- Cardiology (Heart), Pediatric
- Congenital Heart Disease (Adult)
- Pediatric Cardiology
Board Certification: Pediatric Cardiology, American Board of Pediatrics (1985)
Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1984)
Fellowship:Children's Hospital Medical Center (1984) OH
Residency:Children's Hospital Medical Center (1981) OH
Internship:Children's Hospital Medical Center (1979) OH
Medical Education:USC University Hospital (1978) CA
MD, Univ of Southern California, Medicine (1978)
BS, Stanford University, Biological Sciences (1974)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Dr. Murphy is the Co-PI for the Stanford site of the NIH funded multicenter comparison of losartan and atenolol for treatment of children and young adults with Marfan syndrome.
- Independent Studies (5)
- Surgical unroofing of hemodynamically significant myocardial bridges in a pediatric population MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2018: 1618–26
- Utility of serial 12-lead electrocardiograms in children with Marfan syndrome CARDIOLOGY IN THE YOUNG 2018; 28 (8): 1009–13
Utility of serial 12-lead electrocardiograms in children with Marfan syndrome.
Cardiology in the young
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the utility of serial electrocardiograms in routine follow-up of paediatric Marfan patients.METHODS: Children ⩽18 years who met the revised Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome and received a 12-lead electrocardiogram and echocardiogram within a 3-month period were included. Controls were matched by age, body surface area, gender, race, and ethnicity, and consisted of patients assessed in clinic with a normal cardiac evaluation. Demographic, clinical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic data were collected.RESULTS: A total of 45 Marfan patients (10.8 [2.4-17.1] years) and 37 controls (12.8 [1.3-17.1] years) were included. Left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy were more frequently present on 12-lead electrocardiogram of Marfan patients compared with controls (12 (27%) versus 0 (0%), p<0.001; and 8 (18%) versus 0 (0%), p=0.008, respectively); however, only two patients with left atrial enlargement on 12-lead electrocardiogram were confirmed to have left atrial enlargement by echocardiogram, and one patient had mild left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiogram, not appreciated on 12-lead electrocardiogram. QTc interval was longer in Marfan patients compared with controls (427±16 versus 417±22 ms, p=0.03), with four Marfan patients demonstrating borderline prolonged QTc intervals for gender.CONCLUSIONS: While Marfan patients exhibited a higher frequency of left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy on 12-lead electrocardiograms compared with controls, these findings were not supported by echocardiography. Serial 12-lead electrocardiograms in routine follow-up of asymptomatic paediatric Marfan patients may be more appropriate for a subgroup of Marfan patients only, specifically those with prolonged QTc interval at their baseline visit.
View details for PubMedID 29972109
Surgical unroofing of hemodynamically significant myocardial bridges in a pediatric population.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
BACKGROUND: Although myocardial bridges (MBs) are traditionally regarded as incidental findings, it has been reported that adult patients with symptomatic MBs refractory to medical therapy benefit from unroofing. However, there is limited literature in the pediatric population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the indications and outcomes for unroofing in pediatric patients.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all pediatric patients with MB in our institution who underwent surgical relief. Clinical characteristics, relevant diagnostic data, intraoperative findings, and postoperative outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2016, 14 pediatric patients underwent surgical unroofing of left anterior descending artery MBs. Thirteen patients had anginal symptoms refractory to medical therapy, and 1 patient was asymptomatic until experiencing aborted sudden cardiac arrest during exercise. Thirteen patients underwent exercise stress echocardiography, all of which showed mid-septal dys-synergy. Coronary computed tomography imaging confirmed the presence of MBs in all patients. Intravascular ultrasound imaging confirmed the length of MBs: 28.2±16.3mm, halo thickness: 0.59±0.24mm, and compression of left anterior descending artery at resting heart rate: 33.0±11.6%. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with dobutamine confirmed the physiologic significance of the MBs with diastolic fractional flow reserve: 0.59±0.13. Unroofing was performed with the patient under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in the initial 9 cases and without CPB in the subsequent 5 cases. All patients were discharged without complications. The 13 symptomatic patients reported resolution of symptoms on follow-up, and improvement in symptoms and quality of life was documented using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire version 7.CONCLUSIONS: Unroofing of MBs can be safely performed in pediatric patients, with or without use of CPB. In symptomatic patients, unroofing can provide relief of symptoms refractory to medical therapy.
View details for PubMedID 30005887
- QUALITY OF INR CONTROL IN A CENTRALIZED PHARMACIST-LED PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY WARFARIN MANAGEMENT PROGRAM ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: 609
Incidence and predictors of obstetric and fetal complications in women with structural heart disease
2017; 103 (20): 1610–18
Women with cardiac disease becoming pregnant have an increased risk of obstetric and fetal events. The aim of this study was to study the incidence of events, to validate the modified WHO (mWHO) risk classification and to search for event-specific predictors.The Registry Of Pregnancy And Cardiac disease is a worldwide ongoing prospective registry that has enrolled 2742 pregnancies in women with known cardiac disease (mainly congenital and valvular disease) before pregnancy, from January 2008 up to April 2014.Mean age was 28.2±5.5 years, 45% were nulliparous and 33.3% came from emerging countries. Obstetric events occurred in 231 pregnancies (8.4%). Fetal events occurred in 651 pregnancies (23.7%). The mWHO classification performed poorly in predicting obstetric (c-statistic=0.601) and fetal events (c-statistic=0.561). In multivariable analysis, aortic valve disease was associated with pre-eclampsia (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.3 to 5.5). Congenital heart disease (CHD) was associated with spontaneous preterm birth (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2 to 2.7). Complex CHD was associated with small-for-gestational-age neonates (OR=2.3, 95%CI=1.5 to 3.5). Multiple gestation was the strongest predictor of fetal events: fetal/neonatal death (OR=6.4, 95%CI=2.5 to 16), spontaneous preterm birth (OR=5.3, 95%CI=2.5 to 11) and small-for-gestational age (OR=5.0, 95%CI=2.5 to 9.8).The mWHO classification is not suitable for prediction of obstetric and fetal events in women with cardiac disease. Maternal complex CHD was independently associated with fetal growth restriction and aortic valve disease with pre-eclampsia, potentially offering an insight into the pathophysiology of these pregnancy complications. The increased rates of adverse obstetric and fetal outcomes in women with pre-existing heart disease should be highlighted during counselling.
View details for PubMedID 28377476
Risk Estimates for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2017; 119 (1): 112-118
The adult with congenital heart disease (CHD) is at risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We performed a cross-sectional study to describe established ASCVD risk factors and estimate 10-year and lifetime risk of ASCVD in adults over age 18 with CHD of moderate or great complexity using 3 validated risk assessment tools-the Framingham Study Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment, the Reynolds Risk Score, and the ASCVD Risk Estimator. We obtained extensive clinical and survey data on 178 enrolled patients, with average age 37.1 ± 12.6 years, 51% men. At least 1 modifiable ASCVD risk factor was present in 70%; the 2 most common were overweight/obesity (53%) and systemic hypertension (24%). Laboratory data were available in 103 of the 178 patients. Abnormal levels of glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein were each found in around 30% of patients. The 10-year ASCVD predicted risk using all 3 tools was relatively low (i.e., at least 90% of patients <10% risk), yet the median estimated lifetime risk was 36%. In conclusion, ASCVD risk factors are prevalent in adults with CHD. The risk estimation tools suggest that this population is particularly vulnerable to ASCVD with aging and should undergo guideline-based screening and management of modifiable risk factors.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.09.023
View details for PubMedID 28247847
Surgical Repair of 115 Patients With Anomalous Aortic Origin of a Coronary Artery From a Single Institution.
World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery
2016; 7 (3): 353-359
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) has been associated with myocardial ischemia and sudden death. The past decade has provided important insights into the natural history and typical patterns of presentation. However, there are also a number of unresolved controversies regarding the indications for surgery and the efficacy of that surgery. The purpose of this study was to review our surgical experience with AAOCA in 115 patients at a single institution.One hundred and fifteen patients have undergone surgical repair of AAOCA at our institution. There were 82 males and 33 females, and the median age at surgery was 16 years. Fifty-nine patients had preoperative symptoms of myocardial ischemia, including 56 with exertional chest pain or syncope and 3 sudden death events. Twenty-four patients had associated congenital heart defects. Seven patients had an associated myocardial bridge.Surgical repair was accomplished by unroofing of an intramural coronary in 86, reimplantation in 9, and pulmonary artery translocation in 20. There has been no early or late mortality. Fifty-seven (97%) of the 59 symptomatic patients have been free of any cardiac symptoms postoperatively. Two patients had recurrent symptoms and underwent reoperation (one had revision of the initial repair and one had repair of a myocardial bridge).Surgical repair of AAOCA can be safely performed and is highly efficacious in relieving symptoms of myocardial ischemia. The two "surgical failures" in this series had an anatomic basis and underscore the need to reassess both the proximal and distal anatomy in these patients.
View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135116641892
View details for PubMedID 27142404
- THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATRIAL FLUTTER AND ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN ADULTS WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2015: A507
A recurrent fibrillin-1 mutation in severe early onset Marfan syndrome.
Journal of pediatric genetics
2014; 3 (3): 157-162
The recurrent substitution of isoleucine for threonine at codon 1048 (I1048T) substitution has been linked to severe, early onset Marfan syndrome, however, the existence of strong genotype-phenotype associations in Marfan syndrome (MFS) is not widely agreed upon. Our aim is to substantiate the association between the I1048T substitution and a severe clinical presentation to facilitate care planning and genetic counseling. We review the clinical findings from seven cases of early-onset MFS with a recurrent I1048T substitution. The presented findings include those from one newly diagnosed case, significant new detail from three additional cases, and a review of published findings in three cases. All seven individuals with the I1048T substitution had mitral insufficiency, arachnodactyly and characteristic facies consistent with early-onset MFS. Our findings support the existence of a genotype-phenotype correlation between the I1048T substitution and early-onset MFS. Recognition of this relationship has implications for genetic counseling and clinical care. Additionally, exploration of how the I1048T substitution results in a severe phenotype may lead to further insight into the pathophysiology of MFS.
View details for DOI 10.3233/PGE-14095
View details for PubMedID 27625872
Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation.
2014; 44 (5): 542-551
Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial.To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management.Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings.Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review.We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-013-2861-4
View details for PubMedID 24419494
Unexplained double-chambered left ventricle associated with contracting right ventricular aneurysm and right atrial enlargement.
Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
2014; 31 (3): E80-4
In this article, we describe a double-chambered left ventricle (LV) associated with a functional right ventricular (RV) aneurysm and right atrial (RA) enlargement in an asymptomatic 24-year-old woman with a family history of sudden cardiac death. We will discuss the differential diagnosis, genetic testing and possible prognostic implications.
View details for DOI 10.1111/echo.12467
View details for PubMedID 24299065
- Unexplained double-chambered left ventricle associated with contracting right ventricular aneurysm and right atrial enlargement. Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) 2014; 31 (3): E80-4
- Coarctation of the Aorta Clinical Management of Congenital Heart Disease from Infancy to Adulthood Cardiotext Publishing. 2014; 1st: 45–64
A recurrent fibrillin-1 mutation in severe early onset Marfan syndrome
Journal of Pediatric Genetics
2014; 3 (3): 157-162
View details for DOI 10.3233/PGE-14095
Midterm Results of the Modified Ross/Konno Procedure in Neonates and Infants
ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY
2012; 94 (1): 156-163
The management of congenital aortic stenosis in neonates and infants continues to be a surgical challenge. We have performed the modified Ross-Konno procedure for patients who have severe aortic insufficiency or significant residual stenosis after balloon aortic dilation. The midterm results of this procedure were evaluated in this subset of patients.Between 1994 and 2010, a total of 24 patients younger than 1 year of age underwent the modified Ross-Konno procedure. The diagnoses were aortic stenosis with or without subaortic stenosis (n = 16), Shone's complex (n = 7), and interrupted aortic arch with subaortic stenosis (n = 1). The aortic root was replaced with a pulmonary autograft, and the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) was enlarged with a right ventricular infundibular free wall muscular extension harvested with the autograft.Age at operation ranged from 1 to 236 days (median 28 days). The median follow-up period was 81 months (range 1-173 months). There was 1 early death and no late mortality. Overall the 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rate was 95% ± 4.5%. Freedom from aortic stenosis was 94.7% ± 5.1% at 1, 2, and 5 years. Less than mild aortic insufficiency was 93.3% ± 6.4% at 2 years, and 74.7% ± 12.9% at 5 years. In total, 23 reoperations and reinterventions were performed; 14 were allograft conduit replacements. Two patients required aortic valve plasty. None required valve replacement. The reintervention-free rate was 64.6% ± 10.8% at 2 years and 36.9% ± 11.3% at 5 years.Pulmonary autografts demonstrated good durability with low mortality and morbidity. This study shows that the modified Ross-Konno procedure can be a practical choice in selective cases for complex LVOT stenosis in neonates and infants.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.03.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000305801600033
View details for PubMedID 22626750
A Simple Echocardiographic Screening Tool for Aortic Root Dilatation in Children With Marfan Syndrome
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2009: S597–S598
View details for Web of Science ID 000271831501407
Screening for Aortic Root Dilation in Marfan Syndrome Using the Ratio of the Aortic Root to Descending Aortic Diameters in Children
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
2009; 22 (10): 1109-1113
The aim of this study was to develop a simpler echocardiographic screening tool for aortic root dilation in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome. Aortic root dilation represents the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Marfan syndrome. It is traditionally defined by nomograms, relating aortic root dimensions to height or body surface area. In this study, the descending aorta (DAo) was used as an internal reference, thereby eliminating the need for nomograms when screening for aortic root dilation.The diameters of the aortic root at the sinus of Valsalva and the DAo were measured in 35 patients with Marfan syndrome and 52 normal controls in the parasternal long-axis echocardiographic view. The root/DAo ratio was calculated.A root/DAo ratio > or = 2 provided optimal sensitivity for root dilation (100%), whereas a root/DAo ratio > or = 2.3 provided optimal specificity (100%).The root/DAo ratio provides a simple, rapid, and valuable screening test for aortic root dilation, independent of nomograms and body size.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.echo.2009.06.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000270367900003
View details for PubMedID 19647408
Surgically palliated double-inlet left ventricle with transposition of the great arteries mistaken for aortic aneurysm with dissection
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2008; 128 (2): E82-E84
We report a 23-year-old male with history of double-inlet single ventricle with transposition of the great arteries who is s/p pulmonary artery banding, a Damus-Kaye-Stanzel anastomosis, and Fontan procedure during infancy and childhood who now presents with chest pain. A chest CTA at an outside hospital was thought concerning for the presence of a thoracic aortic aneurysm with dissection, prompting immediate transfer to our institution. However, repeat chest CTA at our institution revealed the predicted anastomoses based on his surgical procedures, which was misinterpreted as aortic aneurysm and dissection. An understanding of the physiology of his surgically repaired congenital heart disease is critical in interpreting his subsequent chest CTA and arriving at the appropriate clinical conclusion.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.04.165
View details for Web of Science ID 000257950500043
View details for PubMedID 17689761
Does size matter? Clinical applications of scaling cardiac size and function for body size
2008; 117 (17): 2279-2287
Extensive evidence is available that cardiovascular structure and function, along with other biological properties that span the range of organism size and speciation, scale with body size. Although appreciation of such factors is commonplace in pediatrics, cardiovascular measurements in the adult population, with similarly wide variation in body size, are rarely corrected for body size. In this review, we describe the critical role of body size measurements in cardiovascular medicine. Using examples, we illustrate the confounding effects of body size. Current cardiovascular scaling practices are reviewed, as are limitations and alternative relationships between body and cardiovascular dimensions. The experimental evidence, theoretical basis, and clinical application of scaling of various functional parameters are presented. Appropriately scaled parameters aid diagnostic and therapeutic decision making in specific disease states such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Large-scale studies in clinical populations are needed to define normative relationships for this purpose. Lack of appropriate consideration of body size in the evaluation of cardiovascular structure and function may adversely affect recognition and treatment of cardiovascular disease states in the adult patient.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.736785
View details for PubMedID 18443249
- Right ventricular function in cardiovascular disease, Part II - Pathophysiology, clinical importance, and management of right ventricular failure CIRCULATION 2008; 117 (13): 1717-1731
- Right ventricular function in cardiovascular disease, part I - Anatomy, physiology, aging, and functional assessment of the right ventricle CIRCULATION 2008; 117 (11): 1436-1448
Right coronary cameral fistula resulting from surgery of double chamber right ventricle.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
2006; 19 (9): 1191 e9-11
View details for PubMedID 16950481
The accuracy of chest radiographs in the detection of congenital heart disease and in the diagnosis of specific congenital cardiac lesions
SPRINGER. 2006: 677–81
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Traditional teaching holds that specific types of CHD can be diagnosed on the chest radiograph (CXR) through pattern recognition.To determine the accuracy of radiologists in detecting CHD on the CXR.This study was a blinded retrospective review of chest radiographs from 281 patients (<12 years) by five pediatric radiologists from three institutions. Thirteen groups were evaluated that included 12 categories of CHD and a control group of patients without heart disease. Radiographs were assessed for heart size, heart and mediastinal shape and vascularity. Clinical information, angiography, echocardiograms and surgery were used as the gold standard for definitive diagnosis.The average accuracy of the five readers in distinguishing normal from CHD patients was 78% (range of 72% to 82%). The overall measure of accuracy in distinguishing specific congenital cardiac lesions among 13 groups of patients was 71% (range of 63% to 79%).CXR alone is not diagnostic of specific cardiac lesions, with a low accuracy of only 71%. We believe that less emphasis should be placed on the use of radiographs alone in diagnosing specific congenital cardiac lesions.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-006-0133-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000238277100013
View details for PubMedID 16547698
Transposition of the great arteries: long-term outcome and current management.
Current cardiology reports
2005; 7 (4): 299-304
There is a large group of young adults who survived atrial baffle repair of transposition of the great arteries. Most survivors are asymptomatic, although nearly all have decreased exercise capacity. Loss of sinus rhythm and atrial arrhythmias are common and increase with age. There is concern about the ability of the right ventricle to function long term as a systemic pump, and recent publications have highlighted right ventricular dysfunction in this patient population. Sudden death and congestive heart failure are the main causes of death, and outcomes beyond 30 years are unknown. Pulmonary artery banding, late arterial switch, and cardiac transplantation are employed when intractable arrhythmias or right ventricular failure threaten survival or quality of life.
View details for PubMedID 15987628
Survey of specialized tertiary care facilities for adults with congenital heart disease
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2004; 96 (2): 211-216
Specialized tertiary care facilities developed in response to the increasing numbers of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Because this patient population comprises a relatively new area of specialized cardiovascular interest, the first facilities necessarily evolved without preexisting guidelines or interaction.To characterize the major features of the six original and largest tertiary adults CHD facilities.Written questionnaire sent to six participating facilities in North America and Europe. Information was analyzed centrally.All but one facilities was established over 20 years ago, and each cares for over 1500 patients. Hospital admissions ranged from 100 to 660 patients/unit/year. Of the total number of registered patients, 52-81% had undergone one or more reparative surgeries. Reoperations constituted 25-80% of the 50-170 operations/unit/year. Overall mean surgical mortality was 1.9%/year. Inpatient and outpatient care was provided in adult (n = 4) or both adult and pediatric (n = 2) settings. All six facilities enjoyed close collaboration between adult and pediatric cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, nurse specialists and cardiac and non-cardiac consultants. Training and research were pivotal activities.Provision of comprehensive care by multidisciplinary teams including adult and pediatric cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, specialized nurses and other cardiac and non-cardiac consultants was the unifying feature for all six tertiary care facilities reported here. There were minor differences among them based on available resources, local expertise and national health care policies. There appears to be a significant shortfall in tertiary care provision for the adult with CHD that requires further planning and resource allocation. These data may be useful for new and evolving adult CHD services.
View details for DOI 10.1016/ijcard.2003.06.019
View details for Web of Science ID 000223117000014
View details for PubMedID 15262035
- Pediatric cardiology and adult congenital heart disease 53rd Annual Scientific Session of the American-College-of-Cardiology ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2004: 23A–24A
Comparison of transthoracic echocardiography versus cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of ventricular function in adults after atrial switch procedures for complete transposition of the great arteries
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2004; 93 (5): 654-657
Adult patients with a history of transposition of the great arteries and atrial switch operation were studied with transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Measurements of ventricular dimensions and function by these 2 techniques in 18 consecutive patients were well correlated.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.11.044
View details for Web of Science ID 000220075800033
View details for PubMedID 14996604
Pediatric cardiology and adult congenital heart disease.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
2003; 42 (2): 380-381
View details for PubMedID 12875781
Simplified technique for correction of anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the anterior aortic sinus
ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY
2003; 76 (1): 266-267
Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right anterior coronary sinus has been associated with high incidence of sudden death in young adults. We describe a simplified approach to this rare congenital anomaly, which avoids the need for commissural post resuspension or relocation of the coronary button.
View details for Web of Science ID 000183968400059
View details for PubMedID 12842554
Surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot in adults in the current era
52nd Annual Scientific Session of the American-College-of-Cardiology
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2003: 479A–479A
View details for Web of Science ID 000181669502075
Comparison of transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for biventricular function in adult patients after the atrial switch procedure
52nd Annual Scientific Session of the American-College-of-Cardiology
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2003: 491A–491A
View details for Web of Science ID 000181669502127