on silicon substrates JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Jagannathan, H., Deal, M., Nishi, Y., Woodruff, J., Chidsey, C., McIntyre, P. C. 2006; 100 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2219007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239423400124

  • Mixed azide-terminated monolayers: A platform for modifying electrode surfaces LANGMUIR Collman, J. P., Devaraj, N. K., Eberspacher, T. P., Chidsey, C. E. 2006; 22 (6): 2457-2464

    Abstract

    We have prepared and characterized mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on gold electrodes from azido alkane thiols and various omega-functionalized alkane thiols. In the presence of copper(I) catalysts, these azide-modified surfaces are shown to react rapidly and quantitatively with terminal acetylenes forming 1,2,3-triazoles, via "click" chemistry. The initial azide substituents can be identified and monitored using both grazing-angle infrared (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrosopies. Acetylenes possessing redox-active ferrocene substituents react with the azide-terminated mixed SAMs and electrochemical measurements of the ferrocene-modified SAM electrodes have been used to quantify the redox centers attached to these platforms. Time-resolved electrochemical measurements have enabled us to follow the formation of these ferrocene centers and thus to measure the rate of the surface "click" reaction. Under optimal conditions this well-behaved second-order reaction takes place with a rate constant of 1 x 10(3) M(-)(1) s(-)(1). Typical reaction times of several minutes were realized using micromolar concentrations of acetylene. These techniques have been used to construct well-characterized, covalently modified monolayers that can be employed as functional electrode surfaces.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/la052947q

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236009900015

    View details for PubMedID 16519441

  • Selective functionalization of independently addressed microelectrodes by electrochemical activation and deactivation of a coupling catalyst JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Devaraj, N. K., Dinolfo, P. H., Chidsey, C. E., Collman, J. P. 2006; 128 (6): 1794-1795

    Abstract

    We demonstrate selective functionalization of independently addressed microelectrodes by electrochemical activation and deactivation of a coupling catalyst. 1,2,3-Triazole formation between terminal acetylenes and organic azides is efficiently catalyzed by copper(I) complexes (a Sharpless "click" reaction), while the oxidized copper(II) complexes are inactive. By electrochemically activating or deactivating the catalyst by switching its redox state, we demonstrate control over triazole formation between surface-immobilized azides and ethynylferrocene. The reaction proceeds on the time scale of minutes using submicromolar concentration of reactants and catalyst, requires mild potentials for catalyst activation and deactivation, and works in aqueous and mixed aqueous-organic solvents. By appropriate biasing of each electrode, we selectively modify one of two chemically identical 10-mum-wide electrodes separated by 10 mum in an interdigitated array. The ability to switch on or off the reaction by electrical addressing together with the chemoselectivity of this reaction makes Cu(I)-catalyzed triazole formation an ideal method for the chemical modification of multielectrode arrays.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja058380h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235452200010

    View details for PubMedID 16464070

  • Germanium nanowire epitaxy: Shape and orientation control NANO LETTERS Adhikari, H., Marshall, A. F., Chidsey, C. E., McIntyre, P. C. 2006; 6 (2): 318-323

    Abstract

    Epitaxial growth of nanowires along the 111 directions was obtained on Ge(111), Ge(110), Ge(001), and heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(001) substrates at temperatures of 350 degrees C or less by gold-nanoparticle-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition. On Ge(111), the growth was mostly vertical. In addition to 111 growth, 110 growth was observed on Ge(001) and Ge(110) substrates. Tapering was avoided by the use of the two-temperature growth procedure, reported earlier by Greytak et al.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl052231f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235532700034

    View details for PubMedID 16464057

  • Photoemission studies of passivation of germanium nanowires APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Adhikari, H., McIntyre, P. C., Sun, S. Y., Pianetta, P., Chidsey, C. E. 2005; 87 (26)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2158027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234338700081

  • Chemoselective covalent coupling of oligonucleotide probes to self-assembled monolayers JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Devaraj, N. K., Miller, G. P., Ebina, W., Kakaradov, B., Collman, J. P., Kool, E. T., Chidsey, C. E. 2005; 127 (24): 8600-8601

    Abstract

    A chemoselective route to routinely and rapidly attach oligonucleotide probes to well-defined surfaces is presented. Cu(I) tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine-catalyzed coupling of terminal acetylenes to azides on a self-assembled monolayer is used instead of traditional nucleophilic-electrophilic coupling reactions. The reaction proceeds well even in the presence of purposely introduced nucleophilic and electrophilic impurities. The density of oligonucleotide probes can be controlled by controlling the amount of azide functionality. Although most of our work was done on gold surfaces, this technique should be readily applicable to any surface on which an azide-containing monolayer can be assembled as we have preliminarily demonstrated by derivatizing azidotrimethoxysilane-modified glass slides with fluorescein-containing oligonucleotides.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja0514621

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229981200010

    View details for PubMedID 15954758

  • Role of O-3 and OH. radicals in ozonated aqueous solution for the photoresist removal of semiconductor fabrication OZONE-SCIENCE & ENGINEERING Lim, S. W., Chidsey, C. E. 2005; 27 (2): 139-146
  • Interfacial electron-transfer kinetics of ferrocene through oligophenyleneethynylene bridges attached to gold electrodes as constituents of self-assembled monolayers: Observation of a nonmonotonic distance dependence JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Smalley, J. F., Sachs, S. B., Chidsey, C. E., Dudek, S. P., Sikes, H. D., Creager, S. E., Yu, C. J., Feldberg, S. W., Newton, M. D. 2004; 126 (44): 14620-14630

    Abstract

    The standard heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constants (k(n)0) between substrate gold electrodes and the ferrocene redox couple attached to the electrode surface by variable lengths of substituted or unsubstituted oligophenyleneethynylene (OPE) bridges as constituents of mixed self-assembled monolayers were measured as a function of temperature. The distance dependences of the unsubstituted OPE standard rate constants and of the preexponential factors (An) obtained from an Arrhenius analysis of the unsubstituted OPE k(n)0 versus temperature data are not monotonic. This surprising result, together with the distance dependence of the substituted OPE preexponential factors, may be assessed in terms of the likely conformational variability of the OPE bridges (as a result of the low intrinsic barrier to rotation of the phenylene rings in these bridges) and the associated sensitivity of the rate of electron transfer (and, hence, the single-molecule conductance which may be estimated using An) through these bridges to the conformation of the bridge. Additionally, the measured standard rate constants were independent of the identity of the diluent component of the mixed monolayer, and using an unsaturated OPE diluent has no effect on the rate of electron transfer through a long-chain alkanethiol bridge. These observations indicate that the diluent does not participate in the electron-transfer event.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja047458b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224964500063

    View details for PubMedID 15521782

  • "Clicking" functionality onto electrode surfaces LANGMUIR Collman, J. P., Devaraj, N. K., Chidsey, C. E. 2004; 20 (4): 1051-1053

    View details for DOI 10.1021/la0362977

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189013400010

    View details for PubMedID 15803676

  • Charge transfer on the nanoscale: Current status JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Adams, D. M., Brus, L., Chidsey, C. E., Creager, S., Creutz, C., Kagan, C. R., Kamat, P. V., Lieberman, M., Lindsay, S., Marcus, R. A., Metzger, R. M., Michel-Beyerle, M. E., Miller, J. R., Newton, M. D., Rolison, D. R., Sankey, O., Schanze, K. S., Yardley, J., Zhu, X. Y. 2003; 107 (28): 6668-6697

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp0268462

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184084300003

  • Modular assembly and air-stable electrochemistry of ruthenium porphyrin monolayers LANGMUIR Eberspacher, T. A., Collman, J. P., Chidsey, C. E., Donohue, D. L., Van Ryswyk, H. 2003; 19 (9): 3814-3821

    View details for DOI 10.1021/la026948j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182467100037

  • Heterogeneous electron-transfer kinetics for ruthenium and ferrocene redox moieties through alkanethiol monolayers on gold JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Smalley, J. F., Finklea, H. O., Chidsey, C. E., Linford, M. R., Creager, S. E., Ferraris, J. P., Chalfant, K., Zawodzinsk, T., Feldberg, S. W., Newton, M. D. 2003; 125 (7): 2004-2013

    Abstract

    The standard heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constants between substrate gold electrodes and either ferrocene or pentaaminepyridine ruthenium redox couples attached to the electrode surface by various lengths of an alkanethiol bridge as a constituent of a mixed self-assembled monolayer were measured as a function of temperature. The ferrocene was either directly attached to the alkanethiol bridge or attached through an ester (CO(2)) linkage. For long bridge lengths (containing more than 11 methylene groups) the rate constants were measured using either chronoamperometry or cyclic voltammetry; for the shorter bridges, the indirect laser induced temperature jump technique was employed to measure the rate constants. Analysis of the distance (bridge length) dependence of the preexponential factors obtained from an Arrhenius analysis of the rate constant versus temperature data demonstrates a clear limiting behavior at a surprisingly small value of this preexponential factor (much lower than would be expected on the basis of aqueous solvent dynamics). This limit is independent of both the identity of the redox couple and the nature of the linkage of the couple to the bridge, and it is definitely different (smaller) from the limit derived from an equivalent analysis of the rate constant (versus temperature) data for the interfacial electron-transfer reaction through oligophenylenevinylene bridges between gold electrodes and ferrocene. There are a number of possible explanations for this behavior including, for example, the possible effects of bridge conformational flexibility upon the electron-transfer kinetics. Nevertheless, conventional ideas regarding electronic coupling through alkane bridges and solvent dynamics are insufficient to explain the results reported here.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja028458j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181088000053

    View details for PubMedID 12580629

  • Photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the mechanism of electron transfer through oligo(phenylene vinylene) bridges JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Sikes, H. D., Sun, Y., Dudek, S. P., Chidsey, C. E., Pianetta, P. 2003; 107 (5): 1170-1173

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp026734a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180755800010

  • Submicrosecond electron transfer to monolayer-bound redox species on gold electrodes at large overpotentials JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Robinson, D. B., Chidsey, C. E. 2002; 106 (41): 10706-10713

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp026195+

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178548600026

  • Surface functionalization of alkyl monolayers by free-radical activation: Gas-phase photochlorination with Cl-2 LANGMUIR Linford, M. R., Chidsey, C. E. 2002; 18 (16): 6217-6221

    View details for DOI 10.1021/la020095d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177224400040

  • Olefin additions on H-Si(111): Evidence for a surface chain reaction initiated at isolated dangling bonds LANGMUIR Cicero, R. L., Chidsey, C. E., Lopinski, G. P., Wayner, D. D., Wolkow, R. A. 2002; 18 (2): 305-307

    View details for DOI 10.1021/la010823h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173423700001

  • Future directions in solid state chemistry: report of the NSF-sponsored workshop PROGRESS IN SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY Cava, R. J., DiSalvo, F. J., Brus, L. E., Dunbar, K. R., Gorman, C. B., Haile, S. M., Interrante, L. V., Musfeldt, J. L., NAVROTSKY, A., Nuzzo, R. G., Pickett, W. E., Wilkinson, A. P., Ahn, C., Allen, J. W., Burns, P. C., Ceder, G., Chidsey, C. E., Clegg, W., Coronado, E., DAI, H. J., Deem, M. W., Dunn, B. S., Galli, G., Jacobson, A. J., Kanatzidis, M., Lin, W. B., MANTHIRAM, A., Mrksich, M., Norris, D. J., Nozik, A. J., Peng, X. G., Rawn, C., Rolison, D., Singh, D. J., Toby, B. H., Tolbert, S., Wiesner, U. B., Woodward, P. M., Yang, P. D. 2002; 30 (1-2): 1-101
  • Distance dependence of the electron-transfer rate across covalently bonded monolayers on silicon JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Cheng, J., Robinson, D. B., Cicero, R. L., Eberspacher, T., Barrelet, C. J., Chidsey, C. E. 2001; 105 (44): 10900-10904
  • Synthesis of ferrocenethiols containing oligo(phenylenevinylene) bridges and their characterization on gold electrodes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Dudek, S. P., Sikes, H. D., Chidsey, C. E. 2001; 123 (33): 8033-8038

    Abstract

    Ferrocene-terminated oligo(phenylenevinylene) (OPV) methyl thiols have been prepared by orthogonal coupling of phenylene monomers. Ethoxy substituents on the phenyl rings improve the solubility of OPV, enabling the synthesis of longer oligomers. Self-assembled monolayers containing a mixture of a ferrocene OPV methyl thiol and a diluent alkanethiol were deposited on gold. A cyclic voltammetric study of monolayers containing oligomers of the same length with and without ethoxy solubilizing groups reveals that both solubilized and unsolubilized oligomers form well-packed self-assembled monolayers. Changing the position of the solubilizing groups on an oligomer chain does not preclude packing of the oligomer in the monolayer. Conventional chronoamperometry, which can be used to measure rate constants up to approximately 10(4) s(-1), is too slow to measure the electron-transfer rate through these oligomers over distances up to 35 A. OPV bridges are expected to be highly conjugated unlike oligo(phenyleneethynylene) bridges, which may be only partially conjugated because of rotation of the phenyl rings about the ethynylene bonds. Because of its high conjugation, OPV may prove useful as a molecular wire.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170494200009

    View details for PubMedID 11506559

  • Surface characterization and electrochemical properties of alkyl, fluorinated alkyl, and alkoxy monolayers on silicon LANGMUIR Barrelet, C. J., Robinson, D. B., Cheng, J., Hunt, T. P., Quate, C. F., Chidsey, C. E. 2001; 17 (11): 3460-3465
  • Rapid electron tunneling through oligophenylenevinylene bridges SCIENCE Sikes, H. D., Smalley, J. F., Dudek, S. P., Cook, A. R., Newton, M. D., Chidsey, C. E., Feldberg, S. W. 2001; 291 (5508): 1519-1523

    Abstract

    We measured rate constants of thermal, interfacial electron transfer through oligophenylenevinylene bridges between a gold electrode and a tethered redox species in contact with an aqueous electrolyte using the indirect laser-induced temperature jump technique. Analysis of the distance dependence indicates that, unlike other bridges studied to date, the rate constants are not limited by electronic coupling for bridges up to 28 angstroms long. The energy levels of the bridges relative to those of the redox species rule out hopping through the bridge. We conclude that, out to 28 angstroms, the transfer is limited by structural reorganization and that electron tunneling occurs in less than 20 picoseconds, suggesting that oligophenylenevinylene bridges could be useful for wiring molecular electronic elements.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167153400037

    View details for PubMedID 11222852

  • Effect of silicon surface termination on copper deposition in deionized water JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Lim, S. W., Mo, R. T., Pianetta, P. A., Chidsey, C. E. 2001; 148 (1): C16-C20
  • Control of ozonated water cleaning process for photoresist removal 5th International Symposium on Ultra Clean Processing of Silicon Surfaces (UCPSS 2000) Lim, S. W., Chidsey, C. E. SCITEC PUBLICATIONS LTD. 2001: 215–218
  • Photoreactivity of unsaturated compounds with hydrogen-terminated silicon(111) LANGMUIR Cicero, R. L., Linford, M. R., Chidsey, C. E. 2000; 16 (13): 5688-5695
  • Atomic-scale mechanistic study of iodine/alcohol passivated Si(100) 6th International Symposium on Cleaning Technology in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing Mo, R. T., Burr, T. A., Merklin, G. T., Machuca, F., Pianetta, P. A., Kimerling, L. C., Chiarello, R. P., Chidsey, C. E. ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY INC. 2000: 545–52
  • Defect states at silicon surfaces 20th International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-20) Reddy, A. J., Chan, J. V., Burr, T. A., Mo, R., Wade, C. P., Chidsey, C. E., Michel, J., Kimerling, L. C. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1999: 468–472
  • Hole limited recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Scott, J. C., Malliaras, G. G., Chen, W. D., Breach, J. C., Salem, J. R., Brock, P. J., Sachs, S. B., Chidsey, C. E. 1999; 74 (11): 1510-1512
  • Alkyl-terminated Si(111) surfaces: A high-resolution, core level photoelectron spectroscopy study JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Terry, J., Linford, M. R., Wigren, C., Cao, R. Y., Pianetta, P., Chidsey, C. E. 1999; 85 (1): 213-221
  • Electronic desorption of alkyl monolayers from silicon by very highly charged ions 42nd International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication (EIPBN) Schenkel, T., Schneider, M., Hattass, M., Newman, M. W., Barnes, A. V., Hamza, A. V., Schneider, D. H., Cicero, R. L., Chidsey, C. E. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS. 1998: 3298–3300
  • Nucleation of trace copper on the H-Si(111) surface in aqueous fluoride solutions JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Homma, T., Wade, C. P., Chidsey, C. E. 1998; 102 (41): 7919-7923
  • Synthesis and properties of metalloporphyrin monolayers and stacked multilayers bound to an electrode via site specific axial ligation to a self-assembled monolayer JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Offord, D. A., Sachs, S. B., Ennis, M. S., Eberspacher, T. A., Griffin, J. H., Chidsey, C. E., Collman, J. P. 1998; 120 (18): 4478-4487
  • D-Si(111)(1x1) surface for the study of silicon etching in aqueous solutions APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Luo, H. H., Chidsey, C. E. 1998; 72 (4): 477-479
  • Etch-pit initiation by dissolved oxygen on terraces of H-Si(111) (vol 71, pg 1679, 1997) APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Wade, C. P., Chidsey, C. E. 1998; 72 (1): 133-133
  • Selective nucleation mechanism of trace metal contaminants at surface defects of silicon wafers in aqueous fluoride solution 5th Symposium on High Purity Silicon at the 194th Meeting of the Electrochemical-Society Homma, T., Chidsey, C. E., Watanabe, M., Nagai, K. ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY INC. 1998: 250–57
  • Reactivity of the H-Si (111) surface 1st International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (ICSRMS 96) Terry, J., Mo, R., Wigren, C., Cao, R. Y., Mount, G., Pianetta, P., Linford, M. R., Chidsey, C. E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1997: 94–101
  • Rates of interfacial electron transfer through pi-conjugated spacers JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Sachs, S. B., Dudek, S. P., Hsung, R. P., Sita, L. R., Smalley, J. F., Newton, M. D., Feldberg, S. W., Chidsey, C. E. 1997; 119 (43): 10563-10564
  • Etch-pit initiation by dissolved oxygen on terraces of H-Si(111) APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Wade, C. P., Chidsey, C. E. 1997; 71 (12): 1679-1681
  • Determination of the bonding of alkyl monolayers to the Si(111) surface using chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Terry, J., Linford, M. R., Wigren, C., Cao, R. Y., Pianetta, P., Chidsey, C. E. 1997; 71 (8): 1056-1058
  • The bulge blister test as a probe of adhesion at the polymer/solid interface. Chidsey, C. E., Luo, H. H., Limburg, W. H., Nix, W. D., Hohlfelder, R. J. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 1997: 485-POLY
  • Comparison of stresses in Al lines under various passivations Symposium on Materials Reliability in Microelectronics, at the 1997 MRS Spring Meeting Lee, S., Bravman, J. C., Flinn, P. A., Marieb, T. N. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1997: 415–420
  • Using self-assembled monolayers to modify electrode interfaces in organic light-emitting diodes Polymer Preprints, Division of Polymer Chemistry Chen, W., Burnham, S., Chidsey, C. E., Scott, J. C. 1997; 38: 936-936
  • Mechanism for the chemisorption of contaminants on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. Hohlfelder, R. J., Luo, H., Vlassak, J. J., Chidsey, C. E., Nix, W. D. 1997; 436: 115-120
  • Discussion of the Ebbesen and Scuseria lectures Conference of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Modular Chemistry Smalley, R. E., Michl, Scuseria, Prinzbach, Ebbesen, Mullen, Kahn, Tolbert, Janata, Mallouk, WUEST, Chidsey SPRINGER. 1997: 275–286
  • Discussion of the Ward and Zaworotko lectures Conference of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Modular Chemistry Wuest, J. D., Zaworotko, Ward, Chidsey, Mullen, Kahn, Wegner, Seddon, Palacin, Stupp, Tolbert, Ozin, Michl SPRINGER. 1997: 423–432
  • Discussion of the Kahn and Brus lectures Conference of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Modular Chemistry Michl, J., Coleman, A. W., Kaszynski, Kahn, Chidsey, Ward, Seddon, KUKI, Stupp, Mallouk, Brus, Ozin, Tilley, Tolbert, Zaworotko, PORT, Sita SPRINGER. 1997: 309–321
  • Infrared spectroscopy of covalently bonded species on silicon surfaces: Deuterium, chlorine, and cobalt tetracarbonyl Symposium on Science and Technology of Semiconductor Surface Preparation, at the 1997 MRS Spring Meeting Luo, H. H., Chidsey, C. E., Chabal, Y. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1997: 415–420
  • Preparation of pit-free hydrogen-terminated Si(111) in deoxygenated ammonium fluoride Symposium on Science and Technology of Semiconductor Surface Preparation, at the 1997 MRS Spring Meeting Wade, C. P., Chidsey, C. E. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1997: 299–304
  • Measuring interfacial fracture toughness with the blister test Symposium on Thin Films - Stresses and Mechanical Properties VI, at the 1996 MRS Spring Meeting Hohlfelder, R. J., Luo, H., Vlassak, J. J., Chidsey, C. E., Nix, W. D. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1997: 115–120
  • An analysis of infrared spectroscopic geometries Symposium on Science and Technology of Semiconductor Surface Preparation, at the 1997 MRS Spring Meeting Merklin, G. T., Luo, H. H., Chidsey, C. E. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1997: 353–358
  • Discussion of the Mallouk and Fox lectures Conference of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Modular Chemistry Chidsey, C. E., Ward, Mallouk, Kubiak, Ozin, MORTIMER, Fox, Tolbert, Balzani SPRINGER. 1997: 69–73
  • STM studies of electrode/electrolyte interfaces and silicon surface reactions in controlled atmospheres Symposium on Electrochemical Synthesis and Modification of Materials, at the 1996 MRS Fall Meeting Wade, C. P., Luo, H. H., Dunbar, W. L., Linford, M. R., Chidsey, C. E. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1997: 173–183
  • Bioreactive self-assembled monolayers on hydrogen-passivated Si(111) as a new class of atomically flat substrates for biological scanning probe microscopy JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY Wagner, P., Nock, S., Spudich, J. A., VOLKMUTH, W. D., Chu, S., Cicero, R. L., Wade, C. P., Linford, M. R., Chidsey, C. E. 1997; 119 (2): 189-201

    Abstract

    This is the first report of bioreactive self-assembled monolayers, covalently bound to atomically flat silicon surfaces and capable of binding biomolecules for investigation by scanning probe microscopy and other surface-related assays and sensing devices. These monolayers are stable under a wide range of conditions and allow tailor-made functionalization for many purposes. We describe the substrate preparation and present an STM and SFM characterization, partly performed with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as tapping-mode supertips. Furthermore, we present two strategies of introducing in situ reactive headgroup functionalities. One method entails a free radical chlorosulfonation process with subsequent sulfonamide formation. A second method employs singlet carbenemediated hydrogen-carbon insertion of a heterobifunctional, amino-reactive trifluoromethyl-diazirinyl crosslinker. We believe that this new substrate is advantageous to others, because it (i) is atomically flat over large areas and can be prepared in a few hours with standard equipment, (ii) is stable under most conditions, (iii) can be modified to adjust a certain degree of reactivity and hydrophobicity, which allows physical adsorption or covalent crosslinking of the biological specimen, (iv) builds the bridge between semiconductor microfabrication and organic/biological molecular systems, and (v) is accessible to nanopatterning and applications requiring conductive substrates.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XN38200014

    View details for PubMedID 9245759

  • SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF UNSYMMETRIC FERROCENE-TERMINATED PHENYLETHYNYL OLIGOMERS CP(2)FE-[C-C-C6H4](N),-X(X=SH, SME, SOME, AND SO(2)ME) ORGANOMETALLICS Hsung, R. P., Chidsey, C. E., Sita, L. R. 1995; 14 (10): 4808-4815
  • THE KINETICS OF ELECTRON-TRANSFER THROUGH FERROCENE-TERMINATED ALKANETHIOL MONOLAYERS ON GOLD JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Smalley, J. F., Feldberg, S. W., Chidsey, C. E., Linford, M. R., Newton, M. D., Liu, Y. P. 1995; 99 (35): 13141-13149
  • THIOPHENOL PROTECTING GROUPS FOR THE PALLADIUM-CATALYZED HECK REACTION - EFFICIENT SYNTHESES OF CONJUGATED ARYLTHIOLS TETRAHEDRON LETTERS Hsung, R. P., Babcock, J. R., Chidsey, C. E., Sita, L. R. 1995; 36 (26): 4525-4528
  • ALKYL MONOLAYERS ON SILICON PREPARED FROM 1-ALKENES AND HYDROGEN-TERMINATED SILICON JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Linford, M. R., Fenter, P., EISENBERGER, P. M., Chidsey, C. E. 1995; 117 (11): 3145-3155
  • Blister test analysis methods Symposium on Thin Films - Stresses and Mechanical Properties V, at the 1994 Fall Meeting of the Materials-Research-Society Hohlfelder, R. J., Vlassak, J. J., Nix, W. D., Luo, H. H., Chidsey, C. E. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1995: 585–590
  • The Kinetics of Electron Transfer Through Ferrocene-Terminated Alkanethiol Monolayers on Gold J. Phys. Chem. Smalley, J. F., Feldberg, S. W., Chidsey, C. E., Linford, M. R., Newton, M. D., Liu, Y. 1995; 99 (35): 13141-13149

    View details for DOI 10.1021/j100035a016

  • Alkyl Monolayers on Silicon Prepared from 1-Alkenes and Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon J. Am. Chem. Soc. Linford, M. R., Fenter, P., Eisenberger, P. M., Chidsey, C. E. 1995; 117 (11): 3145-3155

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja00116a019

  • Synthesis and Characterization of Unsymmetric Ferrocene-Terminated Phenylethynyl Oligomers Cp2Fe-[C.tplbond.C-C6H4]n-X, (X = SH, SMe, SOMe, and SO2Me) Organometallics Hsung, R. P., Chidsey, C. E., Sita, L. R. 1995; 14: 4808-4815
  • AN UNEXPECTED PACKING OF FLUORINATED N-ALKANE THIOLS ON AU(111) - A COMBINED ATOMIC-FORCE MICROSCOPY AND X-RAY-DIFFRACTION STUDY JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Liu, G. Y., Fenter, P., Chidsey, C. E., Ogletree, D. F., Eisenberger, P., Salmeron, M. 1994; 101 (5): 4301-4306
  • PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR NICKEL-BASED CONTACT MATERIALS JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY LAW, H. H., Sapjeta, J., Chidsey, C. E., PUTVINSKI, T. M. 1994; 141 (7): 1977-1982
  • STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF ZIRCONIUM ALKYLPHOSPHONATE MONOLAYERS AND MULTILAYER ASSEMBLIES LANGMUIR Schilling, M. L., Katz, H. E., Stein, S. M., SHANE, S. F., Wilson, W. L., Buratto, S., UNGASHE, S. B., Taylor, G. N., PUTVINSKI, T. M., Chidsey, C. E. 1993; 9 (8): 2156-2160
  • THE ELECTRODE-ELECTROLYTE INTERFACE - A STATUS-REPORT JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Bard, A. J., Abruna, H. D., CHIDSEY, C. E., Faulkner, L. R., Feldberg, S. W., Itaya, K., Majda, M., MELROY, O., MURRAY, R. W., Porter, M. D., Soriaga, M. P., White, H. S. 1993; 97 (28): 7147-7173
  • SUBSTRATE DEPENDENCE OF THE SURFACE-STRUCTURE AND CHAIN PACKING OF DOCOSYL MERCAPTAN SELF-ASSEMBLED ON THE (111), (110), AND (100) FACES OF SINGLE-CRYSTAL GOLD JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Camillone, N., Chidsey, C. E., Liu, G., Scoles, G. 1993; 98 (5): 4234-4245
  • SUPERLATTICE STRUCTURE AT THE SURFACE OF A MONOLAYER OF OCTADECANETHIOL SELF-ASSEMBLED ON AU(111) JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Camillone, N., Chidsey, C. E., Liu, G. Y., Scoles, G. 1993; 98 (4): 3503-3511
  • ION SURFACE COLLISIONS AT FUNCTIONALIZED SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYER SURFACES INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY Morris, M. R., Riederer, D. E., Winger, B. E., Cooks, R. G., Ast, T., Chidsey, C. E. 1992; 122: 181-217
  • SYNTHESIS AND DEPOSITION OF ELECTRON-DONORS, ACCEPTORS, AND INSULATORS AS COMPONENTS OF ZIRCONIUM DIPHOSPHONATE MULTILAYER FILMS ACS SYMPOSIUM SERIES Katz, H. E., Schilling, M. L., Ungashe, S., PUTVINSKI, T. M., CHIDSEY, C. E. 1992; 499: 24-32
  • POLAR ORIENTATION OF DYES IN ROBUST MULTILAYERS BY ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE-PHOSPHONATE INTERLAYERS SCIENCE Katz, H. E., Scheller, G., PUTVINSKI, T. M., Schilling, M. L., Wilson, W. L., Chidsey, C. E. 1991; 254 (5037): 1485-1487

    Abstract

    Polar orientation of molecules in solids leads to materials with potentially useful properties such as nonlinear optical and electrooptical activity, electrochromism, and pyroelectricity. A simple self-assembly procedure for preparing such materials is introduced that yields multiple polar dye monolayers on solid surfaces joined by zirconium phosphate-phosphonate interlayers. Second harmonic generation (SHG) shows that the multilayers have polar order that does not decrease with increasing numbers (up to a large number) of monolayers in the film. The inorganic interlayers, as determined by SHG, impart excellent orientational stability to the dye molecules, with the onset of orientational randomization above 150 degrees C.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GT90300032

    View details for PubMedID 17773297

  • SURFACE-REACTIONS AND SURFACE-INDUCED DISSOCIATION OF POLYATOMIC IONS AT SELF-ASSEMBLED ORGANIC MONOLAYER SURFACES JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Winger, B. E., Julian, R. K., Cooks, R. G., Chidsey, C. E. 1991; 113 (23): 8967-8969
  • INSITU SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY OF CORROSION OF SILVER-GOLD ALLOYS SCIENCE Oppenheim, I. C., Trevor, D. J., Chidsey, C. E., TREVOR, P. L., Sieradzki, K. 1991; 254 (5032): 687-689

    Abstract

    An in situ scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was used to observe the morphological changes accompanying the selective dissolution of Ag from low-Ag content Ag-Au alloys in dilute perchloric acid. This study was undertaken to explore the role of surface diffusion in alloy corrosion processes. These results are interpreted within the framework of the kink-ledge-terrace model of a crystal surface and a recent model of alloy corrosion based on a variant of percolation theory. The corrosion process leads to roughening of the surface by dissolution of Ag atoms from terrace sites. Annealing or smoothening of the surface occurs by vacancy migration through clusters and the subsequent annihilation of clusters at terrace ledges.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GN47400033

    View details for PubMedID 17774794

  • QUATERTHIOPHENEDIPHOSPHONIC ACID (QDP) - A RIGID, ELECTRON-RICH BUILDING BLOCK FOR ZIRCONIUM-BASED MULTILAYERS CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Katz, H. E., Schilling, M. L., Chidsey, C. E., PUTVINSKI, T. M., HUTTON, R. S. 1991; 3 (4): 699-703
  • SURFACE-STRUCTURE AND THERMAL MOTION OF NORMAL-ALKANE THIOLS SELF-ASSEMBLED ON AU(111) STUDIED BY LOW-ENERGY HELIUM DIFFRACTION JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Camillone, N., Chidsey, C. E., Liu, G. Y., PUTVINSKI, T. M., Scoles, G. 1991; 94 (12): 8493-8502
  • ROOM-TEMPERATURE SURFACE-DIFFUSION MECHANISMS OBSERVED BY SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY/SPECTROSCOPY ( STM 90 ) / 1ST INTERNATIONAL CONF ON NANOMETER SCALE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ( NANO 1 ) Trevor, D. J., Chidsey, C. E. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS. 1991: 964–68
  • FREE-ENERGY AND TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENCE OF ELECTRON-TRANSFER AT THE METAL-ELECTROLYTE INTERFACE SCIENCE Chidsey, C. E. 1991; 251 (4996): 919-922

    Abstract

    The rate constant of the electron-transfer reaction between a gold electrode and an electroactive ferrocene group has been measured at a structurally well-defined metal-electrolyte interface at temperatures from 1 degrees to 47 degrees C and reaction free energies from -1.0 to +0.8 electron volts (eV). The ferrocene group was positioned a fixed distance from the gold surface by the self-assembly of a mixed thiol monolayer of (eta(5)C(5)H(5))Fe(eta(5)C(5)H(4))CO(2)(CH(2))(16)SH and CH(3)(CH(2))(15)SH. Rate constants from 1 per second (s(-1)) to 2 x 10(4) s(-1) in 1 molar HClO(4) are reasonably fit with a reorganization energy of 0.85 eV and a prefactor for electron tunneling of 7 x 10(4) s(-1) eV(-1). Such self-assembled monolayers can be used to systematically probe the dependence of electron-transfer rates on distance, medium, and spacer structure, and to provide an empirical basis for the construction of interfacial devices such as sensors and transducers that utilize macroscopically directional electron-transfer reactions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EY62900038

    View details for PubMedID 17847385

  • ELECTRICAL AND NONLINEAR OPTICAL-PROPERTIES OF ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHONATE MULTILAYER ASSEMBLIES CONF ON NONLINEAR OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC MATERIALS 4 Katz, H. E., Schilling, M. L., Ungashe, S., PUTVINSKI, T. M., Scheller, G., Chidsey, C. E., Wilson, W. L. SPIE - INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1991: 370–376
  • HELIUM DIFFRACTION FROM OVERLAYERS PHYSISORBED ON A SELF-ASSEMBLED ORGANIC MONOLAYER LANGMUIR Chidsey, C. E., Liu, G. Y., Scoles, G., Wang, J. 1990; 6 (12): 1804-1806
  • SELF-ASSEMBLY OF ORGANIC MULTILAYERS WITH POLAR ORDER USING ZIRCONIUM-PHOSPHATE BONDING BETWEEN LAYERS LANGMUIR PUTVINSKI, T. M., Schilling, M. L., Katz, H. E., Chidsey, C. E., Mujsce, A. M., Emerson, A. B. 1990; 6 (10): 1567-1571
  • COADSORPTION OF FERROCENE-TERMINATED AND UNSUBSTITUTED ALKANETHIOLS ON GOLD - ELECTROACTIVE SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Chidsey, C. E., Bertozzi, C. R., PUTVINSKI, T. M., Mujsce, A. M. 1990; 112 (11): 4301-4306
  • CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALITY IN SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS - STRUCTURAL AND ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES LANGMUIR Chidsey, C. E., Loiacono, D. N. 1990; 6 (3): 682-691
  • MOLECULAR ORDER AT THE SURFACE OF AN ORGANIC MONOLAYER STUDIED BY LOW-ENERGY HELIUM DIFFRACTION JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Chidsey, C. E., Liu, G. Y., Rowntree, P., Scoles, G. 1989; 91 (7): 4421-4423
  • INSITU SCANNING-TUNNELING-MICROSCOPE OBSERVATION OF ROUGHENING, ANNEALING, AND DISSOLUTION OF GOLD(111) IN AN ELECTROCHEMICAL-CELL PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Trevor, D. J., Chidsey, C. E., Loiacono, D. N. 1989; 62 (8): 929-932
  • STM STUDY OF THE SURFACE-MORPHOLOGY OF GOLD ON MICA SURFACE SCIENCE Chidsey, C. E., Loiacono, D. N., Sleator, T., Nakahara, S. 1988; 200 (1): 45-66
  • MONOLAYER VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY BY INFRARED-VISIBLE SUM GENERATION AT METAL AND SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS Harris, A. L., Chidsey, C. E., Levinos, N. J., Loiacono, D. N. 1987; 141 (4): 350-356
  • SPONTANEOUSLY ORGANIZED MOLECULAR ASSEMBLIES .4. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NORMAL-ALKYL THIOL MONOLAYERS ON GOLD BY OPTICAL ELLIPSOMETRY, INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY, AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Porter, M. D., Bright, T. B., Allara, D. L., Chidsey, C. E. 1987; 109 (12): 3559-3568
  • REDOX CAPACITY AND DIRECT-CURRENT ELECTRON CONDUCTIVITY IN ELECTROACTIVE MATERIALS JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Chidsey, C. E., MURRAY, R. W. 1986; 90 (7): 1479-1484
  • MICROMETER-SPACED PLATINUM INTERDIGITATED ARRAY ELECTRODE - FABRICATION, THEORY, AND INITIAL USE ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY CHIDSEY, C. E., Feldman, B. J., Lundgren, C., MURRAY, R. W. 1986; 58 (3): 601-607
  • ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULAR ELECTRONICS SCIENCE Chidsey, C. E., MURRAY, R. W. 1986; 231 (4733): 25-31

    Abstract

    Electrodes can be coated with electrochemically reactive polymers in several microstructural formats called sandwich, array, bilayer, micro-, and ion-gate electrodes. These microstructures can be used to study the transport of electrons and ions through the polymers as a function of the polymer oxidation state, which is essential for understanding the conductivity properties of these new chemical materials. The microstructures also exhibit potentially useful electrical and optical responses, including current rectification, charge storage and amplification, electron-hole pair separation, and gates for ion flow.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986AWR2700018

    View details for PubMedID 17819225

  • EFFECT OF MAGNETIC-FIELDS ON THE TRIPLET-STATE LIFETIME IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTION CENTERS - EVIDENCE FOR THERMAL REPOPULATION OF THE INITIAL RADICAL PAIR PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Chidsey, C. E., Takiff, L., Goldstein, R. A., Boxer, S. G. 1985; 82 (20): 6850-6854

    Abstract

    The lifetime of the molecular triplet state formed by recombination of the radical ion pair in quinonedepleted bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers is found to depend on applied magnetic field strength. It is suggested that this magnetic field effect results from thermally activated repopulation of the same radical ion pair that generates the triplet. Consistent with this hypothesis, the magnetic field effect on the triplet lifetime disappears at low temperature where the triplet state decays exclusively by ordinary intersystem crossing. This activated pathway for the decay of the triplet state can explain the strong temperature dependence of the triplet decay rate. A detailed theoretical treatment of the problem within a set of physically reasonable assumptions relates the observed temperature dependence of the triplet decay rate to the energy gap between the radical ion pair intermediate and the triplet state. This energy gap is estimated to be about 950 cm(-1) (0.12 eV). Combined with an estimate of the energy of the donor excited state, we obtain an energy gap between the excited singlet state of the donor and the radical ion pair of 2,250 cm(-1) (0.28 eV).

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ATC6000028

    View details for PubMedID 16593615

  • ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF POLYMER-FILMS NOT IMMERSED IN SOLUTION - ELECTRON-TRANSFER ON AN ION BUDGET JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Jernigan, J. C., Chidsey, C. E., MURRAY, R. W. 1985; 107 (9): 2824-2826
  • MAGNETIC-FIELD DEPENDENCE OF RADICAL-PAIR DECAY KINETICS AND MOLECULAR TRIPLET QUANTUM YIELD IN QUINONE-DEPLETED REACTION CENTERS BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA Chidsey, C. E., Kirmaier, C., HOLTEN, D., Boxer, S. G. 1984; 766 (2): 424-437
  • MAGNETIC-FIELD EFFECTS ON REACTION YIELDS IN THE SOLID-STATE - AN EXAMPLE FROM PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTION CENTERS ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Boxer, S. G., Chidsey, C. E., Roelofs, M. G. 1983; 34: 389-417
  • CONTRIBUTIONS OF SPIN SPIN INTERACTIONS TO THE MAGNETIC-FIELD DEPENDENCE OF THE TRIPLET QUANTUM YIELD IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTION CENTERS CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS Roelofs, M. G., Chidsey, C. E., Boxer, S. G. 1982; 87 (6): 582-588
  • ANISOTROPIC MAGNETIC-INTERACTIONS IN THE PRIMARY RADICAL ION-PAIR OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTION CENTERS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Boxer, S. G., Chidsey, C. E., Roelofs, M. G. 1982; 79 (15): 4632-4636

    Abstract

    The quantum yield of triplets formed by ion-pair recombination in quinone-depleted photosynthetic reaction centers is found to depend on their orientation in a magnetic field. This new effect is expected to be a general property of radical pair reactions in the solid state. For 0 < H < 1,000 G, the quantum yield anisotropy is caused by anisotropic electron dipole-electron dipole or nuclear hyperfine interactions, or both. For high fields it is dominated by the anisotropy of the difference g-tensor in the radical ion-pair. The magnitude and sign of the contribution of each interaction depend not only on the values of the principal components of each anisotropic tensor but also on the geometric relationship of the principal axes of each tensor to the transition dipole moment used to detect the yield. A detailed formalism is presented relating these quantities to the observed yield anisotropy. The expected magnitude of each anisotropic parameter is discussed. It is demonstrated that the field dependence of the yield anisotropy is consistent with these values for certain reaction center geometries.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PB77200023

    View details for PubMedID 16578764

  • USE OF LARGE MAGNETIC-FIELDS TO PROBE PHOTOINDUCED ELECTRON-TRANSFER REACTIONS - AN EXAMPLE FROM PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTION CENTERS JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Boxer, S. G., Chidsey, C. E., Roelofs, M. G. 1982; 104 (5): 1452-1454
  • DEPENDENCE OF THE YIELD OF A RADICAL-PAIR REACTION IN THE SOLID-STATE ON ORIENTATION IN A MAGNETIC-FIELD JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Boxer, S. G., Chidsey, C. E., Roelofs, M. G. 1982; 104 (9): 2674-2675
  • THE EFFECT OF LARGE MAGNETIC-FIELDS AND THE G-FACTOR DIFFERENCE ON THE TRIPLET POPULATION IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTION CENTERS CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS Chidsey, C. E., Roelofs, M. G., Boxer, S. G. 1980; 74 (1): 113-118
  • INTERACTIONS OF SMALL ORGANIC RINGS WITH TRANSITION-METALS - FORMATION OF ETA-3-CYCLOBUTENONYL COMPLEXES BY THE RING EXPANSION OF 2-CYCLOPROPENE-1-CARBONYL METAL SPECIES JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY CHIDSEY, C. E., Donaldson, W. A., Hughes, R. P., Sherwin, P. F. 1979; 101 (1): 233-235
  • CATIONIC COBALT(I) CARBONYL-COMPOUNDS CONTAINING COMPLEXED CYCLOBUTADIENES JOURNAL OF ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY CHIDSEY, C. E., Donaldson, W. A., Hughes, R. P. 1979; 169 (1): C12-C14