- Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Instructor, Pediatrics - Critical Care
Board Certification: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (2018)
Residency: University of Utah School of Medicine Registrar (2014) UT
Medical Education: University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine (2011) IA
Fellowship: Stanford University Division of PCCM CA
Provider burnout: Implications for our perinatal patients.
Seminars in perinatology
OBJECTIVE: To describe the syndrome of physician burnout within neonatology, its relation to neonatal quality of care, and outline potential solutions.FINDINGS: Burnout affects up to half of physicians, including up to one-third of neonatologists, at any given time. It is linked to suicidality, substance abuse, and intent to leave practice, and it is strongly associated with reduced quality of care in the published literature. Resilience and mindfulness interventions rooted in positive psychology may reduce burnout among individual providers. Because burnout is largely driven by organizational factors, system-level attention to leadership, teamwork, and practice efficiency can reduce burnout at the level of the organization.CONCLUSIONS: Burnout is common among neonatologists and consistently relates to decreased quality of patient care in a variety of dimensions. Personal resilience training and system-wide organizational interventions are needed to reverse burnout and promote high-quality neonatal care.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.semperi.2020.151243
View details for PubMedID 32248955
Health and Economic Outcomes of Posterior Spinal Fusion for Children With Neuromuscular Scoliosis.
OBJECTIVES: Neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) can result in severe disability. Nonoperative management minimally slows scoliosis progression, but operative management with posterior spinal fusion (PSF) carries high risks of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we compare health and economic outcomes of PSF to nonoperative management for children with NMS to identify opportunities to improve care.METHODS: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis. Our decision analytic model included patients aged 5 to 20 years with NMS and a Cobb angle ≥50°, with a base case of 15-year-old patients. We estimated costs, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness from published literature and conducted sensitivity analyses on all model inputs.RESULTS: We estimated that PSF resulted in modestly decreased discounted life expectancy (10.8 years) but longer quality-adjusted life expectancy (4.84 QALYs) than nonoperative management (11.2 years; 3.21 QALYs). PSF costs $75400 per patient. Under base-case assumptions, PSF costs $50100 per QALY gained. Our findings were sensitive to quality of life (QoL) and life expectancy, with PSF favored if it significantly increased QoL.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NMS, whether PSF is cost-effective depends strongly on the degree to which QoL improved, with larger improvements when NMS is the primary cause of debility, but limited data on QoL and life expectancy preclude a definitive assessment. Improved patient-centered outcome assessments are essential to understanding the effectiveness of NMS treatment alternatives. Because the degree to which PSF influences QoL substantially impacts health outcomes and varies by patient, clinicians should consider shared decision-making during PSF-related consultations.
View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2019-0153
View details for PubMedID 32079619
Organizational factors affecting physician well-being.
Current treatment options in pediatrics
2019; 5 (1): 11–25
Purpose of review: Symptoms of burnout affect approximately half of pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists at any given time, with similarly concerning prevalence of other aspects of physician distress, including fatigue, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Physician well-being affects quality of care, patient satisfaction, and physician turnover. Organizational factors influence well-being, stressing the need for organizations to address this epidemic.Recent findings: Organizational characteristics, policies, and culture influence physician well-being, and specific strategies may support an environment where physicians thrive. We highlight four organizational opportunities to improve physician well-being: developing leaders, cultivating community and organizational culture, improving practice efficiency, and optimizing administrative policies. Leaders play a key role in aligning organizational and individual values, promoting professional fulfillment, and fostering a culture of collegiality and social support among physicians. Reducing documentation burden and improving practice efficiency may help balance job demands and resources. Finally, reforming administrative policies may reduce work-home conflict, support physician's efforts to attend to their own well-being, and normalize use of supportive resources.Summary: Physician well-being is critical to organizational success, sustainment of an adequate workforce, and optimal patient outcomes. Because burnout is primarily influenced by organizational factors, organizational interventions are key to promoting well-being. Developing supportive leadership, fostering a culture of wellness, optimizing practice efficiency, and improving administrative policies are worthy of organizational action and further research.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s40746-019-00147-6
View details for PubMedID 31632895
Perinatal Risk Factors and Outcome Coding in Clinical and Administrative Databases.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Administrative databases may allow true population-based studies and quality improvement endeavors, but the accuracy of billing codes for capturing key risk factors and outcomes needs to be assessed. We sought to describe the performance of a statewide administrative database and the clinical database from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative (CPQCC).METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study linked key perinatal risk factors and outcomes from the 133-unit CPQCC database to relevant billing codes from administrative maternal and newborn inpatient discharge records, for 50631 infants born from 2006 to 2012. Using the CPQCC record as the gold standard, we calculated the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and Matthews correlation coefficient for each item, then evaluated comparative performance across units.RESULTS: The Matthews correlation coefficient was highest (>0.7; strong positive correlation) for multiple delivery, Cesarean delivery, very low birth weight, maternal hypertension, maternal diabetes, patent ductus arteriosus, in-hospital death, patent ductus arteriosus and retinopathy of prematurity surgeries, extracorporeal life support, and intraventricular hemorrhage. Maternal chorioamnionitis, fetal distress, retinopathy of prematurity staging, chronic lung disease, and pneumothorax were the least reliably coded. Maternal factors and delivery details were more reliably coded in the maternal inpatient record than the newborn inpatient record.CONCLUSIONS: Several important perinatal risk factors and outcomes are highly congruent between these administrative and clinical databases. Several subjective risk factors and outcomes are appropriate targets for data improvement initiatives. The ability for timely extraction of administrative inpatient data will be key to their usefulness in quality metrics.
View details for PubMedID 30626622
Development and use of an adjusted nurse staffing metric in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Health services research
To develop a nurse staffing prediction model and evaluate deviation from predicted nurse staffing as a contributor to patient outcomes.Secondary data collection conducted 2017-2018, using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development and the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative databases. We included 276 054 infants born 2008-2016 and cared for in 99 California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).Repeated-measures observational study. We developed a nurse staffing prediction model using machine learning and hierarchical linear regression and then quantified deviation from predicted nurse staffing in relation to health care-associated infections, length of stay, and mortality using hierarchical logistic and linear regression.We linked NICU-level nurse staffing and organizational data to patient-level risk factors and outcomes using unique identifiers for NICUs and patients.An 11-factor prediction model explained 35 percent of the nurse staffing variation among NICUs. Higher-than-predicted nurse staffing was associated with decreased risk-adjusted odds of health care-associated infection (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.98), but not with length of stay or mortality.Organizational and patient factors explain much of the variation in nurse staffing. Higher-than-predicted nurse staffing was associated with fewer infections. Prospective studies are needed to determine causality and to quantify the impact of staffing reforms on health outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1111/1475-6773.13249
View details for PubMedID 31869865
Safety climate, safety climate strength, and length of stay in the NICU.
BMC health services research
2019; 19 (1): 738
Safety climate is an important marker of patient safety attitudes within health care units, but the significance of intra-unit variation of safety climate perceptions (safety climate strength) is poorly understood. This study sought to examine the standard safety climate measure (percent positive response (PPR)) and safety climate strength in relation to length of stay (LOS) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants within California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).Observational study of safety climate from 2073 health care providers in 44 NICUs. Consistent perceptions among a NICU's respondents, i.e., safety climate strength, was determined via intra-unit standard deviation of safety climate scores. The relation between safety climate PPR, safety climate strength, and LOS among VLBW (< 1500 g) infants was evaluated using log-linear regression. Secondary outcomes were infections, chronic lung disease, and mortality.NICUs had safety climate PPRs of 66 ± 12%, intra-unit standard deviations 11 (strongest) to 23 (weakest), and median LOS 60 days. NICUs with stronger climates had LOS 4 days shorter than those with weaker climates. In interaction modeling, NICUs with weak climates and low PPR had the longest LOS, NICUs with strong climates and low PPR had the shortest LOS, and NICUs with high PPR (both strong and weak) had intermediate LOS. Stronger climates were associated with lower odds of infections, but not with other secondary outcomes.Safety climate strength is independently associated with LOS and moderates the association between PPR and LOS among VLBW infants. Strength and PPR together provided better prediction than PPR alone, capturing variance in outcomes missed by PPR. Evaluations of NICU safety climate consider both positivity (PPR) and consistency of responses (strength) across individuals.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12913-019-4592-1
View details for PubMedID 31640679
Evidence Relating Health Care Provider Burnout and Quality of Care: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Annals of internal medicine
Whether health care provider burnout contributes to lower quality of patient care is unclear.To estimate the overall relationship between burnout and quality of care and to evaluate whether published studies provide exaggerated estimates of this relationship.MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Health and Psychosocial Instruments (EBSCO), Mental Measurements Yearbook (EBSCO), EMBASE (Elsevier), and Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), with no language restrictions, from inception through 28 May 2019.Peer-reviewed publications, in any language, quantifying health care provider burnout in relation to quality of patient care.2 reviewers independently selected studies, extracted measures of association of burnout and quality of care, and assessed potential bias by using the Ioannidis (excess significance) and Egger (small-study effect) tests.A total of 11 703 citations were identified, from which 123 publications with 142 study populations encompassing 241 553 health care providers were selected. Quality-of-care outcomes were grouped into 5 categories: best practices (n = 14), communication (n = 5), medical errors (n = 32), patient outcomes (n = 17), and quality and safety (n = 74). Relations between burnout and quality of care were highly heterogeneous (I2 = 93.4% to 98.8%). Of 114 unique burnout-quality combinations, 58 indicated burnout related to poor-quality care, 6 indicated burnout related to high-quality care, and 50 showed no significant effect. Excess significance was apparent (73% of studies observed vs. 62% predicted to have statistically significant results; P = 0.011). This indicator of potential bias was most prominent for the least-rigorous quality measures of best practices and quality and safety.Studies were primarily observational; neither causality nor directionality could be determined.Burnout in health care professionals frequently is associated with poor-quality care in the published literature. The true effect size may be smaller than reported. Future studies should prespecify outcomes to reduce the risk for exaggerated effect size estimates.Stanford Maternal and Child Health Research Institute.
View details for DOI 10.7326/M19-1152
View details for PubMedID 31590181
The Correlation Between Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Safety Culture and Quality of Care.
Journal of patient safety
OBJECTIVES: Key validated clinical metrics are being used individually and in aggregate (Baby-MONITOR) to monitor the performance of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The degree to which perceptions of key components of safety culture, safety climate, and teamwork are related to aspects of NICU quality of care is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to test whether NICU performance on key clinical metrics correlates with caregiver perceptions of safety culture.STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 6253 very low-birth-weight infants in 44 NICUs. We measured clinical quality via the Baby-MONITOR and its nine risk-adjusted and standardized subcomponents (antenatal corticosteroids, hypothermia, pneumothorax, healthcare-associated infection, chronic lung disease, retinopathy screen, discharge on any human milk, growth velocity, and mortality). A voluntary sample of 2073 of 3294 eligible professional caregivers provided ratings of safety and teamwork climate using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. We examined NICU-level variation across clinical and safety culture ratings and conducted correlation analysis of these dimensions.RESULTS: We found significant variation in clinical and safety culture metrics across NICUs. Neonatal intensive care unit teamwork and safety climate ratings were correlated with absence of healthcare-associated infection (r = 0.39 [P = 0.01] and r = 0.29 [P = 0.05], respectively). None of the other clinical metrics, individual or composite, were significantly correlated with teamwork or safety climate.CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal intensive care unit teamwork and safety climate were correlated with healthcare-associated infections but not with other quality metrics. Linkages to clinical measures of quality require additional research.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
View details for PubMedID 30407963
Physician Burnout, Well-being, and Work Unit Safety Grades in Relationship to Reported Medical Errors.
Mayo Clinic proceedings
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physician burnout, well-being, and work unit safety grades in relationship to perceived major medical errors.PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: From August 28, 2014, to October 6, 2014, we conducted a population-based survey of US physicians in active practice regarding burnout, fatigue, suicidal ideation, work unit safety grade, and recent medical errors. Multivariate logistic regression and mixed-effects hierarchical models evaluated the associations among burnout, well-being measures, work unit safety grades, and medical errors.RESULTS: Of 6695 responding physicians in active practice, 6586 provided information on the areas of interest: 3574 (54.3%) reported symptoms of burnout, 2163 (32.8%) reported excessive fatigue, and 427 (6.5%) reported recent suicidal ideation, with 255 of 6563 (3.9%) reporting a poor or failing patient safety grade in their primary work area and 691 of 6586 (10.5%) reporting a major medical error in the prior 3 months. Physicians reporting errors were more likely to have symptoms of burnout (77.6% vs 51.5%; P<.001), fatigue (46.6% vs 31.2%; P<.001), and recent suicidal ideation (12.7% vs 5.8%; P<.001). In multivariate modeling, perceived errors were independently more likely to be reported by physicians with burnout (odds ratio [OR], 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79-2.76) or fatigue (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.15-1.65) and those with incrementally worse work unit safety grades (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36-2.12; OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.48-2.49; OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.13-4.58; and OR, 4.37; 95% CI, 2.06-9.28 for grades of B, C, D, and F, respectively), adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics.CONCLUSION: In this large national study, physician burnout, fatigue, and work unit safety grades were independently associated with major medical errors. Interventions to reduce rates of medical errors must address both physician well-being and work unit safety.
View details for PubMedID 30001832
Association of Blood Pressure Measurements with Peripheral Arterial Disease Events: A Reanalysis of the ALLHAT Data.
Background -Current guidelines recommend treating hypertension in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) to reduce the risk of cardiac events and stroke, but the effect of reducing blood pressure on lower extremity PAD events is largely unknown. We investigated the association of blood pressure with lower extremity PAD events using data from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). Methods -ALLHAT investigated the effect of different antihypertensive medication classes (chlorthalidone, amlodipine, lisinopril, or doxazosin) on cardiovascular events. Using these data, the primary outcome in our analysis was time to first lower extremity PAD event, defined as PAD-related hospitalization, procedures, medical treatment, or PAD-related death. Given the availability of longitudinal standardized blood pressure measurements, we analyzed systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) as time-varying categorical variables (reference categories 120-129 mm Hg for SBP, 70-79 mm Hg for DBP, and 45-54 mm Hg for PP) in separate models. We used extended Cox regression with death as a competing risk to calculate the association of each BP component with PAD events, and report the results as sub-distribution hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results -The present analysis included 33,357 patients with an average age of 67.4 years, 53.1% men, 59.7% white race, and 36.2% with diabetes mellitus. The median baseline blood pressure was 146/84 mm Hg. Participants were followed for a median of 4.3 (IQR 3.6-5.3) years, during which time 1,489 (4.5%) had a lower extremity PAD event, and 4,148 (12.4%) died. In models adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics, SBP <120 mm Hg was associated with a 26% (CI 5-52%, P=0.015) higher hazard and SBP≥160 mm Hg was associated with a 21% (CI 0-48%, P=0.050) higher hazard for a PAD event, compared with SBP 120-129 mm Hg. In contrast, lower, but not higher, DBP was associated with higher hazard of PAD events: for DBP <60 mm Hg HR = 1.72 (CI 1.38 - 2.16). PP had a U-shaped association with PAD events. Conclusions -In this re-analysis of data from ALLHAT, we found a higher rate of lower extremity PAD events with higher and lower SBP and PP, and with lower DBP. Given the recent revised blood pressure guidelines advocating lower SBP targets for overall cardiovascular risk reduction, further refinement of optimal blood pressure targets specific to PAD is needed. Clinical Trial Registration -URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT00000542.
View details for PubMedID 29930023
Group A Streptococcal Pyomyositis in a Previously Healthy Six-year-old Girl.
2018; 10 (2): e2168
A six-year-old previously healthy girl was seen in an outpatient pediatric clinic in the western United States for thigh pain. The pain was accompanied by an initial fever and was most severe after periods of prolonged rest. During the evaluation, her exam rapidly progressed with severe episodic pain and tenderness of the right anteromedial thigh. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated signal enhancement at the insertion of the right obturator externus muscle. Blood culture was positive for Group A Streptococcus. She was diagnosed with pyomyositis of the right obturator externus and was successfully treated with antimicrobials. This case demonstrates a rare case of streptococcal pyomyosits, in a temperate climate, without known predisposing factor or injury. We review the epidemiology of streptococcal pyomyositis in temperate climates and discuss the presentation of pyomyositis in children.
View details for PubMedID 29644156
Factors Associated With Provider Burnout in the NICU
2017; 139 (5)
NICUs vary greatly in patient acuity and volume and represent a wide array of organizational structures, but the effect of these differences on NICU providers is unknown. This study sought to test the relation between provider burnout prevalence and organizational factors in California NICUs.Provider perceptions of burnout were obtained from 1934 nurse practitioners, physicians, registered nurses, and respiratory therapists in 41 California NICUs via a validated 4-item questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The relations between burnout and organizational factors of each NICU were evaluated via t-test comparison of quartiles, univariable regression, and multivariable regression.Overall burnout prevalence was 26.7% ± 9.8%. Highest burnout prevalence was found among NICUs with higher average daily admissions (32.1% ± 6.4% vs 17.2% ± 6.7%, P < .001), higher average occupancy (28.1% ± 8.1% vs 19.9% ± 8.4%, P = .02), and those with electronic health records (28% ± 11% vs 18% ± 7%, P = .03). In sensitivity analysis, nursing burnout was more sensitive to organizational differences than physician burnout in multivariable modeling, significantly associated with average daily admissions, late transfer proportion, nursing hours per patient day, and mortality per 1000 infants. Burnout prevalence showed no association with proportion of high-risk patients, teaching hospital distinction, or in-house attending presence.Burnout is most prevalent in NICUs with high patient volume and electronic health records and may affect nurses disproportionately. Interventions to reduce burnout prevalence may be of greater importance in NICUs with ≥10 weekly admissions.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2016-4134
View details for Web of Science ID 000400371500040
View details for PubMedID 28557756
Teamwork in the NICU Setting and Its Association with Health Care-Associated Infections in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants.
American journal of perinatology
Background and Objective Teamwork may affect clinical care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting. The objective of this study was to assess teamwork climate across NICUs and to test scale-level and item-level associations with health care-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Methods Cross-sectional study of the association between HAI rates, defined as any bacterial or fungal infection during the birth hospitalization, among 6,663 VLBW infants cared for in 44 NICUs between 2010 and 2012. NICU HAI rates were correlated with teamwork climate ratings obtained in 2011 from 2,073 of 3,294 eligible NICU health professionals (response rate 63%). The relation between HAI rates and NICU teamwork climate was assessed using logistic regression models including NICU as a random effect. Results Across NICUs, 36 to 100% (mean 66%) of respondents reported good teamwork. HAI rates were significantly and independently associated with teamwork climate (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.92, p = 0.005), such that the odds of an infant contracting a HAI decreased by 18% with each 10% rise in NICU respondents reporting good teamwork. Conclusion Improving teamwork may be an important element in infection control efforts.
View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0037-1601563
View details for PubMedID 28395366
Burnout in the neonatal intensive care unit and its relation to healthcare-associated infections.
Journal of perinatology
2017; 37 (3): 315-320
To examine burnout prevalence among California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to test the relation between burnout and healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates.Retrospective observational study of provider perceptions of burnout from 2073 nurse practitioners, physicians, registered nurses and respiratory therapists, using a validated four-item questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The relation between burnout and HAI rates among VLBW (<1500 g) neonates from each NICU was evaluated using multi-level logistic regression analysis with patient-level factors as fixed effects.We found variable prevalence of burnout across the NICUs surveyed (mean 25.2±10.1%). Healthcare-associated infection rates were 8.3±5.1% during the study period. Highest burnout prevalence was found among nurses, nurse practitioners and respiratory therapists (non-physicians, 28±11% vs 17±19% physicians), day shift workers (30±3% vs 25±4% night shift) and workers with 5 or more years of service (29±2% vs 16±6% in fewer than 3 years group). Overall burnout rates showed no correlation with risk-adjusted rates of HAIs (r=-0.133). Item-level analysis showed positive association between HAIs and perceptions of working too hard (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.28). Sensitivity analysis of high-volume NICUs suggested a moderate correlation between burnout prevalence and HAIs (r=0.34).Burnout is most prevalent among non-physicians, daytime workers and experienced workers. Perceptions of working too hard associate with increased HAIs in this cohort of VLBW infants, but overall burnout prevalence is not predictive.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 17 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jp.2016.211.
View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2016.211
View details for PubMedID 27853320
Near-Fatal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in a Child with Medulloblastoma on High Dose Dexamethasone.
2017; 9 (7): e1442
A four-year-old female was admitted to a university-based children's hospital with a newly-diagnosed posterior fossa tumor. She was started on famotidine and high-dose dexamethasone and underwent gross total resection of a medulloblastoma. She was continued on dexamethasone and famotidine. She exhibited postoperative posterior fossa syndrome and was started on enteral feeds via the nasoduodenal tube. She had small gastrointestinal bleeds on postoperative days eight, 11, and 18, and was found to have a well-circumscribed posterior duodenal ulcer. On postoperative day 19, she suffered a massive life-threatening gastrointestinal bleed requiring aggressive resuscitation with blood products. She required an emergent laparotomy due to ongoing blood loss and she was found to have posterior duodenal wall erosion into her gastroduodenal artery. She recovered and subsequently began delayed chemotherapy. This case demonstrates a rare and life-threatening complication of high-dose dexamethasone therapy in the setting of posterior fossa pathology despite stress ulcer prophylaxis. We present a historical perspective with the review of the association between duodenal and intracranial pathology and the usage of high-dose dexamethasone in such cases.
View details for PubMedID 28924528
Context in Quality of Care: Improving Teamwork and Resilience.
Clinics in perinatology
2017; 44 (3): 541–52
Quality improvement in health care is an ongoing challenge. Consideration of the context of the health care system is of paramount importance. Staff resilience and teamwork climate are key aspects of context that drive quality. Teamwork climate is dynamic, with well-established tools available to improve teamwork for specific tasks or global applications. Similarly, burnout and resilience can be modified with interventions such as cultivating gratitude, positivity, and awe. A growing body of literature has shown that teamwork and burnout relate to quality of care, with improved teamwork and decreased burnout expected to produce improved patient quality and safety.
View details for PubMedID 28802338