All Publications

  • Localization of PPM1H phosphatase tunes Parkinson's disease-linked LRRK2 kinase-mediated Rab GTPase phosphorylation and ciliogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Yeshaw, W. M., Adhikari, A., Chiang, C. Y., Dhekne, H. S., Wawro, P. S., Pfeffer, S. R. 2023; 120 (44): e2315171120


    PPM1H phosphatase reverses Parkinson's disease-associated, Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2-mediated Rab GTPase phosphorylation. We show here that PPM1H relies on an N-terminal amphipathic helix for Golgi localization. The amphipathic helix enables PPM1H to bind to liposomes in vitro, and small, highly curved liposomes stimulate PPM1H activity. We artificially anchored PPM1H to the Golgi, mitochondria, or mother centriole. Our data show that regulation of Rab10 GTPase phosphorylation requires PPM1H access to Rab10 at or near the mother centriole. Moreover, poor colocalization of Rab12 explains in part why it is a poor substrate for PPM1H in cells but not in vitro. These data support a model in which localization drives PPM1H substrate selection and centriolar PPM1H is critical for regulation of Rab GTPase-regulated ciliogenesis. Moreover, Golgi localized PPM1H may maintain active Rab GTPases on the Golgi to carry out their nonciliogenesis-related functions in membrane trafficking.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2315171120

    View details for PubMedID 37889931

  • Genome-wide screen reveals Rab12 GTPase as a critical activator of Parkinson's disease-linked LRRK2 kinase. eLife Dhekne, H. S., Tonelli, F., Yeshaw, W. M., Chiang, C. Y., Limouse, C., Jaimon, E., Purlyte, E., Alessi, D. R., Pfeffer, S. R. 2023; 12


    Activating mutations in the Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 phosphorylates a subset of Rab GTPases, particularly Rab10 and Rab8A, and we showed previously that these phosphoRabs play an important role in LRRK2 membrane recruitment and activation (Vides et al., 2022). To learn more about LRRK2 pathway regulation, we carried out an unbiased, CRISPR-based genome-wide screen to identify modifiers of cellular phosphoRab10 levels. A flow cytometry assay was developed to detect changes in phosphoRab10 levels in pools of mouse NIH-3T3 cells harboring unique CRISPR guide sequences. Multiple negative and positive regulators were identified; surprisingly, knockout of the Rab12 gene was especially effective in decreasing phosphoRab10 levels in multiple cell types and knockout mouse tissues. Rab-driven increases in phosphoRab10 were specific for Rab12, LRRK2 dependent and PPM1H phosphatase reversible, and did not require Rab12 phosphorylation; they were seen with wild type and pathogenic G2019S and R1441C LRRK2. As expected for a protein that regulates LRRK2 activity, Rab12 also influenced primary cilia formation. Alphafold modeling revealed a novel Rab12 binding site in the LRRK2 Armadillo domain and we show that residues predicted to be essential for Rab12 interaction at this site influence phosphoRab10 and phosphoRab12 levels in a manner distinct from Rab29 activation of LRRK2. Our data show that Rab12 binding to a new site in the LRRK2 Armadillo domain activates LRRK2 kinase for Rab phosphorylation and could serve as a new therapeutic target for a novel class of LRRK2 inhibitors that do not target the kinase domain.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.87098

    View details for PubMedID 37874635

  • A feed-forward pathway drives LRRK2 kinase membrane recruitment and activation. eLife Vides, E. G., Adhikari, A., Chiang, C. Y., Lis, P., Purlyte, E., Limouse, C., Shumate, J. L., Spinola-Lasso, E., Dhekne, H. S., Alessi, D. R., Pfeffer, S. R. 2022; 11


    Activating mutations in the Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause Parkinson's disease and previously we showed that activated LRRK2 phosphorylates a subset of Rab GTPases (Steger et al., 2017). Moreover, Golgi-associated Rab29 can recruit LRRK2 to the surface of the Golgi and activate it there for both auto- and Rab substrate phosphorylation. Here we define the precise Rab29 binding region of the LRRK2 Armadillo domain between residues 360-450 and show that this domain, termed 'Site #1', can also bind additional LRRK2 substrates, Rab8A and Rab10. Moreover, we identify a distinct, N-terminal, higher affinity interaction interface between LRRK2 phosphorylated Rab8 and Rab10 termed 'Site #2', that can retain LRRK2 on membranes in cells to catalyze multiple, subsequent phosphorylation events. Kinase inhibitor washout experiments demonstrate that rapid recovery of kinase activity in cells depends on the ability of LRRK2 to associate with phosphorylated Rab proteins, and phosphorylated Rab8A stimulates LRRK2 phosphorylation of Rab10 in vitro. Reconstitution of purified LRRK2 recruitment onto planar lipid bilayers decorated with Rab10 protein demonstrates cooperative association of only active LRRK2 with phospho-Rab10-containing membrane surfaces. These experiments reveal a feed-forward pathway that provides spatial control and membrane activation of LRRK2 kinase activity.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.79771

    View details for PubMedID 36149401