Factors associated with first-time and repeat blood donation: Adverse reactions and effects on donor behavior.
BACKGROUND: Blood centers have a dual mission to protect donors and patients; donor safety is paramount to maintaining an adequate blood supply. Elucidating donor factors associated with adverse reactions (AR) is critical to this mission.STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of whole blood donors from 2003 to 2020 was conducted at a single blood center in northern California. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% CIs for ARs were estimated via multivariable logistic regression on demographics, donation history, and physical examination data. Where appropriate, Wilcoxon-Rank Sum and chi-squared tests were used to determine significance.RESULTS: First-time blood donors (FTD) exhibited a higher AR rate than repeat donors (4.4% vs. 1.9% p<.0001). When compared with FTDs without AR, FTDs with ARs (FT-AR) were less likely to return (30.0% vs. 47.3%, p<.0001), and, of those who returned, had a higher rate of reaction 20.2% versus 2.8% (p<.001). Factors found to be associated with FT-AR (younger age, increased heart rate, and higher diastolic blood pressure) still correlated positively with AR on return donation, but to a lower degree. FTD who potentially witnessed an AR had a lower return rate (44.6% vs. 47.3%, p=<.001) and donated fewer units (2.38 vs. 3.37, p<.001) when compared to FTD who did not witness an AR.CONCLUSION: The AR on FTD increases the AR likelihood of return donation. Longitudinal analysis shows that a time-based deferral policy targeted at FT-AR young donors can reduce the number of ARs while not dramatically impacting the blood supply.
View details for DOI 10.1111/trf.16893
View details for PubMedID 35510783
Blood Donors Who Return after Adverse Reaction: Identifying Factors Associated with Future Adverse Reactions and Donor Behavior
WILEY. 2021: 35A
View details for Web of Science ID 000697116900052
Single-cell imaging of T cell immunotherapy responses in vivo.
The Journal of experimental medicine
2021; 218 (10)
T cell immunotherapies have revolutionized treatment for a subset of cancers. Yet, a major hurdle has been the lack of facile and predicative preclinical animal models that permit dynamic visualization of T cell immune responses at single-cell resolution in vivo. Here, optically clear immunocompromised zebrafish were engrafted with fluorescent-labeled human cancers along with chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells, bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs), and antibody peptide epitope conjugates (APECs), allowing real-time single-cell visualization of T cell-based immunotherapies in vivo. This work uncovered important differences in the kinetics of T cell infiltration, tumor cell engagement, and killing between these immunotherapies and established early endpoint analysis to predict therapy responses. We also established EGFR-targeted immunotherapies as a powerful approach to kill rhabdomyosarcoma muscle cancers, providing strong preclinical rationale for assessing a wider array of T cell immunotherapies in this disease.
View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20210314
View details for PubMedID 34415995
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8383813
Single-cell imaging of human cancer xenografts using adult immunodeficient zebrafish
2020; 15 (9): 3105-3128
Zebrafish are an ideal cell transplantation model. They are highly fecund, optically clear and an excellent platform for preclinical drug discovery studies. Traditionally, xenotransplantation has been carried out using larval zebrafish that have not yet developed adaptive immunity. Larval engraftment is a powerful short-term transplant platform amenable to high-throughput drug screening studies, yet animals eventually reject tumors and cannot be raised at 37 °C. To address these limitations, we have recently developed adult casper-strain prkdc-/-, il2rgα-/- immunocompromised zebrafish that robustly engraft human cancer cells for in excess of 28 d. Because the adult zebrafish can be administered drugs by oral gavage or i.p. injection, our model is suitable for achieving accurate, preclinical drug dosing. Our platform also allows facile visualization of drug effects in vivo at single-cell resolution over days. Here, we describe the procedures for xenograft cell transplantation into the prkdc-/-, il2rgα-/- model, including refined husbandry protocols for optimal growth and rearing of immunosuppressed zebrafish at 37 °C; optimized intraperitoneal and periocular muscle cell transplantation; and epifluorescence and confocal imaging approaches to visualize the effects of administering clinically relevant drug dosing at single-cell resolution in vivo. After identification of adult homozygous animals, this procedure takes 35 d to complete. 7 days are required to acclimate adult fish to 37 °C, and 28 d are required for engraftment studies. Our protocol provides a comprehensive guide for using immunocompromised zebrafish for xenograft cell transplantation and credentials the model as a new preclinical drug discovery platform.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41596-020-0372-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000561511100001
View details for PubMedID 32826993
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8097243
PRL3 enhances T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia growth through suppressing T-cell signaling pathways and apoptosis
2021; 35 (3): 679-690
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes and is largely driven by the NOTCH/MYC pathway. Yet, additional oncogenic drivers are required for transformation. Here, we identify protein tyrosine phosphatase type 4 A3 (PRL3) as a collaborating oncogenic driver in T-ALL. PRL3 is expressed in a large fraction of primary human T-ALLs and is commonly co-amplified with MYC. PRL3 also synergized with MYC to initiate early-onset ALL in transgenic zebrafish and was required for human T-ALL growth and maintenance. Mass-spectrometry phosphoproteomic analysis and mechanistic studies uncovered that PRL3 suppresses downstream T-cell phosphorylation signaling pathways, including those modulated by VAV1, and subsequently suppresses apoptosis in leukemia cells. Taken together, our studies have identified new roles for PRL3 as a collaborating oncogenic driver in human T-ALL and suggest that therapeutic targeting of the PRL3 phosphatase will likely be a useful treatment strategy for T-ALL.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41375-020-0937-3
View details for Web of Science ID 000544547300001
View details for PubMedID 32606318
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8009053
Long-term Effects of an Evidence-based Guideline for Emergency Management of Pediatric Syncope.
Pediatric quality & safety
2020; 5 (6): e361
Variability exists in the management of childhood syncope as clinicians balance resource utilization with the need to identify serious diseases. Limited evidence exists regarding the long-term impact of evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) on clinical practices. This study's objective was to measure long-term changes in the management of syncope after implementing a syncope EBG in a single pediatric emergency department following the redistribution of resources to facilitate compliance over time.We included healthy patients aged 8-22 years, presenting to the pediatric emergency department with syncope between 2009 and 2017. Interrupted time series analysis compared testing rates and length of stay among the pre-EBG, short-term follow-up, and long-term follow-up periods.The study included 1,294 subjects. From the pre-EBG period to the long-term follow-up period, recommended electrocardiogram and urine pregnancy test rose significantly [level change odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 5.56 (1.73-17.91) and 3.15 (1.07-9.32), respectively]. Testing and management not recommended by the EBG decreased significantly, including complete blood count, electrolytes, point-of-care glucose, chest radiograph, and intravenous fluids [level change odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.19 (0.09-0.40), 0.15 (0.07-0.32), 0.38 (0.18-0.81), 0.17 (0.06-0.49), and 0.18 (0.08-0.39), respectively]. Length of stay declined significantly. No delayed diagnoses occurred.Sustained improvements in syncope management persisted during long-term follow-up of the EBG despite minimal resources. The EBG was associated with increased focused evaluation and decreased low yield testing. EBGs may be useful tools to influence sustained clinical practices to promote safe, cost-effective, and high-quality care.
View details for DOI 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000361
View details for PubMedID 33134761
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7591128
Adult immune compromised zebrafish for xenograft cell transplantation studies
2019; 47: 24-26
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.08.016
View details for Web of Science ID 000486976200013
View details for PubMedID 31416720
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6796557
Visualizing Engrafted Human Cancer and Therapy Responses in Immunodeficient Zebrafish
2019; 177 (7): 1903-+
Xenograft cell transplantation into immunodeficient mice has become the gold standard for assessing pre-clinical efficacy of cancer drugs, yet direct visualization of single-cell phenotypes is difficult. Here, we report an optically-clear prkdc-/-, il2rga-/- zebrafish that lacks adaptive and natural killer immune cells, can engraft a wide array of human cancers at 37°C, and permits the dynamic visualization of single engrafted cells. For example, photoconversion cell-lineage tracing identified migratory and proliferative cell states in human rhabdomyosarcoma, a pediatric cancer of muscle. Additional experiments identified the preclinical efficacy of combination olaparib PARP inhibitor and temozolomide DNA-damaging agent as an effective therapy for rhabdomyosarcoma and visualized therapeutic responses using a four-color FUCCI cell-cycle fluorescent reporter. These experiments identified that combination treatment arrested rhabdomyosarcoma cells in the G2 cell cycle prior to induction of apoptosis. Finally, patient-derived xenografts could be engrafted into our model, opening new avenues for developing personalized therapeutic approaches in the future.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000471256800026
View details for PubMedID 31031007
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6570580