Alternative Therapies for Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Partial Virological Response to Standard Entecavir Monotherapy.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology
2016; 50 (4): 338-344
Entecavir (ETV) is a first-line, oral antinucleoside agent for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients. Despite its high potency, some patients may still be viremic after prolonged therapy with ETV monotherapy. Long-term outcome data comparing maintained ETV monotherapy to alternative therapies in persistently viremic patients are limited. Our goal was to compare complete viral suppression (CVS) rates [hepatitis B DNA (HBV DNA)<40 to 60 IU/mL] with alternative therapies to continued ETV monotherapy in ETV partial responders.This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 86 consecutive treatment-naive, ETV=0.5 mg partial responders (detectable HBV DNA after ≥12 mo on ETV) who maintained ETV=0.5 mg daily (n=29) or switched to either ETV=1.0 mg daily (n=32) or ETV/tenofovir (TDF)=0.5 mg/300 mg (n=25) in 3 US GI/liver clinics from January 2005 to January 2012. Patients were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision query and data were collected by individual chart review. For those who remained on ETV=0.5 mg, comparison at regimen "switch time" was done using values at 12 months from initial ETV therapy. Rates of CVS were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) relating to potential predictors to the desirable outcomes of CVS.In all therapy groups, the majority of patients were Asian (93.1% to 100.0%), male (64.0% to 68.8%), and hepatitis B e antigen-positive (95.8% to 100.0%) and had similar baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. However, baseline HBV DNA (7.0 vs. 7.9 vs. 7.8 log10 IU/mL, P=0.05) and HBV DNA at regimen switch point (2.9 vs. 3.7 vs. 3.6 log10 IU/mL, P=0.0014) were lower in the ETV=0.5 mg cohort compared with those switched to ETV=1.0 mg or ETV/TDF, respectively. The ETV=0.5 mg cohort also had the shortest duration of ETV=0.5 mg therapy before switch (11.8 vs. 13.5 vs. 19.2 mo, P<0.0001). After the switch point, more patients on ETV/TDF achieved CVS compared with those on ETV=0.5 mg or ETV=1.0 mg at month 6 (77.3% vs. 13.8% vs. 9.4%), month 12 (86.4% vs. 40.5% vs. 25.0%), and month 18 (100% vs. 70.2% vs. 33.3%). Compared with the ETV=0.5 mg and ETV=1.0 mg groups, the ETV/TDF group also had higher rates of ALT normalization at month 6 (73.0% vs, 46.4% vs. 63.0%), month 12 (79.7% vs. 69.5% vs. 77.9%), and month 18 (100.0% vs. 69.5% vs. 86.8%), respectively. The multivariate analyses, inclusive of baseline age and treatment duration on initial therapy with ETV=0.5 mg, indicated that the ETV/TDF combination (HR=12.19, P<0.0001) was independently and positively associated with CVS, whereas high HBV DNA levels at baseline (HR=0.77, P=0.02) and at switch point (HR=0.46, P=0.002) were negatively associated with CVS. ETV=1.0 mg dose was not a predictor for CVS compared with ETV=0.5 mg.Following adjustments for HBV DNA levels and prior treatment duration, ETV/TDF combination therapy independently predicted superior viral suppression and ALT normalization in partial responders to ETV=0.5 mg daily compared with ETV=0.5 mg or ETV=1.0 mg monotherapy. In patients who continued to be viremic after 12 months of ETV=0.5 mg, one third were still viremic after another 18 months on the same therapy. Alternative therapies should be considered for these patients.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000455
View details for PubMedID 26646801
Hurdles to clinical translation of human induced pluripotent stem cells
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
2015; 125 (7): 2551-2557
Human pluripotent stem cells are known to have the capacity to renew indefinitely, being intrinsically able to differentiate into many different cell types. These characteristics have generated tremendous enthusiasm about the potential applications of these cells in regenerative medicine. However, major challenges remain with the development and testing of novel experimental stem cell therapeutics in the field. In this Review, we focus on the nature of the preclinical challenges and discuss potential solutions that could help overcome them. Furthermore, we discuss the use of allogeneic versus autologous stem cell products, including a review of their respective advantages and disadvantages, major clinical requirements, quality standards, time lines, and costs of clinical grade development.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI80575
View details for Web of Science ID 000357553300002
View details for PubMedID 26132109
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4563685
Current treatment guidelines for chronic hepatitis B and their applications.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology
2014; 48 (9): 773-783
Treatment practices for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) varies across the world and several professional associations have issued treatment recommendations. This synopsis aims to review the major principles of CHB and its management, and to systematically summarize and compare the recommendations of the major treatment guidelines by: the Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, the US Panel, the European Association for the Study of the Liver, and the American Association for the Study of the Liver.Treatment recommendations were summarized separately for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients.Treatment for CHB is recommended on the basis of a variety of host and viral factors, and the ultimate goal of treatment is the prevention of decompensated liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, and premature death. Despite updates and improvements in these guidelines during the past decade, greater patient and physician education as well as better noninvasive markers to identify high-risk patients are still needed. Significant improvements in the application of current practice guidelines, however, can be made by relatively simple educational efforts, and new molecular and genomic techniques may hold promise for more accurate selection of high-risk patients for further therapeutic interventions in a near future.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000130
View details for PubMedID 24859715
Evidence for Pyronaridine as a Highly Effective Partner Drug for Treatment of Artemisinin-Resistant Malaria in a Rodent Model
ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
2014; 58 (1): 183-195
The increasing prevalence in Southeast Asia of Plasmodium falciparum infections with delayed parasite clearance rates, following treatment of malaria patients with the artemisinin derivative artesunate, highlights an urgent need to identify which of the currently available artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are most suitable to treat populations with emerging artemisinin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the rodent Plasmodium berghei SANA strain has acquired artemisinin resistance following drug pressure, as defined by reduced parasite clearance and early recrudescence following daily exposure to high doses of artesunate or the active metabolite dihydroartemisinin. Using the SANA strain and the parental drug-sensitive N strain, we have interrogated the antimalarial activity of five ACTs, namely, artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, artesunate-mefloquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and the newest combination artesunate-pyronaridine. By monitoring parasitemia and outcome for 30 days following initiation of treatment, we found that infections with artemisinin-resistant P. berghei SANA parasites can be successfully treated with artesunate-pyronaridine used at doses that are curative for the parental drug-sensitive N strain. No other partner drug combination was as effective in resolving SANA infections. Of the five partner drugs tested, pyronaridine was also the most effective at suppressing the recrudescence of SANA parasites. These data support the potential benefit of implementing ACTs with pyronaridine in regions affected by artemisinin-resistant malaria.
View details for DOI 10.1128/AAC.01466-13
View details for Web of Science ID 000329581100023
View details for PubMedID 24145526
Risk Factors and Characterization of Plasmodium Vivax-Associated Admissions to Pediatric Intensive Care Units in the Brazilian Amazon
2012; 7 (4)
Plasmodium vivax is responsible for a significant proportion of malaria cases worldwide and is increasingly reported as a cause of severe disease. The objective of this study was to characterize severe vivax disease among children hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to identify risk factors associated with disease severity.In this retrospective study, clinical records of 34 children, 0-14 years of age hospitalized in the 11 public pediatric and neonatal ICUs of the Manaus area, were reviewed. P. falciparum monoinfection or P. falciparum/P. vivax mixed infection was diagnosed by microscopy in 10 cases, while P. vivax monoinfection was confirmed in the remaining 24 cases. Two of the 24 patients with P. vivax monoinfection died. Respiratory distress, shock and severe anemia were the most frequent complications associated with P. vivax infection. Ninety-one children hospitalized with P. vivax monoinfections but not requiring ICU were consecutively recruited in a tertiary care hospital for infectious diseases to serve as a reference population (comparators). Male sex (p = 0.039), age less than five years (p = 0.028), parasitemia greater than 500/mm(3) (p = 0.018), and the presence of any acute (p = 0.023) or chronic (p = 0.017) co-morbidity were independently associated with ICU admission. At least one of the WHO severity criteria for malaria (formerly validated for P. falciparum) was present in 23/24 (95.8%) of the patients admitted to the ICU and in 17/91 (18.7%) of controls, making these criteria a good predictor of ICU admission (p = 0.001). The only investigated criterion not associated with ICU admission was hyperbilirubinemia (p = 0.513)].Our study points to the importance of P. vivax-associated severe disease in children, causing 72.5% of the malaria admissions to pediatric ICUs. WHO severity criteria demonstrated good sensitivity in predicting severe P. vivax infection in this small case series.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0035406
View details for Web of Science ID 000305345000064
View details for PubMedID 22523591
Pfatp6 molecular profile of Plasmodium falciparum isolates in the western Brazilian Amazon
Anti-malarial drug resistance has emerged as one of the biggest challenges confronting the worldwide effort to control malaria. The appearance of chloroquine and multi-drug resistance had devastating effects on therapeutic efficacy of former first-line agents. Artemisinin has proven to be an excellent therapeutic alternative to fill the void in chemotherapeutic options left by resistance mechanisms. At the time of introduction, no resistance to artemisinins had been recorded, and artemisinins demonstrated excellent parasite reduction rates. In an attempt to protect artemisinin efficacy, the World Health Organization (WHO) made artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) its official first-line treatment recommendation for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in 2006. In Brazil, artemether/lumefantrine became the Brazilian Malaria Control Programme's official treatment recommendation in 2007. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ - ATPase ortholog of P. falciparum (pfatp6) has been suggested as one of the targets of artemisinins. Consequently, pfatp6 gene polymorphisms are being investigated as markers of artemisinin resistance elsewhere. The goal of this work was to describe the molecular profile of pfatp6 in P. falciparum isolates from different localities in the Amazonas State.DNA polymorphisms of the pfatp6 gene in 80 P. falciparum isolates from 11 municipalities of the Amazonas State (Western Brazilian Amazon), before and after the introduction of ACT in the Brazilian anti-malarial guidelines, were analysed by automatic sequencing. Mutations in the pfatp6 gene were searched using Mutation Surveyor v3.25 software.The P. falciparum pfatp6 gene presented polymorphisms at codons 37, 630 and 898. The R37K mutation was found in 16% of the samples, A630S in 32% and I898I in 52%. No S769N mutation, however, was detected in the analysed samples.Despite the small number of samples, data presented here provide baseline information about polymorphisms of pfatp6 gene before and after exposure to ACT in a low transmission area, which will help to infer drug selection pressure in this area in the future.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1475-2875-11-111
View details for Web of Science ID 000304046700001
View details for PubMedID 22487143
- In vitro and in vivo activity of frenolicin B against Plasmodium falciparum and P berghei JOURNAL OF ANTIBIOTICS 2011; 64 (12): 799-801
Recent clinical and molecular insights into emerging artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum
CURRENT OPINION IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2011; 24 (6): 570-577
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been deployed globally with remarkable success for more than 10 years without having lost their malaria treatment efficacy. However, recent reports from the Thai-Cambodian border reveal evidence of emerging resistance to artemisinins. The latest published clinical and molecular findings are summarized herein.Clinical studies have identified delayed parasite clearance time as the most robust marker of artemisinin resistance. Resistance has only been documented from South-east Asia and has been observed in isolates that show no significant decrease in drug susceptibility in vitro. Genetic investigations have yet to uncover robust molecular markers. In-vitro studies have identified parasite quiescence or dormancy mechanisms that protect early 'ring-stage' intra-erythrocytic parasites against short-term artemisinin exposure. This might be achieved by reducing the rate of hemoglobin degradation, important for artemisinin bioactivation.Should ACTs fail, no suitable alternatives exist as first-line treatments of P. falciparum malaria. Intensified efforts are essential to monitor the spread of resistance, define therapeutic and operational strategies to counter its impact, and understand its molecular basis. Success in these areas is critical to ensuring that recent gains in reducing the burden of malaria are not lost.
View details for DOI 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32834cd3ed
View details for Web of Science ID 000296496800008
View details for PubMedID 22001944
In Vivo and In Vitro Antimalarial Properties of Azithromycin-Chloroquine Combinations That Include the Resistance Reversal Agent Amlodipine
ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
2011; 55 (7): 3115-3124
Evidence of emerging Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies, documented in western Cambodia, underscores the continuing need to identify new antimalarial combinations. Given recent reports of the resurgence of chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum parasites in Malawi, after the enforced and prolonged withdrawal of this drug, and indications of a possible synergistic interaction with the macrolide azithromycin, we sought to further characterize chloroquine-azithromycin combinations for their in vitro and in vivo antimalarial properties. In vitro 96-h susceptibility testing of chloroquine-azithromycin combinations showed mostly additive interactions against freshly cultured P. falciparum field isolates obtained from Mali. Some evidence of synergy, however, was apparent at the fractional 90% inhibitory concentration level. Additional in vitro testing highlighted the resistance reversal properties of amlodipine for both chloroquine and quinine. In vivo experiments, using the Peters 4-day suppressive test in a P. yoelii mouse model, revealed up to 99.9% suppression of parasitemia following treatment with chloroquine-azithromycin plus the R enantiomer of amlodipine. This enantiomer was chosen because it does not manifest the cardiac toxicities observed with the racemic mixture. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in this rodent model and subsequent extrapolation to a 65-kg adult led to the estimation that 1.8 g daily of R-amlodipine would be required to achieve similar efficacy in humans, for whom this is likely an unsafe dose. While these data discount amlodipine as an additional partner for chloroquine-based combination therapy, our studies continue to support azithromycin as a safe and effective addition to antimalarial combination therapies.
View details for DOI 10.1128/AAC.01566-10
View details for Web of Science ID 000291687900007
View details for PubMedID 21464242