Claude M. Nagamine, DVM, PhD Associate Professor received his D.V.M. from the University of Tennessee in 2004 and completed his residency training in Laboratory Animal Medicine at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2007. He joined the Department of Comparative Medicine at Stanford in 2008. Prior to entering veterinary school, Dr. Nagamine obtained a Ph.D. in Ecology from the University of California, Davis (1979), obtained postdoctoral training in endocrinology, developmental genetics, immunology, and molecular biology of the mouse at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (NYC), Institut Pasteur (France), and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the University of California, San Francisco and was an Assistant Professor of Cell Biology at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. His research focuses on using mouse models to study murine and human infectious diseases. These colloborative studies include dengue virus, zika virus, adeno-associated virus, coxsackie virus, enterohepatic helicobacters, campylobacters, and anaplasma.
D.V.M., University of Tennessee, Veterinary Medicine (2004)
Ph.D., University of California, Davis, Ecology (1979)
M.A., University of California, Davis, Zoology (1975)
B.S., University of Hawaii, Manoa, Biology (1973)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Molecular genetics of mammalian sex determination and sexual differentiation, effects of Helicobacter hepaticus, a mouse bacterial pathogen, on colon cancer models, small animal disease models.
- Laboratory Mouse in Biomedical Research
COMPMED 87Q (Aut)
Independent Studies (5)
- Directed Reading in Comparative Medicine
COMPMED 299 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Graduate Research
COMPMED 399 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Medical Scholars Research
COMPMED 370 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Undergraduate Directed Reading in Comparative Medicine
COMPMED 198 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Undergraduate Research
COMPMED 199 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Directed Reading in Comparative Medicine
- Prior Year Courses
Anticancer kinase inhibitors impair intracellular viral trafficking and exert broad-spectrum antiviral effects
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
2017; 127 (4): 1338-1352
Global health is threatened by emerging viral infections, which largely lack effective vaccines or therapies. Targeting host pathways that are exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions. We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK, kinase regulators of the host adaptor proteins AP1 and AP2, are essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underlying mechanism and relevance to other viruses or in vivo infections remained unknown. Here, we have discovered that AP1 and AP2 cotraffic with HCV particles in live cells. Moreover, we found that multiple viruses, including dengue and Ebola, exploit AAK1 and GAK during entry and infectious virus production. In cultured cells, treatment with sunitinib and erlotinib, approved anticancer drugs that inhibit AAK1 or GAK activity, or with more selective compounds inhibited intracellular trafficking of HCV and multiple unrelated RNA viruses with a high barrier to resistance. In murine models of dengue and Ebola infection, sunitinib/erlotinib combination protected against morbidity and mortality. We validated sunitinib- and erlotinib-mediated inhibition of AAK1 and GAK activity as an important mechanism of antiviral action. Additionally, we revealed potential roles for additional kinase targets. These findings advance our understanding of virus-host interactions and establish a proof of principle for a repurposed, host-targeted approach to combat emerging viruses.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI89857
View details for Web of Science ID 000398183300024
View details for PubMedID 28240606
Influence of Genetic Background on Hematologic and Histopathologic Alterations during Acute Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in 129/SvEv and C57BL/6J Mice Lacking Type I and Type II Interferon Signaling
2017; 67 (2): 127-137
The role of host type I IFN signaling and its interaction with other immune pathways during bacterial infections is incompletely understood. Type II IFN signaling plays a key role during numerous bacterial infections including granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. The function of combined type I and type II IFN signaling and their potential synergism during GA and similar tick-borne diseases is a topic of current research investigation. The goal of this study was to evaluate 2 mouse models of absent type I/type II IFN signaling in experimental A. phagocytophilum infection to determine the effects of background strain. Mice lacking both type I and type II IFN receptor signaling (IFNAR-/-/IFNGR-/-) on either the 129/SvEv or C57BL/6J genetic background were evaluated at days 0, 6, 8, and 12 of infection. Pathogen burden in multiple organs was largely similar between strains of infected mice, with few significant differences. Background strain influenced the immune response to infection. Mice of the 129/SvEv strain developed more severe hematologic abnormalities, particularly more severe leukocytosis with marked neutrophilia and lymphocytosis, throughout acute infection. Histopathologic changes occurred in infected mice of both strains and varied in severity by organ. 129/SvEv mice developed more severe pathologic changes in spleen and bone marrow, whereas C57BL/6J mice developed more severe renal pathology. This work highlights the importance of mouse background strain in dictating pathophysiologic response to infection and informs future work regarding the loss of type I and type II IFN signaling on the immune response during GA.
View details for Web of Science ID 000398880200006
View details for PubMedID 28381313
Development of Novel ImmunoPET Tracers to Image Human PD-1 Checkpoint Expression on Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in a Humanized Mouse Model.
Molecular imaging and biology
It is well known that cancers exploit immune checkpoints (programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1)) to evade anti-tumor immune responses. Although immune checkpoint (IC) blockade is a promising approach, not all patients respond. Hence, imaging of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is of high specific interest, as they are known to express PD-1 during activation and subsequent exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment and are thought to be potentially predictive of therapeutic responses to IC blockade.We developed immune-tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) to image hPD-1 status of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) adoptively transferred to NOD-scid IL-2Rγ(null) (NSG) mice (hNSG) bearing A375 human skin melanoma tumors. The anti-PD-1 human antibody (IgG; keytruda) was labeled with either Zr-89 or Cu-64 radiometals to image PD-1-expressing human TILs in vivo.[(89)Zr] Keytruda (groups = 2; NSG-ctl (control) and hNSG-nblk (non-blocking), n = 3-5, 3.2 ± 0.4 MBq/15-16 μg/200 μl) and [(64)Cu] Keytruda (groups = 3; NSG-ctl, NSG-blk (blocking), and hNSG-nblk; n = 4, 7.4 ± 0.4 MBq /20-25 μg/200 μl) were administered in mice. PET-CT scans were performed over 1-144 h ([(89)Zr] Keytruda) and 1-48 h ([(64)Cu] Keytruda) on mice. hNSG mice exhibited a high tracer uptake in the spleen, lymphoid organs and tumors. At 24 h, human TILs homing into melanoma of hNSG-nblk mice exhibited high signal (mean %ID/g ± SD) of 3.8 ± 0.4 ([(89)Zr] Keytruda), and 6.4 ± 0.7 ([(64)Cu] Keytruda), which was 1.5- and 3-fold higher uptake compared to NSG-ctl mice (p = 0.01), respectively. Biodistribution measurements of hNSG-nblk mice performed at 144 h ([(89)Zr] Keytruda) and 48 h ([(64)Cu] Keytruda) p.i. revealed tumor to muscle ratios as high as 45- and 12-fold, respectively.Our immunoPET study clearly demonstrates specific imaging of human PD-1-expressing TILs within the tumor and lymphoid tissues. This suggests these anti-human-PD-1 tracers could be clinically translatable to monitor cancer treatment response to IC blockade therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-017-1060-3
View details for PubMedID 28247187
Evaluation of Isoflurane Overdose for Euthanasia of Neonatal Mice
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE
2016; 55 (3): 321-323
Neonatal mice (that is, pups younger than 6 d) must be exposed to CO2 for as long as 50 min to achieve euthanasia. Alternatively, other inhalant anesthetic agents have been used to euthanize laboratory rodent species. We investigated the efficacy of isoflurane at saturated vapor pressure to euthanize neonatal mice. Neonatal mice (n = 76; age, 1 or 2 d) were exposed to isoflurane in a sealed, quart-size (0.95-L) plastic bag at room temperature. Righting and withdrawal reflexes were absent in less than 2 min. After 30 min of exposure to isoflurane, pups were removed and monitored for recovery. All pups were cyanotic and showed no detectable signs of life when they were removed from the bag. However, after 30 to 120 min after removal from the bag, 24% of isoflurane-overexposed pups began gasping and then resumed normal respiration and regained a normal pink coloration. These results demonstrate that isoflurane overexposure at saturated vapor pressure for 30 min is insufficient to euthanize neonatal mice and that isoflurane overexposure must be followed by a secondary means of euthanasia.
View details for Web of Science ID 000375510400012
View details for PubMedID 27177567
An essential receptor for adeno-associated virus infection.
2016; 530 (7588): 108-112
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are currently the leading candidates for virus-based gene therapies because of their broad tissue tropism, non-pathogenic nature and low immunogenicity. They have been successfully used in clinical trials to treat hereditary diseases such as haemophilia B (ref. 2), and have been approved for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Europe. Considerable efforts have been made to engineer AAV variants with novel and biomedically valuable cell tropisms to allow efficacious systemic administration, yet basic aspects of AAV cellular entry are still poorly understood. In particular, the protein receptor(s) required for AAV entry after cell attachment remains unknown. Here we use an unbiased genetic screen to identify proteins essential for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) infection in a haploid human cell line. The most significantly enriched gene of the screen encodes a previously uncharacterized type I transmembrane protein, KIAA0319L (denoted hereafter as AAV receptor (AAVR)). We characterize AAVR as a protein capable of rapid endocytosis from the plasma membrane and trafficking to the trans-Golgi network. We show that AAVR directly binds to AAV2 particles, and that anti-AAVR antibodies efficiently block AAV2 infection. Moreover, genetic ablation of AAVR renders a wide range of mammalian cell types highly resistant to AAV2 infection. Notably, AAVR serves as a critical host factor for all tested AAV serotypes. The importance of AAVR for in vivo gene delivery is further highlighted by the robust resistance of Aavr(-/-) (also known as Au040320(-/-) and Kiaa0319l(-/-)) mice to AAV infection. Collectively, our data indicate that AAVR is a universal receptor involved in AAV infection.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature16465
View details for PubMedID 26814968
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4962915
- Suppression of Drug Resistance in Dengue Virus MBIO 2015; 6 (6)
Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp and Campylobacter sp.
JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
2015; 64: 575-581
We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters.
View details for DOI 10.1099/jmm.0.000051
View details for Web of Science ID 000358189300012
Evaluation of Zr-89-rituximab Tracer by Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging and Correlation with PET in a Humanized Transgenic Mouse Model to Image NHL
MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY
2013; 15 (4): 468-475
PURPOSE: This research aimed to study the use of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using (89)Zr-rituximab positron emission tomography (PET) tracer with a humanized transgenic mouse model that expresses human CD20 and the correlation of CLI with PET. PROCEDURES: Zr-rituximab (2.6 MBq) was tail vein-injected into transgenic mice that express the human CD20 on their B cells (huCD20TM). One group (n = 3) received 2 mg/kg pre-dose (blocking) of cold rituximab 2 h prior to tracer; a second group (n = 3) had no pre-dose (non-blocking). CLI was performed using a cooled charge-coupled device optical imager. We also performed PET imaging and ex vivo studies in order to confirm the in vivo CLI results. At each time point (4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h), two groups of mice were imaged in vivo and ex vivo with CLI and PET, and at 96 h, organs were measured by gamma counter. RESULTS: huCD20 transgenic mice injected with (89)Zr-rituximab demonstrated a high-contrast CLI image compared to mice blocked with a cold dose. At various time points of 4-96 h post-radiotracer injection, the in vivo CLI signal intensity showed specific uptake in the spleen where B cells reside and, hence, the huCD20 biomarker is present at very high levels. The time-activity curve of dose decay-corrected CLI intensity and percent injected dose per gram of tissue of PET uptake in the spleen were increased over the time period (4-96 h). At 96 h, the (89)Zr-rituximab uptake ratio (non-blocking vs blocking) counted (mean ± standard deviation) for the spleen was 1.5 ± 0.6 for CLI and 1.9 ± 0.3 for PET. Furthermore, spleen uptake measurements (non-blocking and blocking of all time points) of CLI vs PET showed good correlation (R (2) = 0.85 and slope = 0.576), which also confirmed the corresponding correlations parameter value (R (2) = 0.834 and slope = 0.47) obtained for ex vivo measurements. CONCLUSIONS: CLI and PET of huCD20 transgenic mice injected with (89)Zr-rituximab demonstrated that the tracer was able to target huCD20-expressing B cells. The in vivo and ex vivo tracer uptake corresponding to the CLI radiance intensity from the spleen is in good agreement with PET. In this report, we have validated the use of CLI with PET for NHL imaging in huCD20TM.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-013-0624-0
View details for Web of Science ID 000321972500014
View details for PubMedID 23471750
Inhibition of Cellular Autophagy Deranges Dengue Virion Maturation
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
2013; 87 (3): 1312-1321
Autophagy is an important component of the innate immune response, directly destroying many intracellular pathogens. However, some pathogens, including several RNA viruses, subvert the autophagy pathway, or components of the pathway, to facilitate their replication. In the present study, the effect of inhibiting autophagy on the growth of dengue virus was tested using a novel inhibitor, spautin-1 (specific and potent autophagy inhibitor 1). Inhibition of autophagy by spautin-1 generated heat-sensitive, noninfectious dengue virus particles, revealing a large effect of components of the autophagy pathway on viral maturation. A smaller effect on viral RNA accumulation was also observed. Conversely, stimulation of autophagy resulted in increased viral titers and pathogenicity in the mouse. We conclude that the presence of functional autophagy components facilitates viral RNA replication and, more importantly, is required for infectious dengue virus production. Pharmacological inhibition of host processes is an attractive antiviral strategy to avoid selection of treatment-resistant variants, and inhibitors of autophagy may prove to be valuable therapeutics against dengue virus infection and pathogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.02177-12
View details for Web of Science ID 000313558100003
View details for PubMedID 23175363
Maternal antibodies or nonproductive infections confound the need for rederivation.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
2013; 52 (4): 495-498
After rederivation of a mouse parvovirus (MPV)-contaminated transgenic mouse strain, serology and PCR testing of the surrogate dam showed it to be infected with mouse parvovirus strain 1 (MPV-1). The rederived pups (n = 3) also were MPVpositive, according to serology. Despite MPV seropositivity, fecal PCR tests of the pups were negative, as were serologic results from direct-contact sentinels. Only one rederived pup survived, and this male was bred successfully. None of its mates or progeny seroconverted to MPV. At 14.5 mo of age, the rederived male mouse was euthanized; tissues were collected and submitted for MPV testing; both serologic tests and PCR analysis of mesenteric lymph nodes were MPV-negative. One explanation for the rederived pups' MPV seropostivity is passive transfer of maternal antibodies or a nonproductive MPV infection. This case illustrates that although routine serological testing of surrogate mothers and pups is appropriate, any positive results should be further investigated by using transmissibility testing (fecal PCR or contact sentinels or both) prior to repeat rederivation.
View details for PubMedID 23849450
Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Levels in Disposable Individually Ventilated Cages after Removal from Mechanical Ventilation
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE
2012; 51 (2): 155-161
Disposable individually ventilated cages have lids that restrict air exchange when the cage is not mechanically ventilated. This design feature may cause intracage CO2 to increase and O2 to decrease (hypercapnic and hypoxic conditions, respectively) when the electrical supply to the ventilated rack fails, the ventilated rack malfunctions, cages are docked in the rack incorrectly, or cages are removed from the ventilated rack for extended periods of time. We investigated how quickly hypercapnic and hypoxic conditions developed within disposable individually ventilated cages after removal from mechanical ventilation and compared the data with nondisposable static cages, disposable static cages, and unventilated nondisposable individually ventilated cages. When disposable individually ventilated cages with 5 adult mice per cage were removed from mechanical ventilation, CO2 concentrations increased from less than 1% at 0 h to approximately 5% at 3 h and O2 levels dropped from more than 20% at 0 h to 11.7% at 6 h. The breathing pattern of the mice showed a prominent abdominal component (hyperventilation). Changes were similar for 4 adult mice per cage, reaching at least 5% CO2 at 4 h and 13.0% O2 at 6 h. For 3 or 2 mice per cage, values were 4.6% CO2 and 14.7% O2 and 3.04% CO2 and 17.1% O2, respectively, at 6 h. These results document that within disposable individually ventilated cages, a hypercapnic and hypoxic microenvironment develops within hours in the absence of mechanical ventilation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000306772200003
View details for PubMedID 22776114
Interleukin-16 deficiency suppresses the development of chronic rejection in murine cardiac transplantation model
JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION
2011; 30 (12): 1409-1417
IL-16 promotes the recruitment of various cells expressing CD4, a receptor for IL-16. The precise role of IL-16 in transplant rejection remains unknown; therefore, the present study investigated the contribution of IL-16 to the development of chronic rejection in heart transplants.C-H-2(bm12)KhEg (H-2(bm12)) donor hearts were transplanted into (1) IL-16-deficient (IL-16(-/-)) C57BL/6J or (b) wild type (WT) control recipients (MHC class II mismatch). Grafts were harvested at 52 days, parenchymal rejection was assessed by the ISHLT grading system, and CAV was examined morphometrically. Graft infiltrating cells were detected 10 and 52 days after transplantation. Intragraft cytokine and chemokine profiles were assessed. To confirm the role of IL-16 in CAV development, C-H-2(bm12)KhEg (H-2(bm12)) donor hearts were transplanted into C57BL/6J WT recipients treated with (1) anti-IL-16-neutralization monoclonal antibody or (b) control immunoglobulin G. Grafts were harvested at 52 days, and CAV was quantified morphometrically. Graft-infiltrating cells were examined histologically.Parenchymal rejection and CAV was significantly attenuated in donor hearts transplanted into IL-16(-/-) recipient mice compared with WT controls. Donor hearts transplanted into IL-16(-/-) recipients had a significant reduction in coronary artery luminal occlusion, intima-to-media ratio, and percentage of diseased vessels. CAV was associated with decreased donor organ inflammation, as well as donor organ cytokine (IL-1β and IL-6) and chemokine (MCP-1 and KC) protein expression. Intimal proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly reduced in hearts transplanted into recipients treated with an IL-16-neutralization antibody.IL-16-deficiency reduced graft inflammatory cell recruitment, and allograft inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Therefore, IL-16 neutralization may provide a potential target for novel therapeutic treatment for cardiac allograft rejection.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2011.08.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000297385400016
View details for PubMedID 22055099
Hematologic, Serologic, and Histologic Profile of Aged Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE
2011; 50 (3): 308-316
Biologic samples from 18 (12 female, 6 male) Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) representing an aged colony (17 to 27 mo) were examined. Values for CBC and serum biochemical parameters were determined, and macroscopic and microscopic pathologic evaluations were performed. Blood urea nitrogen levels were significantly higher in male (54.2 ± 14 mg/dL) compared with female (35.3 ± 22 mg/dL) hamsters and correlated histologically with a higher incidence of chronic glomerulonephropathy in males (5 of 6 males; 0 of 12 females). All 18 hamsters had histologic evidence of follicular mite infestation. Half (6 of 12) of the female hamsters showed cystic rete ovarii. Other histologic findings included thymic or thyroid branchial cysts (3 of 18), focal enteritis (2 of 18), and single cases of hepatic hemangiosarcoma, renal adenoma, subcutaneous mast cell tumor, cutaneous sebaceous adenoma, cutaneous trichofolliculoma, squamous papilloma of the nonglandular stomach, epididymal cholesteatoma, pyometra, and pituitary craniopharyngeal cyst. This study is the first published report of hematologic and serum chemical values for any population of Siberian hamsters and the first published report showing a potential male predisposition for chronic progressive glomerulonephropathy and a potential female predisposition for cystic rete ovarii.
View details for Web of Science ID 000299026400002
View details for PubMedID 21640024
- Helicobacter hepaticus promotes azoxymethane-initiated colon tumorigenesis in BALB/cJ-IL10-deficient mice. Int J Cancer 2008; 122: 832-838
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- Acute paraplegia in a young adult Long-Evans rat resulting from T-cell lymphoma. Contemp Topics Lab Anim Sci 2005; 44: 53-56
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