Clinical Focus

  • Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
  • orthognathic surgery
  • dento-alveolar surgery

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Residency: University of California at San Francisco School Of Dentistry (1987) CA
  • Internship: University of California at San Francisco School Of Dentistry (1984) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (1992)
  • Dental Education: Emory University School of Medicine (1983) GA

All Publications

  • Assessment of a Novel Standardized Training System for Mandibular Contour Surgeries JAMA FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY Qiao, J., Xu, J., Fu, X., Niu, F., Gui, L., Girod, S., Yen, C., Liu, J., Chen, Y., Kwong, J. W., Wang, C., Zhang, H., Xu, S., Alkofahi, H., Mao, X. 2019; 21 (3): 221–29
  • Assessment of a Novel Standardized Training System for Mandibular Contour Surgeries. JAMA facial plastic surgery Qiao, J., Xu, J., Fu, X., Niu, F., Gui, L., Girod, S., Yen, C., Liu, J., Chen, Y., Kwong, J. W., Wang, C., Zhang, H., Xu, S., Alkofahi, H., Mao, X. 2019


    Importance: Mandibular contour surgeries (MCS) involving reduction gonioplasty and genioplasty are rewarding for patients with square faces; however, the procedure has inherently difficult clinician learning curves and unpredictable skill acquisitions. To our knowledge, there has been no effective, validated training model that might improve training and surgical outcomes for MCS.Objective: To establish and evaluate a standardized intraoral MCS training system.Design, Setting, and Participants: Intraoral MCS training models were constructed by 3-dimensional (3D) skull models covered with elastic head cloths. From April 2016 to April 2018, 90 consecutive MCS patients (30 per group) and 15 craniofacial surgery fellow physicians (5 per group) were enrolled in the prospective observational study. They were randomly divided into intervention groups (A and B) and a control group (C). Intervention groups A and B completed 5 training sessions on the intraoral MCS training models before each clinical case. Group A performed both the model training sessions and clinical surgeries with surgical templates. Control group C had no extra training before clinical surgeries. All groups completed clinical surgery under supervision on 6 patients. The duration of follow-up was at least 3 months postoperatively.Interventions: Intraoral MCS training models were provided to intervention groups (A and B) before clinical surgeries. Surgical templates were provided to intervention group A both in training sessions and clinical surgeries.Main Outcomes and Measures: The completion time, surgical accuracy, learning curves, operating confidence, surgical skill, and outcome satisfaction of each procedure were recorded and analyzed with paired t test and 1-way analysis of variance test by blinded observers.Results: All 90 patients (14 men, 76 women; mean [SD] age, 26 [5] years) were satisfied with their postoperative mandible contours. The intervention groups (A and B), especially the group with surgical templates (A) showed improvements in clinical surgery time (mean [SD], group A 147.2 [24.71] min; group B, 184.47 [16.28] min; group C, 219.3 [35.3] min; P=.001), surgical accuracy (mean [SD], group A, 0.68 [0.22] mm; group B, 1.22 [0.38] mm; group C, 1.88 [0.54] mm; P<.001), learning curves, and operators' confidence and surgical skill.Conclusions and Relevance: The intraoral MCS training model was effective and practical. The optimal intraoral MCS training system included intraoral MCS training models and surgical templates. The system significantly decreased clinical surgery time, improved surgical accuracy, shortened the learning curve, boosted operators' confidence, and was associated with better acquisition of surgical skills.Level of Evidence: N/A.

    View details for PubMedID 30653220

  • Interpositional Arthroplasty by Temporalis Fascia Flap and Galea Aponeurotica Combined With Distraction Osteogenesis: a Modified Method in Treatment of Adult Patients With Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis and Mandibular Dysplasia JOURNAL OF CRANIOFACIAL SURGERY Qiao, J., Yu, B., Gui, L., Fu, X., Yen, C., Niu, F., Zhang, H., Wang, C., Chen, Y., Wang, M., Liu, J. 2018; 29 (2): E184–E190


    Interpositional arthroplasty (IPA) with temporalis fascia flap has been one of the most frequently performed procedures to treat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. However, recurrence often occurs when the flap lacks bulk or atrophies. Whether to perform IPA or distraction osteogenesis (DO) first has long been a controversial issue when patients presented mandibular dysplasia (MD). This study provided IPA a new graft material sufficient to prevent recurrence, combined the modified protocol of performing DO 6 months after IPA, and evaluated its efficacy in treating TMJ ankylosis patients with MD.Six patients with unilateral TMJ ankylosis and MD were treated in the authors' study. The temporalis fascia flap and part of adjacent galea aponeurotica were filled the space after surgical release. Mouth-opening exercises started immediately post-IPA. Distraction osteogenesis was performed 6 months after IPA and had a 4-month consolidation. The maximum interincisal distance at preoperative, immediately post-IPA and the latest follow-up were recorded, as was the distraction length. The body mass index was measured at each patient's postoperative visit.All patients had significant improvements in facial aesthetic, mouth-opening, and occlusion. No major complication or recurrence was observed at 3 to 4 years' follow-up. The mean maximum interincisal distance was 4.83 ± 2.79 mm preoperative and 35.67 ± 3.39 mm at the latest follow-up. The mean distraction distance was 16.17 ± 5.98 mm. The body mass index improved from 17.33 ± 0.64 kg/m preoperative to 18.75 ± 0.60 kg/m before DO.Temporalis fascia flap and adjacent galea aponeurotica as new graft materials are recommended for IPA. The modified staged treatment proved to be reliable and effective to prevent recurrence, improve mandibular length and final occlusion.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004242

    View details for Web of Science ID 000427989400029

    View details for PubMedID 29303852