Dr. Maron is Director of Preventive Cardiology. He is board certified in internal medicine, cardiovascular disease, and clinical lipidology. He was an undergraduate at Stanford, received his medical degree from University of Southern California, and completed his residency in internal medicine at UCLA. He completed a cardiology fellowship and a research fellowship in cardiovascular disease epidemiology and prevention at Stanford University as a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar. He was on the faculty at Vanderbilt for 20 years before returning to Stanford in 2014. His research is focused on primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. He has extensive experience in multicenter clinical trials, serving as a member of the Executive Committee and Chair of the Optimal Medical Therapy Committee for the VA-funded COURAGE trial, and now as the PI and Co-Chair of the NHLBI-funded ISCHEMIA trial, and Co-Chair of the NHLBI-funded ISCHEMIA-CKD trial.
- Cardiovascular Disease
- Primary Prevention
- Secondary Prevention
Clinical Professor, Medicine - Cardiovascular Medicine
Fellowship:Stanford University Cardiovascular Medicine FellowshipCA
Board Certification: Internal Medicine, American Board of Internal Medicine (1984)
Residency:Stanford University Hospital -Clinical Excellence Research CenterCA
Medical Education:Univ Of So Ca - Los Angeles (1981) CA
Residency:UCLA Health SciencesCA
Internship:UCLA Health SciencesCA
Board Certification: Cardiovascular Disease, American Board of Internal Medicine (1991)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Dr. Maron is the Co-Chair and Principal Investigator of the ISCHEMIA trial, and Co-Chair of the ISCHEMIA-CKD trial. These large, international, NIH-funded studies will determine whether an initial invasive strategy of cardiac catheterization and revascularization plus optimal medical therapy will reduce cardiovascular events in patients with and without chronic kidney disease and at least moderate ischemia compared to an initial conservative strategy of optimal medical therapy alone.
International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA)
The purpose of the ISCHEMIA trial is to determine the best management strategy for higher-risk patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial with 5179 randomized participants with moderate or severe ischemia on stress testing. A blinded coronary computed tomography angiogram (CCTA) was performed in most participants with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2 to identify and exclude participants with either significant unprotected left main disease (≥50% stenosis) or those without obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis in all major coronary arteries). Of 8720 participants enrolled, those that had insufficient ischemia, ineligible anatomy demonstrated on CCTA or another exclusion criterion, did not go on to randomization. Eligible participants were then assigned at random to a routine invasive strategy (INV) with cardiac catheterization followed by revascularization plus optimal medical therapy (OMT) or to a conservative strategy (CON) of OMT, with cardiac catheterization and revascularization reserved for those who fail OMT. SPECIFIC AIMS A. Primary Aim The primary aim of the ISCHEMIA trial is to determine whether an initial invasive strategy of cardiac catheterization followed by optimal revascularization, if feasible, in addition to OMT, will reduce the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure in participants with SIHD and moderate or severe ischemia over an average follow-up of approximately 3.5 years compared with an initial conservative strategy of OMT alone with catheterization reserved for failure of OMT. B. Secondary Aims Secondary aims are to determine whether an initial invasive strategy compared to a conservative strategy will improve: 1) the composite of CV death or MI; 2) angina symptoms and quality of life, as assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire Angina Frequency and Quality of Life scales; 3) all-cause mortality; 4) net clinical benefit assessed by including stroke in the primary and secondary composite endpoints; and 5) individual components of the composite endpoints. Condition: Coronary Disease Procedure: Coronary CT Angiogram Procedure: Cardiac catheterization Phase: Phase III Condition: Cardiovascular Diseases Procedure: Angioplasty, Transluminal, Percutaneous Coronary, other catheter-based interventions Phase: Phase III Condition: Heart Diseases Procedure: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Phase: Phase III
ISCHEMIA-Chronic Kidney Disease Trial
The purpose of the ISCHEMIA-CKD trial is to determine the best management strategy for patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD), at least moderate ischemia and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <30 or on dialysis). This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial with 777 randomized participants with advanced CKD. Participants were assigned at random to a routine invasive strategy (INV) with cardiac catheterization (cath) followed by revascularization (if suitable) plus optimal medical therapy (OMT) or to a conservative strategy (CON) of OMT, with cath and revascularization reserved for those who fail OMT. The trial is designed to run seamlessly in parallel to the main ISCHEMIA trial as a companion trial. SPECIFIC AIMS A. Primary Aim. The primary aim of the ISCHEMIA-CKD trial is to determine whether an invasive strategy of cardiac catheterization followed by optimal revascularization, in addition to OMT, will reduce the primary composite endpoint of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction in participants with SIHD and advanced CKD over an average follow-up of approximately 2.8 years compared with an initial conservative strategy of OMT alone with catheterization reserved for those who fail OMT. The primary endpoint is time to centrally adjudicated death or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). B. Secondary Aims. Major: To compare the incident of the composite of death, nonfatal MI, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure; angina control per SAQ Angina Frequency Scale; disease specific quality of life per SAQ Quality of Life Scale between the INV and CON strategies. Other secondary aims include: comparing the incidence of the composite of death, nonfatal MI, hospitalization for unstable angina, hospitalization for heart failure, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or stroke; composite of death, nonfatal MI, or stroke; composite endpoints incorporating cardiovascular death; composite endpoints incorporating other definitions of MI as defined in the clinical event charter; individual components of the primary and major secondary endpoints; stroke and health resource utilization, costs, and cost effectiveness. Condition: Coronary Disease Procedure: Cardiac catheterization Phase: Phase III Condition: Cardiovascular Diseases Procedure: Angioplasty, Transluminal, Percutaneous Coronary, other catheter-based interventions Phase: Phase III Condition: Heart Diseases Procedure: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Phase: Phase III
Phase 2 Study of ISIS 681257 (AKCEA-APO(a)-LRx) in Patients With Hyperlipoproteinemia(a) and Cardiovascular Disease
This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study to evaluate the safety, including tolerability, of ISIS 681257 and to assess the efficacy of different doses and dosing regimens of ISIS 681257 for reduction of plasma Lp(a) levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia(a) and established cardiovascular disease (CVD).
- Lifestyle, Glycosylated Hemoglobin A1c, and Survival Among Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease and Diabetes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY 2019; 73 (16): 2049–58
- ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2017 appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization in patients with stable ischemic heart disease JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY 2019; 157 (3): E131–E161
Baseline Characteristics and Risk Profiles of Participants in the ISCHEMIA Randomized Clinical Trial.
Importance: It is unknown whether coronary revascularization, when added to optimal medical therapy, improves prognosis in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) at increased risk of cardiovascular events owing to moderate or severe ischemia.Objective: To describe baseline characteristics of participants enrolled and randomized in the International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) trial and to evaluate whether qualification by stress imaging or nonimaging exercise tolerance test (ETT) influenced risk profiles.Design, Setting, and Participants: The ISCHEMIA trial recruited patients with SIHD with moderate or severe ischemia on stress testing. Blinded coronary computed tomography angiography was performed in most participants and reviewed by a core laboratory to exclude left main stenosis of at least 50% or no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) (<50% for imaging stress test and <70% for ETT). The study included 341 enrolling sites (320 randomizing) in 38 countries and patients with SIHD and moderate or severe ischemia on stress testing. Data presented were extracted on December 17, 2018.Main Outcomes and Measures: Enrolled, excluded, and randomized participants' baseline characteristics. No clinical outcomes are reported.Results: A total of 8518 patients were enrolled, and 5179 were randomized. Common reasons for exclusion were core laboratory determination of insufficient ischemia, unprotected left main stenosis of at least 50%, or no stenosis that met study obstructive CAD criteria on study coronary computed tomography angiography. Randomized participants had a median age of 64 years, with 1168 women (22.6%), 1726 nonwhite participants (33.7%), 748 Hispanic participants (15.5%), 2122 with diabetes (41.0%), and 4643 with a history of angina (89.7%). Among the 3909 participants randomized after stress imaging, core laboratory assessment of ischemia severity (in 3901 participants) was severe in 1748 (44.8%), moderate in 1600 (41.0%), mild in 317 (8.1%) and none or uninterpretable in 236 (6.0%), Among the 1270 participants who were randomized after nonimaging ETT, core laboratory determination of ischemia severity (in 1266 participants) was severe (an eligibility criterion) in 1051 (83.0%), moderate in 101 (8.0%), mild in 34 (2.7%) and none or uninterpretable in 80 (6.3%). Among the 3912 of 5179 randomized participants who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography, 79.0% had multivessel CAD (n=2679 of 3390) and 86.8% had left anterior descending (LAD) stenosis (n=3190 of 3677) (proximal in 46.8% [n=1749 of 3739]). Participants undergoing ETT had greater frequency of 3-vessel CAD, LAD, and proximal LAD stenosis than participants undergoing stress imaging.Conclusions and Relevance: The ISCHEMIA trial randomized an SIHD population with moderate or severe ischemia on stress testing, of whom most had multivessel CAD.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01471522.
View details for PubMedID 30810700
Effect of Coronary Anatomy and Myocardial Ischemia on Long-Term Survival in Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease.
Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes
2019; 12 (2): e005079
Background The severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and of ischemia are evaluated to guide therapy, but their relative prognostic importance remains uncertain. Accordingly, we sought to clarify their association with long-term survival in the COURAGE trial (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation). Methods and Results Survival data from after the original trial period ended was obtained at 15 Veterans Affairs sites and 13 of 18 United States non-Veterans Affairs sites. Date of death was obtained from the Veterans Affairs system-wide Corporate Data Warehouse and the National Death Index. Of the original 2287 patients in COURAGE, 1370 (60%) had both stress perfusion imaging and quantitative coronary angiography available, with extended survival evaluated in 767 subjects. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and a Cox proportional-hazards model adjusted for baseline differences. There were 369 all-cause deaths during a median follow-up of 7.9 years (range, 0-15 years). The number of coronary arteries diseased predicted survival (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09-1.43), whereas severity of ischemia did not (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.80-1.22). Percutaneous coronary intervention did not offer a survival advantage over optimal medical therapy (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.77-1.16) and there was no interaction between therapeutic strategy and number of coronary arteries diseased or severity of ischemia. In fully adjusted models, the number of coronary arteries diseased was not associated with increased mortality. Conclusions In univariate analysis, the number of coronary arteries diseased predicted long-term mortality, but severity of ischemia did not. Adjusted for baseline variables, neither assessment approach predicted mortality. Overall, there was no survival benefit from percutaneous coronary intervention in any subset defined by either angiographic or ischemic severity. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00007657.
View details for PubMedID 30773025
Lifestyle, Glycosylated Hemoglobin A1c, and Survival Among Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease and Diabetes.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
2019; 73 (16): 2049–58
The importance of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (A1c) control as part of comprehensive risk factor management in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) is controversial.The purpose of this study was to determine whether a greater number of controlled risk factors at 1 year, including A1c, affects survival in patients with DM and SIHD.Of 690 patients with DM followed in the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial, 592 (86%) had complete ascertainment of 7 pre-specified risk factors at baseline and after 1 year: systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, nonsmoking, physical activity, diet adherence, body mass index, and A1c. The primary outcome measure was mortality beyond 1 year after randomization.During a mean follow-up of 7.0 ± 4.2 years beyond 1 year after randomization, 186 subjects died (31.4% overall, 4.5%/year). The greater the number of risk factors controlled at 1 year, the higher the probability of survival (unadjusted log rank p = 0.002). Compared with 0 to 1 controlled risk factors, attaining 3 to 7 goals predicted progressively lower mortality (hazard ratio for control of 6 or 7 risk factors was 0.13; 95% confidence interval: 0.05 to 0.40). Importantly, only 10.3% of subjects achieved control of 6 or 7 risk factors. In multivariate analysis, the strongest predictors of improved survival were no smoking, regular physical activity, dietary adherence, and A1c <7%.In this high-risk subset of SIHD patients with DM, the number of controlled risk factors, particularly lifestyle behaviors and A1c, were associated with improved survival. (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation; NCT00007657).
View details for PubMedID 31023428
Coronary artery calcium testing: A call for universal coverage.
Preventive medicine reports
2019; 15: 100879
Heart attacks kill more Americans than all cancers combined. Fatal heart attack victims have no symptoms until minutes before they die, hence early detection of high-risk asymptomatic individuals is needed. Even though heart attacks kill and cost more than cancers, as a nation we spend over 20 times more on screening for asymptomatic cancer than for asymptomatic atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the underlying cause of heart attacks. Currently, payers only cover screening for risk factors of ASCVD such as blood pressure and blood cholesterol. This approach tends to miss high-risk and over-treat low-risk individuals. Although treadmill stress testing with ECG is not indicated for ASCVD detection in asymptomatic individuals, it is done often, and frequently leads to misleading conclusions or unnecessary downstream diagnostic procedures. For example, former President Clinton had passed his treadmill stress tests for several years during his presidential annual checkup but had a heart attack shortly after his presidency. This common practice is a waste of our limited resources. Instead, a more accurate risk assessment using coronary artery calcium (CAC) testing is available; and has just been adopted by ACC/AHA guidelines, however payers do not cover it. CAC is measured non-invasively with a 5-minute CT-scan of the heart, and costs less than $200, whereas cancer screening with colonoscopy and mammography costs over $3000. There is an opportunity to save lives and dollars if CAC testing is covered for appropriately selected individuals. Texas has already passed HB1290 to mandate CAC coverage. Other states must step up and take actions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100879
View details for PubMedID 31193256
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6525277
The Comparative Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy on 10-Year and Lifetime Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk.
Bariatric surgery reduces atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, the comparative effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on 10-year and lifetime ASCVD risk, as defined by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), remains unknown.Using the ACC/AHA ASCVD risk estimator, 10-year and lifetime ASCVD risks were calculated before and 1 year after bariatric surgery for patients aged 40-78 who underwent RYGB or SG at an academic medical center in California between 2003 and 2015. Change in risk was calculated by taking the difference between 1-year and baseline risk. Statistical analyses included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, Mann-Whitney U test, Quade's test, and multiple logistic regression.There were 536 patients (mean age 52 ± 10 years, 20% male), of whom 438 underwent RYGB and 98 underwent SG. Patients undergoing RYGB were predominately female (82% vs 71%, p = 0.021) and had higher baseline BMIs (44.4 ± 8.4 vs 41.9 ± 8.0, p < 0.001) than patients undergoing SG. Compared with baseline, 10-year and lifetime ASCVD risks were significantly lower 1 year after surgery (aggregate of RYGB and SG, 4.2 ± 6.0% vs. 2.2 ± 3.5%, p < 0.001; 50 ± 11% vs. 39 ± 12%, p < 0.001, respectively). Patients who underwent RYGB had greater reductions in 10-year and lifetime ASCVD risks from baseline to 1 year after surgery than patients who underwent SG (1.7 ± 3.5% vs. 0.8 ± 2.4%, p < 0.001; 11 ± 23% vs. 0 ± 12%, p < 0.001, respectively).Although RYGB and SG significantly lower 10-year and lifetime cardiovascular disease risks by 1 year after surgery, patients who undergo RYGB may experience greater cardiovascular risk reduction relative to counterparts who undergo SG.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11695-019-03948-8
View details for PubMedID 31115847
Coronary CT Angiography and Subsequent Risk of Myocardial Infarction.
The New England journal of medicine
2019; 380 (3): 299
View details for PubMedID 30653281
Association of Statin Adherence With Mortality in Patients With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.
Statins decrease mortality in those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), but statin adherence remains suboptimal.To determine the association between statin adherence and mortality in patients with ASCVD who have stable statin prescriptions.This retrospective cohort analysis included patients who were between ages 21 and 85 years and had 1 or more International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for ASCVD on 2 or more dates in the previous 2 years without intensity changes to their statin prescription who were treated within the Veterans Affairs Health System between January 1, 2013, and April 2014.Statin adherence was defined by the medication possession ratio (MPR). Adherence levels were categorized as an MPR of less than 50%, 50% to 69%, 70% to 89%, and 90% or greater. For dichotomous analyses, adherence was defined as an MPR of 80% or greater.The primary outcome was death of all causes adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as adherence to other cardiac medications.Of 347 104 eligible adults with ASCVD who had stable statin prescriptions, 5472 (1.6%) were women, 284 150 (81.9%) were white, 36 208 (10.4%) were African American, 16 323 (4.7%) were Hispanic, 4093 (1.2%) were Pacific Islander, 1293 (0.4%) were Native American, 1145 (0.3%) were Asian, and 1794 (0.5%) were other races. Patients taking moderate-intensity statin therapy were more adherent than patients taking high-intensity statin therapy (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.16-1.20). Women were less adherent (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94), as were minority groups. Younger and older patients were less likely to be adherent compared with adults aged 65 to 74 years. During a mean (SD) of 2.9 (0.8) years of follow-up, there were 85 930 deaths (24.8%). Compared with the most adherent patients (MPR ≥ 90%), patients with an MPR of less than 50% had a hazard ratio (HR; adjusted for clinical characteristics and adherence to other cardiac medications) of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.27-1.34), those with an MPR of 50% to 69% had an HR of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.18-1.24), and those with an MPR of 70% to 89% had an HR of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.06-1.09).Using a national sample of Veterans Affairs patients with ASCVD, we found that a low adherence to statin therapy was associated with a greater risk of dying. Women, minorities, younger adults, and older adults were less likely to adhere to statins. Our findings underscore the importance of finding methods to improve adherence.
View details for PubMedID 30758506
Cost-effectiveness of on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for patients with coronary artery disease: Results from the MASS III trial
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2018; 273: 63–68
Recent trials have reported similar clinical outcomes between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). However, long-term cost-effectiveness of these strategies is unknown.A prespecified economic study was performed based on the MASS III trial. Costs were estimated for all patients based on observed healthcare resource usage over a 5-year follow-up. Health state utilities were evaluated with the SF-6D questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness was assessed as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained using a Markov model. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis with the Monte-Carlo simulation and cost-effectiveness acceptability curve were used to address uncertainty.Quality of life improved significantly in both groups during follow-up compared with baseline. At 5 years, when comparing on-pump and off-pump CABG groups, no differences were found in cumulative life-years (4.851 and 4.766 years, P = .319) and QALY gained (4.150 and 4.105 QALYs, P = .332). Mean cost in US dollars per patient during the trial did not differ significantly between the on-pump and off-pump groups ($5890.29 and $5674.75, respectively, P = .409). Over a lifetime horizon, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of on-pump versus off-pump CABG was $12,576 per QALY gained, which is above the suggested cost-effectiveness threshold range (from $3210 to 10,122). In the sensitivity analysis, the probability that on-pump CABG is cost-effective compared to off-pump surgery for a willingness-to-pay threshold of $3212 per QALY gained was <1%. For the $10,122 per QALY threshold, the same probability was 35%.This decision-analytic model suggests that on-pump CABG is not cost-effective when compared to off-pump CABG from a public health system perspective.
View details for PubMedID 30158068
ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease (vol 24, pg 1759, 2017)
JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY
2018; 25 (6): 2191–92
To more clearly reflect the relationship between iFR (instantaneous wave-free ratio) and FFR (fractional flow reserve), this Correction document highlights the following changes to the original document published in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology; the version available at JACC  has been updated to reflect the changes, with JACC's Correction document available at .
View details for PubMedID 29748874
Healthy Behavior, Risk Factor Control, and Survival in the COURAGE Trial.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
2018; 72 (19): 2297–2305
BACKGROUND: Individual risk factor control improves survival in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). It is uncertain if multiple risk factor control further extends survival.OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether a greater number of risk factors at goal predicted improved survival in SIHD patients.METHODS: Of 2,287 participants in the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial, 2,102 (92%) had complete ascertainment of 6 pre-specified risk factors: systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, physical activity, diet, and body mass index. Participants received interventions to control these risk factors. The outcome measure was mortality.RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 6.8 years, 473 (22.5%) subjects died. In univariate analysis, the greater the number of risk factors controlled, the higher the probability of survival (unadjusted log rank: p< 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the strongest predictors at 1 year of improved survival were being a nonsmoker, regular physical activity, having a systolic blood pressure<130mmHg, and following the American Heart Association Step 2 diet. Baseline risk factor values and evidence-based medications did not independently predict survival once risk factor control at 1 year was included in the model. Having 4 to 6 risk factors compared with 0 to 1 risk factor at goal predicted lower mortality (hazard ratios for 4 and 6 controlled risk factors: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.98, and 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.09 to 0.79, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: The greater the number of risk factors in control, the higher the probability of survival in patients with SIHD. More effective strategies are needed to achieve comprehensive risk factor control, including healthy behaviors. (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation [COURAGE]; NCT00007657).
View details for PubMedID 30384885
International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches-Chronic Kidney Disease (ISCHEMIA-CKD): Rationale and design
AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL
2018; 205: 42–52
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and stable ischemic heart disease are at markedly increased risk of cardiovascular events. Prior trials comparing a strategy of optimal medical therapy (OMT) with or without revascularization have largely excluded patients with advanced CKD. Whether a routine invasive approach when compared with a conservative strategy is beneficial in such patients is unknown.ISCHEMIA-CKD is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded randomized trial designed to determine the comparative effectiveness of an initial invasive strategy (cardiac catheterization and optimal revascularization [percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery, if suitable] plus OMT) versus a conservative strategy (OMT alone, with cardiac catheterization and revascularization [percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery, if suitable] reserved for failure of OMT) on long-term clinical outcomes in 777 patients with advanced CKD (defined as those with estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73m2 or on dialysis) and moderate or severe ischemia on stress testing. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to the invasive or a conservative strategy. The primary end point is a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Major secondary endpoints are a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, hospitalization for heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest; angina control; and disease-specific quality of life. Safety outcomes such as initiation of maintenance dialysis and a composite of initiation of maintenance dialysis or death will be reported. The trial is projected to have 80% power to detect a 22% to 24% reduction in the primary composite end point with the invasive strategy when compared with the conservative strategy.ISCHEMIA-CKD will determine whether an initial invasive management strategy improves clinical outcomes when added to OMT in patients with advanced CKD and stable ischemic heart disease.
View details for PubMedID 30172098
- Planning and Conducting the ISCHEMIA Trial: Setting the Record Straight CIRCULATION 2018; 138 (14): 1384–86
Frequency of Statin Use in Patients With Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol ≥190 mg/dl from the Veterans Affairs Health System.
The American journal of cardiology
Patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥190 mg/dl have severe hypercholesterolemia and are at markedly increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events. This study sought to examine the prevalence and treatment of patients with uncontrolled severe hypercholesterolemia in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System. The study population was comprised of VA outpatients ≥21 years of age without atherosclerotic disease or diabetes mellitus and an index LDL-C ≥190 mg/dl during April 2011 to March 2014. Patients needed to have filled medications at the VA within the past 6 months. Patient and facility-level predictors of statin use, high-intensity statin use, and statin intensification were analyzed using multivariate logistic regressions. There were a total of 63,576 patients meeting inclusion criteria, including 8,553 (13.5%) women and 26,879 (29.0%) nonwhite patients. The mean (±S.D.) age was 55 (±13) years and the mean of the most recent LDL-C values was 207 ± 22 mg/dl. Only 52% of all eligible patients were on any statin therapy and 9.7% received high-intensity statin therapy. High-intensity statin use increased from 8.6% in 2011 to 13.6% in 2014 (p < 0.001). In adjusted analysis, patients <35 or >75 years of age were less likely to be on a statin (p < 0.001). Women were less likely to be treated than men, odds ratio = 0.88; 95% confidence interval (0.83, 0.92). Similar patterns were observed for predictors of high-intensity statin use and statin intensification. In conclusion, only half of high-risk VA patients with uncontrolled severe hypercholesterolemia were treated with statins and a small minority was on high-intensity statin therapy.
View details for PubMedID 30055758
Methodological Issues in "Dietary Patterns and Long-Term Survival" Reply
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
2018; 131 (5): E211
View details for PubMedID 29673492
Predicting the Benefits of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on 1-Year Angina and Quality of Life in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: Risk Models From the COURAGE Trial (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation)
CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES
2018; 11 (5): e003971
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a therapy to reduce angina and improve quality of life in patients with stable ischemic heart disease. However, it is unclear whether the quality of life after PCI is more dependent on the PCI or other patient-related factors. To address this question, we created models to predict angina and quality of life 1 year after PCI and medical therapy.Using data from the 2287 stable ischemic heart disease patients randomized in the COURAGE trial (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) to PCI plus optimal medical therapy (OMT) versus OMT alone, we built prediction models for 1-year Seattle Angina Questionnaire angina frequency, physical limitation, and quality of life scores, both as continuous outcomes and categorized by clinically desirable states, using multivariable techniques. Although most patients improved regardless of treatment, marked variability was observed in Seattle Angina Questionnaire scores 1 year after randomization. Adding PCI conferred a greater mean improvement (about 2 points) in Seattle Angina Questionnaire scores that were not affected by patient characteristics (P values for all interactions >0.05). The proportion of patients free of angina or having very good/excellent physical limitation (physical function) or quality of life at 1 year was 57%, 58%, 66% with PCI+OMT and 50%, 55%, 59% with OMT alone group, respectively. However, other characteristics, such as baseline symptoms, age, diabetes mellitus, and the magnitude of myocardium subtended by narrowed coronary arteries were as, or more, important than revascularization in predicting symptoms (partial R2=0.07 versus 0.29, 0.03 versus 0.22, and 0.05 versus 0.24 in the domain of angina frequency, physical limitation, and quality of life, respectively). There was modest/good discrimination of the models (C statistic=0.72-0.82) and excellent calibration (coefficients of determination for predicted versus observed deciles=0.83-0.97).The health status outcomes of stable ischemic heart disease patients treated by OMT+PCI versus OMT alone can be predicted with modest accuracy. Angina and quality of life at 1 year is improved by PCI but is more strongly associated with other patient characteristics.URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00007657.
View details for PubMedID 29752388
- ISCHEMIA: Establishing the Primary End Point CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES 2018; 11 (5): e004791
International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) trial: Rationale and design.
American heart journal
2018; 201: 124–35
BACKGROUND: Prior trials comparing a strategy of optimal medical therapy with or without revascularization have not shown that revascularization reduces cardiovascular events in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). However, those trials only included participants in whom coronary anatomy was known prior to randomization and did not include sufficient numbers of participants with significant ischemia. It remains unknown whether a routine invasive approach offers incremental value over a conservative approach with catheterization reserved for failure of medical therapy in patients with moderate or severe ischemia.METHODS: The ISCHEMIA trial is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute supported trial, designed to compare an initial invasive or conservative treatment strategy for managing SIHD patients with moderate or severe ischemia on stress testing. Five thousand one-hundred seventy-nine participants have been randomized. Key exclusion criteria included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min, recent myocardial infarction (MI), left ventricular ejection fraction <35%, left main stenosis >50%, or unacceptable angina at baseline. Most enrolled participants with normal renal function first underwent blinded coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to exclude those with left main coronary artery disease (CAD) and without obstructive CAD. All randomized participants receive secondary prevention that includes lifestyle advice and pharmacologic interventions referred to as optimal medical therapy (OMT). Participants randomized to the invasive strategy underwent routine cardiac catheterization followed by revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, when feasible, as selected by the local Heart Team to achieve optimal revascularization. Participants randomized to the conservative strategy undergo cardiac catheterization only for failure of OMT. The primary endpoint is a composite of cardiovascular (CV) death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), hospitalization for unstable angina, hospitalization for heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest. Assuming the primary endpoint will occur in 16% of the conservative group within 4 years, estimated power exceeds 80% to detect an 18.5% reduction in the primary endpoint. Major secondary endpoints include the composite of CV death and nonfatal MI, net clinical benefit (primary and secondary endpoints combined with stroke), angina-related symptoms and disease-specific quality of life, as well as a cost-effectiveness assessment in North American participants. Ancillary studies of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and those with documented ischemia and non-obstructive coronary artery disease are being conducted concurrently.CONCLUSIONS: ISCHEMIA will provide new scientific evidence regarding whether an invasive management strategy improves clinical outcomes when added to optimal medical therapy in patients with SIHD and moderate or severe ischemia.
View details for PubMedID 29778671
Letter by Hochman and Maron Regarding Article, "'Faith Healing' and 'Subtraction Anxiety' in Unblinded Trials of Procedures: Lessons From DEFER and FAME-2 for End Points in the ISCHEMIA Trial."
Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes
2018; 11 (4): e004742
View details for PubMedID 29636347
- Planning and Conducting the ISCHEMIA Trial. Circulation 2018; 138 (14): 1384–86
Association of Educational Attainment and Cardiovascular Risk in Hispanic Individuals: Findings From the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study.
Hispanic individuals are the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States and face lower socioeconomic status compared with non-Hispanic white (NHW) individuals. However, Hispanic individuals tend to experience better health outcomes than expected, a phenomenon known as the Hispanic paradox. Little is known about how higher socioeconomic status is associated with Hispanic cardiovascular risk factor burden and outcomes.To determine cardiovascular risk and outcomes among highly educated Hispanic vs NHW individuals in a preventive medicine clinic.Retrospective cohort analysis of participants from the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study who underwent preventive medical examinations at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas, from October 1972 to November 2017. Analysis began April 2018.Ethnicity, self-defined as Hispanic or NHW.Prevalence of major metabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness were compared, as were changes among participants with at least 2 visits. Ethnic differences adjusted for age, examination year, and educational attainment were estimated using regression models. Age-matched comparisons of coronary artery calcium scores were performed. All-cause mortality was summarized using the Kaplan-Meier method.This study included 1351 Hispanic and 43 736 NHW participants aged 20 to 80 years, body mass index between 18.5 and 50.0, and were not missing key cardiometabolic or fitness variables. Both Hispanic and NHW participants had high educational attainment, with a mean of more than 15 years of total education. Hispanic women and men had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (71 of 518 [13.1%] vs 1477 of 13 732 [10.8%] for women and 255 of 833 [30.6%] vs 7902 of 30 004 [26.3%] for men, respectively). Although Hispanic individuals were twice as likely to have diabetes, there was no difference in calculated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk scores by ethnicity. Both Hispanic and NWH individuals experienced a statistically significant worsening in cardiometabolic parameters during follow-up, although this was not statistically significantly different between groups. In age-matched analyses, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of coronary artery calcium scores between Hispanic and NWH individuals. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 12.9 (7.5) years, there was no difference in mortality between Hispanic and NHW individuals.Hispanic and NHW men and women with high educational attainment had similar atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, and mortality during follow-up. These findings do not support the Hispanic paradox in a highly educated Hispanic population.
View details for PubMedID 30566183
ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease
JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY
2017; 24 (5): 1759–92
The American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, have completed a 2-part revision of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization. In prior coronary revascularization AUC documents, indications for revascularization in acute coronary syndromes and stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) were combined into 1 document. To address the expanding clinical indications for coronary revascularization, and to align the subject matter with the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the new AUC for coronary artery revascularization were separated into 2 documents addressing SIHD and acute coronary syndromes individually. This document presents the AUC for SIHD.Clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice. These scenarios included information on symptom status; risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing; coronary disease burden; and, in some scenarios, fractional flow reserve testing, presence or absence of diabetes, and SYNTAX score. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios that the writing group felt were affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document but employs the recent modifications in the methods for developing AUC, most notably, alterations in the nomenclature for appropriate use categorization.A separate, independent rating panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate that revascularization is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario, whereas scores in the mid-range of 4 to 6 indicate that coronary revascularization may be appropriate for the clinical scenario.As seen with the prior coronary revascularization AUC, revascularization in clinical scenarios with high symptom burden, high-risk features, and high coronary disease burden, as well as in patients receiving antianginal therapy, are deemed appropriate. Additionally, scenarios assessing the appropriateness of revascularization before kidney transplantation or transcatheter valve therapy are now rated. The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of practice patterns that will hopefully improve physician decision making.
View details for PubMedID 28608183
Relationship between simple markers of insulin resistance and coronary artery calcification
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL LIPIDOLOGY
2017; 11 (4): 1007–12
Insulin resistance in apparently healthy persons is associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that promote coronary atherosclerosis. Identifying these individuals before manifest disease would provide useful clinical information.We hypothesized that combining 2 simple markers of insulin resistance, prediabetes (PreDM) and triglyceride (TG) concentration ≥150 mg/dL, would identify apparently healthy persons with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles and increased coronary artery calcium (CAC) compared with those with neither or only 1 abnormality.A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from 25,886 apparently healthy individuals (18,453 men and 7433 women) evaluated at the Cooper Clinic from 1998 to 2015. Participants were divided into those with a normal fasting glucose concentrations (<100 mg/dL = normal fasting glucose) or PreDM (fasting plasma glucose ≥100 and <126 mg/dL) and further subdivided into those with a plasma TG concentration <150 or ≥150 mg/dL. These 4 groups were compared on the basis of multiple coronary artery disease risk factors and the presence of CAC determined during their evaluation.Participants with PreDM and a TG concentration ≥150 mg/dL had a significantly more adverse coronary artery disease risk profile than individuals with either abnormality or only 1 abnormality (PreDM or TG concentration ≥150 mg/dL). Furthermore, the odds of detectable CAC were higher in participants with PreDM and a TG ≥ 150 mg/dL than in participants with neither or only 1 abnormality.The presence of 2 markers of insulin resistance, PreDM and TG concentration ≥150 mg/dL, is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and detectable CAC within a population of apparently healthy individuals.
View details for PubMedID 28652190
Use of troponin assay 99th percentile as the decision level for myocardial infarction diagnosis
AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL
2017; 190: 135–39
The Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction recommends the 99th percentile concentration of cardiac troponin in a normal reference population as part of the decision threshold to diagnose type 1 spontaneous myocardial infarction. Adoption of this recommendation in contemporary worldwide practice is not well known.We performed a cohort study of 276 hospital laboratories in 31 countries participating in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches trial. Each hospital laboratory's troponin assay manufacturer and model, the recommended assay's 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) from the manufacturer's package insert, and the troponin concentration used locally as the decision level to diagnose myocardial infarction were ascertained.Twenty-one unique troponin assays from 9 manufacturers were used by the surveyed hospital laboratories. The ratio of the troponin concentration used locally to diagnose myocardial infarction to the assay manufacturer-determined 99th percentile URL was <1 at 19 (6.6%) laboratories, equal to 1 at 91 (31.6%) laboratories, >1 to ≤5 at 101 (35.1%) laboratories, >5 to ≤10 at 34 (11.8%) laboratories, and >10 at 43 (14.9%) laboratories. The variability in troponin decision level for myocardial infarction relative to the assay 99th percentile URL was present for laboratories in and outside of the United States, as well as for high- and standard-sensitivity assays.There is substantial hospital-level variation in the troponin threshold used to diagnose myocardial infarction; only one-third of hospital laboratories currently follow the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction consensus recommendation for use of troponin concentration at the 99th percentile of a normal reference population as the decision level to diagnose myocardial infarction. This variability across laboratories has important implications for both the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in clinical practice as well as adjudication of myocardial infarction in clinical trials.
View details for PubMedID 28760208
- ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2017; 69 (17): 2212-2241
- ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY 2017; 69 (17): 2212-2241
- Intensity of Statin Treatment and Mortality-Reply. JAMA cardiology 2017
- ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2016 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY 2017; 69 (5): 570-591
Association Between Intensity of Statin Therapy and Mortality in Patients With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.
2017; 2 (1): 47-54
High-intensity statin therapy is recommended for the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Nevertheless, statin therapy in general, and high-intensity statin therapy in particular, is underused in patients with established ASCVD.To determine the association between all-cause mortality and intensity of statin therapy in the Veterans Affairs health care system.A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of patients aged 21 to 84 years with ASCVD treated in the Veterans Affairs health care system from April 1, 2013, to April 1, 2014. Patients who were included had 1 or more International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for ASCVD on 2 or more different dates in the prior 2 years.Intensity of statin therapy was defined by the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, and use was defined as a filled prescription in the prior 6 months. Patients were excluded if they were taking a higher statin dose in the prior 5 years.The primary outcome was death from all causes adjusted for the propensity to receive high-intensity statins.The study sample included 509 766 eligible adults with ASCVD at baseline (mean [SD] age, 68.5 [8.8] years; 499 598 men and 10 168 women), including 150 928 (29.6%) receiving high-intensity statin therapy, 232 293 (45.6%) receiving moderate-intensity statin therapy, 33 920 (6.7%) receiving low-intensity statin therapy, and 92 625 (18.2%) receiving no statins. During a mean follow-up of 492 days, there was a graded association between intensity of statin therapy and mortality, with 1-year mortality rates of 4.0% (5103 of 126 139) for those receiving high-intensity statin therapy, 4.8% (9703 of 200 709) for those receiving moderate-intensity statin therapy, 5.7% (1632 of 28 765) for those receiving low-intensity statin therapy, and 6.6% (4868 of 73 728) for those receiving no statin (P < .001). After adjusting for the propensity to receive high-intensity statins, the hazard ratio for mortality was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.93) for those receiving high- vs moderate-intensity statins. The magnitude of benefit of high- vs moderate-intensity statins was similar, for an incident cohort hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.85-1.01). For patients aged 76 to 84 years, the hazard ratio was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.87-0.95). Patients treated with maximal doses of high-intensity statins had lower mortality (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.87-0.94) compared with those receiving submaximal doses.We found a graded association between intensity of statin therapy and mortality in a national sample of patients with ASCVD. High-intensity statins were associated with a small but significant survival advantage compared with moderate-intensity statins, even among older adults. Maximal doses of high-intensity statins were associated with a further survival benefit.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamacardio.2016.4052
View details for PubMedID 27829091
Using Absolute Event Rates to See What Works in Cardiovascular Medicine.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
2017; 70 (11): 1376–78
View details for PubMedID 28882236
Using Commercial Programs for Lifestyle Intervention: Not Reinventing the Wheel.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
2017; 70 (3): 328–30
View details for PubMedID 28705313
Preventive Interventions After Coronary Artery Calcium Scanning: Seeing is Believing.
JACC. Cardiovascular imaging
2017; 10 (8): 843–44
View details for PubMedID 28797403
Dietary Patterns and Long-Term Survival: a Retrospective Study of Healthy Primary Care Patients.
The American journal of medicine
Dietary patterns are related to mortality in selected populations with comorbidities. We studied whether dietary patterns are associated with long-term survival in a middle-aged, healthy population.In this observational cohort study at the Cooper Clinic preventive medicine center (Dallas, Texas), a volunteer sample of 11,376 men and women with no history of myocardial infarction or stroke completed a baseline dietary assessment between 1987-1999 and were observed for an average of 18 years. Proportional hazard regressions, including a tree-augmented model, were used to assess the association of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, Mediterranean dietary pattern, and individual dietary components with mortality. The primary outcome was death from all causes. The secondary outcome was death from cardiovascular disease.Mean baseline age was 47 years. Each quintile increase in the DASH diet score was associated with a 6% lower adjusted risk for all-cause mortality (P<0.02). The Mediterranean diet was not independently associated with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Solid fats and added sugars were the most predictive of mortality. Individuals who consumed >34% of their daily calories as solid fats had the highest risk for all-cause mortality.The DASH dietary pattern was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality over nearly two decades of follow-up in a middle-aged, generally healthy population. Added solid fat and added sugar intake were the most predictive of all-cause mortality. These results suggest that promotion of a healthy dietary pattern should begin in middle age, before the development of comorbid risk factors.
View details for PubMedID 28860032
Risk Estimates for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2017; 119 (1): 112-118
The adult with congenital heart disease (CHD) is at risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We performed a cross-sectional study to describe established ASCVD risk factors and estimate 10-year and lifetime risk of ASCVD in adults over age 18 with CHD of moderate or great complexity using 3 validated risk assessment tools-the Framingham Study Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment, the Reynolds Risk Score, and the ASCVD Risk Estimator. We obtained extensive clinical and survey data on 178 enrolled patients, with average age 37.1 ± 12.6 years, 51% men. At least 1 modifiable ASCVD risk factor was present in 70%; the 2 most common were overweight/obesity (53%) and systemic hypertension (24%). Laboratory data were available in 103 of the 178 patients. Abnormal levels of glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein were each found in around 30% of patients. The 10-year ASCVD predicted risk using all 3 tools was relatively low (i.e., at least 90% of patients <10% risk), yet the median estimated lifetime risk was 36%. In conclusion, ASCVD risk factors are prevalent in adults with CHD. The risk estimation tools suggest that this population is particularly vulnerable to ASCVD with aging and should undergo guideline-based screening and management of modifiable risk factors.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.09.023
View details for PubMedID 28247847
Use of high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the Veterans Affairs Health System: Practice impact of the new cholesterol guidelines
AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL
2016; 182: 97-102
The November 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines recommend the use of high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We sought to determine how these guidelines are being adopted at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System and identify treatment gaps.We examined administrative data from the VA 12 months prior to the index dates of April 1, 2013, and after April 1, 2014, to identify patients ≤75 years of age with ≥2 codes for ASCVD. We identified those on high-intensity statin therapy (atorvastatin 40 mg or 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg or 40 mg, and simvastatin 80 mg) during the 6 months after the index date.The study sample included 331,927 and 326,759 eligible adults with ASCVD before and after the release of the new guidelines, respectively. Overall, high-intensity statin use increased from 28% to 35% after guideline release. High-intensity statin use was lowest in Hispanics and Native Americans, although all groups showed an increase over time. Among those on low- or moderate-intensity statin therapy, 15.6% were intensified to a high-intensity statin after guideline release. Groups less likely to undergo statin intensification were older adults (odds ratio=0.78 for each 10-year increase, 95% CI 0.76-0.81), women (odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99), and certain minority groups. Academic teaching hospitals and hospitals on the West Coast were more likely to intensify statins after release of the new guidelines.High-intensity statin use increased in the VA following release of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol treatment guidelines, although disparities persist for certain patient groups including older adults, women, and certain minority groups.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.09.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000389136600012
View details for PubMedID 27914506
- Can Cardiac Conduction System Disease Be Prevented? JAMA internal medicine 2016; 176 (8): 1093-1094
Optimal medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention in women with stable coronary disease: A pre-specified subset analysis of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive druG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial
AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL
2016; 173: 108-117
To determine whether sex-based differences exist in clinical effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when added to optimal medical therapy (OMT) in patients with stable coronary artery disease.A prior pre-specified unadjusted analysis from COURAGE showed that women randomized to PCI had a lower rate of death or myocardial infarction during a median 4.6-year follow-up with a trend for interaction with respect to sex.We analyzed outcomes in 338 women (15%) and 1949 men (85%) randomized to PCI plus OMT versus OMT alone after adjustment for relevant baseline characteristics.There was no difference in treatment effect by sex for the primary end point (death or myocardial infarction; HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1.03 for women and HR, 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.10 for men; P for interaction = .07). Although the event rate was low, a trend for interaction by sex was nonetheless noted for hospitalization for heart failure, with only women, but not men, assigned to PCI experiencing significantly fewer events as compared to their counterparts receiving OMT alone (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84, P < .001 for women and HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-1.01, P = .47 for men; P for interaction = .02). Both sexes randomized to PCI experienced significantly reduced need for subsequent revascularization (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.62-0.83, P < .001 for women; HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.89, P < .001 for men; P for interaction = .02) with evidence of a sex-based differential treatment effect.In this adjusted analysis of the COURAGE trial, there were no significant differences in treatment effect on major outcomes between men and women. However, women assigned to PCI demonstrated a greater benefit as compared to men, with a reduction in heart failure hospitalization and need for future revascularization. These exploratory observations require further prospective study.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2015.07.020
View details for PubMedID 26920603
- Medical Therapy With Versus Without Revascularization in Stable Patients With Moderate and Severe Ischemia The Case for Community Equipoise JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY 2016; 67 (1): 81-99
Conservative versus invasive stable ischemic heart disease management strategies: what do we plan to learn from the ISCHEMIA trial?
2016; 12 (1): 35-44
Over the past decade, landmark randomized clinical trials comparing initial management strategies in stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) have demonstrated no significant reduction in 'hard' end points (all-cause mortality, cardiac death or myocardial infarction) with one strategy versus another. The main advantage derived from early revascularization is improved short-term quality of life. Nonetheless, questions remain regarding how best to manage SIHD patients, such as whether a high-risk subgroup can be identified that may experience a survival or myocardial infarction benefit from early revascularization, and if not, when should diagnostic catheterization and revascularization be performed. The International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches trial is designed to address these questions by randomizing SIHD patients with at least moderate ischemia to an initial conservative strategy of optimal medical therapy or an initial invasive strategy of optimal medical therapy plus cardiac catheterization and revascularization.
View details for DOI 10.2217/fca.15.57
View details for PubMedID 26696561
Medical Therapy With Versus Without Revascularization in Stable Patients With Moderate and Severe Ischemia: The Case for Community Equipoise.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
2016; 67 (1): 81–99
All patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) should be managed with guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT), which reduces progression of atherosclerosis and prevents coronary thrombosis. Revascularization is also indicated in patients with SIHD and progressive or refractory symptoms, despite medical management. Whether a strategy of routine revascularization (with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery as appropriate) plus GDMT reduces rates of death or myocardial infarction, or improves quality of life compared to an initial approach of GDMT alone in patients with substantial ischemia is uncertain. Opinions run strongly on both sides, and evidence may be used to support either approach. Careful review of the data demonstrates the limitations of our current knowledge, resulting in a state of community equipoise. The ongoing ISCHEMIA trial (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches) is being performed to determine the optimal approach to managing patients with SIHD, moderate-to-severe ischemia, and symptoms that can be controlled medically. (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches [ISCHEMIA]; NCT01471522).
View details for PubMedID 26616030
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5545795
Treatment of Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease--Reply.
2016; 315 (17): 1905–6
View details for PubMedID 27139072
- Effect of Baseline Exercise Capacity on Outcomes in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease (A Post Hoc Analysis of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation Trial) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY 2015; 116 (10): 1509-1515
- Effect of PCI on Long-Term Survival in Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 2015; 373 (20): 1937-1946
- Evidence-Based Management of Stable Ischemic Heart Disease Challenges and Confusion JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 2015; 314 (18): 1917-1918
- Identification of Emergency Department Patients With Acute Heart Failure at Low Risk for 30-Day Adverse Events: The STRATIFY Decision Tool. JACC. Heart failure 2015; 3 (10): 737-747
Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatologic conditions.
International journal of clinical rheumatology
2015; 10 (5): 365-381
Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disease involving aberrant immune and tissue healing responses, which begins with endothelial dysfunction and ends with plaque development, instability and rupture. The increased risk for coronary artery disease in patients with rheumatologic diseases highlights how aberrancy in the innate and adaptive immune system may be central to development of both disease states and that atherosclerosis may be on a spectrum of immune-mediated conditions. Recognition of the tight association between chronic inflammatory disease and complications of atherosclerosis will impact the understanding of underlying pathogenic mechanisms and change diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patients with rheumatologic syndromes as well as patients with coronary artery disease. In this review, we provide a summary of the role of the immune system in atherosclerosis, discuss the proposed mechanisms of accelerated atherosclerosis seen in association with rheumatologic diseases, evaluate the effect of immunosuppression on atherosclerosis and provide updates on available risk assessment tools, biomarkers and imaging modalities.
View details for PubMedID 27042216
- Why Optimal Medical Therapy Should Be a Universal Standard of Care JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY 2015; 66 (7): 774-776
Validation of the Appropriate Use Criteria for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease (from the COURAGE Trial)
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2015; 116 (2): 167-173
Establishing the validity of appropriate use criteria (AUC) for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the setting of stable ischemic heart disease can support their adoption for quality improvement. We conducted a post hoc analysis of 2,287 Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation trial patients with stable ischemic heart disease randomized to PCI with optimal medical therapy (OMT) or OMT alone. Within appropriateness categories, we compared rates of death, myocardial infarction, revascularization subsequent to initial therapy, and angina-specific health status as determined by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire in patients randomized to PCI + OMT to those randomized to OMT alone. A total of 1,987 patients (87.9%) were mapped to the 2012 publication of the AUC, with 1,334 (67.1%) classified as appropriate, 551 (27.7%) uncertain, and 102 (5.1%) as inappropriate. There were no significant differences between PCI and OMT alone in the rate of mortality and myocardial infarction by appropriateness classification. Rates of revascularization were significantly lower in patients initially receiving PCI + OMT who were classified as appropriate (hazard ratio 0.65; 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.80; p <0.001) or uncertain (hazard ratio 0.49; 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.76; p = 0.001). Furthermore, among patients classified as appropriate by the AUC, Seattle Angina Questionnaire scores at 1 month were better in the PCI-treated group compared with the medical therapy group (80 ± 23 vs 75 ± 24 for angina frequency, 73 ± 24 vs 68 ± 24 for physical limitations, and 68 ± 23 vs 60 ± 24 for quality of life; all p <0.01), with differences generally persisting through 12 months. In contrast, health status scores were similar throughout the first year of follow-up in PCI + OMT patients compared with OMT alone in patients classified as uncertain or inappropriate. In conclusion, these findings support the validity of the AUC in efforts to improve health care quality through optimal use of PCI.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.03.057
View details for Web of Science ID 000357548100001
View details for PubMedID 25960375
- Primary Prevention of Heart Failure in Older Adults. JACC. Heart failure 2015; 3 (7): 529-530
- Reply to Letters Regarding Article, "Prognostic Value of Fasting Versus Nonfasting Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels on Long-Term Mortality: Insight From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES-III)". Circulation 2015; 131 (19)
Prognostic Value of Fasting Versus Nonfasting Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels on Long-Term Mortality: Insight From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES-III).
2014; 130 (7): 546-553
National and international guidelines recommend fasting lipid panel measurement for risk stratification of patients for prevention of cardiovascular events. However, the prognostic value of fasting versus nonfasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is uncertain.Patients enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES-III), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey performed from 1988 to 1994, were stratified on the basis of fasting status (≥8 or <8 hours) and followed for a mean of 14.0 (±0.22) years. Propensity score matching was used to assemble fasting and nonfasting cohorts with similar baseline characteristics. The risk of outcomes as a function of LDL-C and fasting status was assessed with the use of receiver operating characteristic curves and bootstrapping methods. The interaction between fasting status and LDL-C was assessed with Cox proportional hazards modeling. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome was cardiovascular mortality. One-to-one matching based on propensity score yielded 4299 pairs of fasting and nonfasting individuals. For the primary outcome, fasting LDL-C yielded prognostic value similar to that for nonfasting LDL-C (C statistic=0.59 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.61] versus 0.58 [95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.60]; P=0.73), and LDL-C by fasting status interaction term in the Cox proportional hazards model was not significant (Pinteraction=0.11). Similar results were seen for the secondary outcome (fasting versus nonfasting C statistic=0.62 [95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.66] versus 0.62 [95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.66]; P=0.96; Pinteraction=0.34).Nonfasting LDL-C has prognostic value similar to that of fasting LDL-C. National and international agencies should consider reevaluating the recommendation that patients fast before obtaining a lipid panel.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.010001
View details for PubMedID 25015340
- Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) and equipoise: When evidence conflicts with beliefs. American heart journal 2014; 168 (1): 4-5
Comparative definitions for moderate-severe ischemia in stress nuclear, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
JACC. Cardiovascular imaging
2014; 7 (6): 593-604
The lack of standardized reporting of the magnitude of ischemia on noninvasive imaging contributes to variability in translating the severity of ischemia across stress imaging modalities. We identified the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) death or myocardial infarction (MI) associated with ≥10% ischemic myocardium on stress nuclear imaging as the risk threshold for stress echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. A narrative review revealed that ≥10% ischemic myocardium on stress nuclear imaging was associated with a median rate of CAD death or MI of 4.9%/year (interquartile range: 3.75% to 5.3%). For stress echocardiography, ≥3 newly dysfunctional segments portend a median rate of CAD death or MI of 4.5%/year (interquartile range: 3.8% to 5.9%). Although imprecisely delineated, moderate-severe ischemia on cardiac magnetic resonance may be indicated by ≥4 of 32 stress perfusion defects or ≥3 dobutamine-induced dysfunctional segments. Risk-based thresholds can define equivalent amounts of ischemia across the stress imaging modalities, which will help to translate a common understanding of patient risk on which to guide subsequent management decisions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcmg.2013.10.021
View details for PubMedID 24925328
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4128344
- Comparative Definitions for Moderate-Severe Ischemia in Stress Nuclear, Echocardiography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING 2014; 7 (6): 593-604
- As REGARDS treatment goal attainment compared with COURAGE: the perfect should not be the enemy of the good. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2014; 63 (16): 1634-1635
Predicting Outcome in the COURAGE Trial (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) Coronary Anatomy Versus Ischemia
2014; 7 (2): 195-201
The aim of this study was to determine the relative utility of anatomic and ischemic burden of coronary artery disease for predicting outcomes.Both anatomic burden and ischemic burden of coronary artery disease determine patient prognosis and influence myocardial revascularization decisions. When both measures are available, their relative utility for prognostication and management choice is controversial.A total of 621 patients enrolled in the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial with baseline quantitative nuclear single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and quantitative coronary angiography were studied. Several multiple regression models were constructed to determine independent predictors of the endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI) (excluding periprocedural MI) and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Ischemic burden during stress SPECT, anatomic burden derived from angiography, left ventricular ejection fraction, and assignment to either optimal medical therapy (OMT) + percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or OMT alone were analyzed.In nonadjusted and adjusted regression models, anatomic burden and left ventricular ejection fraction were consistent predictors of death, MI, and NSTE-ACS, whereas ischemic burden and treatment assignment were not. There was a marginal (p = 0.03) effect of the interaction term of anatomic and ischemic burden for the prediction of clinical outcome, but separately or in combination, neither anatomy nor ischemia interacted with therapeutic strategy to predict outcome.In a cohort of patients treated with OMT, anatomic burden was a consistent predictor of death, MI, and NSTE-ACS, whereas ischemic burden was not. Importantly, neither determination, even in combination, identified a patient profile benefiting preferentially from an invasive therapeutic strategy. (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation [COURAGE]; NCT00007657).
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcin.2013.10.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000331719900020
View details for PubMedID 24440015
Machine learning for risk prediction of acute coronary syndrome.
AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings / AMIA Symposium. AMIA Symposium
2014; 2014: 1940-1949
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) accounts for 1.36 million hospitalizations and billions of dollars in costs in the United States alone. A major challenge to diagnosing and treating patients with suspected ACS is the significant symptom overlap between patients with and without ACS. There is a high cost to over- and under-treatment. Guidelines recommend early risk stratification of patients, but many tools lack sufficient accuracy for use in clinical practice. Prognostic indices often misrepresent clinical populations and rely on curated data. We used random forest and elastic net on 20,078 deidentified records with significant missing and noisy values to develop models that outperform existing ACS risk prediction tools. We found that the random forest (AUC = 0.848) significantly outperformed elastic net (AUC=0.818), ridge regression (AUC = 0.810), and the TIMI (AUC = 0.745) and GRACE (AUC = 0.623) scores. Our findings show that random forest applied to noisy and sparse data can perform on par with previously developed scoring metrics.
View details for PubMedID 25954467
Health Status and Quality of Life in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease Treated With Optimal Medical Therapy or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (Post Hoc Findings from the COURAGE Trial)
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2013; 112 (11): 1703-1708
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important clinical co-morbidity that increases the risk of death and myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) even when treated with guideline-directed therapies. It is unknown, however, whether CKD influences the effects of CAD treatments on patients' health status, their symptoms, function, and quality of life. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) study to compare health status in patients with stable CAD with and without CKD defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) randomized to either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and optimal medical therapy (OMT) or OMT alone. Health status was measured at baseline, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of follow-up with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire in 310 patients with CKD and 1,719 patients without CKD. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze Seattle Angina Questionnaire scores longitudinally. Mean scores for angina-related quality of life, angina frequency, and physical limitation domains improved from baseline values in both patients with and without CKD and plateaued. Early improvement (1 to 6 months) was more common in patients treated with PCI plus OMT than with OMT alone in both patients with and without CKD. Treatment satisfaction scores were high at baseline in all groups and did not change significantly over time. In conclusion, although CKD is an important determinant of event-free survival in patients with stable CAD, it neither precludes satisfactory treatment of angina with PCI plus OMT or OMT alone nor is it associated with an unsatisfactory quality of life.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.07.034
View details for Web of Science ID 000327685900001
View details for PubMedID 24011740
Lessons learned from MPI and physiologic testing in randomized trials of stable ischemic heart disease: COURAGE, BARI 2D, FAME, and ISCHEMIA
JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY
2013; 20 (6): 969-975
There is a preponderance of evidence that, in the setting of an acute coronary syndrome, an invasive approach using coronary revascularization has a morbidity and mortality benefit. However, recent stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) randomized clinical trials testing whether the addition of coronary revascularization to guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) reduces death or major cardiovascular events have been negative. Based on the evidence from these trials, the primary role of GDMT as a front line medical management approach has been clearly defined in the recent SIHD clinical practice guideline; the role of prompt revascularization is less precisely defined. Based on data from observational studies, it has been hypothesized that there is a level of ischemia above which a revascularization strategy might result in benefit regarding cardiovascular events. However, eligibility for recent negative trials in SIHD has mandated at most minimal standards for ischemia. An ongoing randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of randomization of patients to coronary angiography and revascularization as compared to no coronary angiography and GDMT in patients with moderate-severe ischemia will formally test this hypothesis. The current review will highlight the available evidence including a review of the published and ongoing SIHD trials.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12350-013-9773-4
View details for Web of Science ID 000327858600005
View details for PubMedID 23963599
Low Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease Patients A Post-Hoc Analysis From the COURAGE Trial (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation)
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
2013; 62 (20): 1826-1833
This study sought to assess the independent effect of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level on cardiovascular risk in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) who were receiving optimal medical therapy (OMT).Although low HDL-C level is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular risk, recent data suggest that this may not apply when low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is reduced to optimal levels using intensive statin therapy.We performed a post-hoc analysis in 2,193 men and women with SIHD from the COURAGE trial. The primary outcome measure was the composite of death from any cause or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). The independent association between HDL-C levels measured after 6 months on OMT and the rate of cardiovascular events after 4 years was assessed. Similar analyses were performed separately in subjects with LDL-C levels below 70 mg/dl (1.8 mmol/l).In the overall population, the rate of death/MI was 33% lower in the highest HDL-C quartile as compared with the lowest quartile, with quartile of HDL-C being a significant, independent predictor of death/MI (p = 0.05), but with no interaction for LDL-C category (p = 0.40). Among subjects with LDL-C levels <70 mg/dl, those in the highest quintile of HDL-C had a 65% relative risk reduction in death or MI as compared with the lowest quintile, with HDL-C quintile demonstrating a significant, inverse predictive effect (p = 0.02).In this post-hoc analysis, patients with SIHD continued to experience incremental cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL-C levels despite OMT during long-term follow-up. This relationship persisted and appeared more prominent even when LDL-C was reduced to optimal levels with intensive dyslipidemic therapy. (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation; NCT00007657).
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.07.051
View details for Web of Science ID 000326574400003
View details for PubMedID 23973693
Prognostic importance of coronary anatomy and left ventricular ejection fraction despite optimal therapy: Assessment of residual risk in the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation Trial
AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL
2013; 166 (3): 481-487
It is unknown if baseline angiographic findings can be used to estimate residual risk of patients with chronic stable angina treated with both optimal medical therapy (OMT) and protocol-assigned or symptom-driven percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Death, myocardial infarction (MI), and hospitalization for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome were adjudicated in 2,275 COURAGE patients. The number of vessels diseased (VD) was defined as the number of major coronary arteries with ≥50% diameter stenosis. Proximal left anterior descending, either isolated or in combination with other disease, was also evaluated. Depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was defined as ≤50%. Cox regression analyses included these anatomical factors as well as interaction terms for initial treatment assignment (OMT or OMT + PCI).Percutaneous coronary intervention and proximal left anterior descending did not influence any outcome. Death was predicted by low LVEF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.86, CI 1.34-2.59, P < .001) and VD (HR 1.45, CI 1.20-1.75, P < .001). Myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome were predicted only by VD (HR 1.53, CI 1.30-1.81 and HR 1.24, CI 1.06-1.44, P = .007, respectively).In spite of OMT and irrespective of protocol-assigned or clinically driven PCI, LVEF and angiographic burden of disease at baseline retain prognostic power and reflect residual risk for secondary ischemic events.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.07.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000324163600022
View details for PubMedID 24016497
Frequency, Predictors, and Consequences of Crossing Over to Revascularization Within 12 Months of Randomization to Optimal Medical Therapy in the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) Trial
CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES
2013; 6 (4): 409-418
In the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial, some patients with stable ischemic heart disease randomized to optimal medical therapy (OMT) crossed over to early revascularization. The predictors and outcomes of patients who crossed over from OMT to revascularization are unknown.We compared characteristics of OMT patients who did and did not undergo revascularization within 12 months and created a Cox regression model to identify predictors of early revascularization. Patients' health status was measured with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire. To quantify the potential consequences of initiating OMT without percutaneous coronary intervention, we compared the outcomes of crossover patients with a matched cohort randomized to immediate percutaneous coronary intervention. Among 1148 patients randomized to OMT, 185 (16.1%) underwent early revascularization. Patient characteristics independently associated with early revascularization were worse baseline Seattle Angina Questionnaire scores and healthcare system. Among 156 OMT patients undergoing early revascularization matched to 156 patients randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention, rates of mortality (hazard ratio=0.51 [0.13-2.1]) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (hazard ratio=1.9 [0.75-4.6]) were similar, as were 1-year Seattle Angina Questionnaire scores. OMT patients, however, experienced worse health status over the initial year of treatment and more unstable angina admissions (hazard ratio=2.8 [1.1-7.5]).Among COURAGE patients assigned to OMT alone, patients' angina, dissatisfaction with their current treatment, and, to a lesser extent, their health system were associated with early revascularization. Because early crossover was not associated with an increase in irreversible ischemic events or impaired 12-month health status, these findings support an initial trial of OMT in stable ischemic heart disease with close follow-up of the most symptomatic patients.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00007657.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.113.000139
View details for Web of Science ID 000321898000008
View details for PubMedID 23838107
Impact of Adding Ezetimibe to Statin to Achieve Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Goal (from the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation [COURAGE] Trial)
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2013; 111 (11): 1557-1562
In the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) study, a revascularization strategy trial with optimal medical therapy in both arms, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol goal was 60 to 85 mg/dl; this was revised to <70 mg/dl in 2004. COURAGE patients (n = 2,287) were titrated with increasing statin doses to achieve the initial LDL cholesterol goal using a prespecified protocol. Ezetimibe was not available when study enrollment began in 1999 but became available after approval in 2003. After maximizing statin dose, ezetimibe was added to reach the LDL cholesterol goal in 34% of patients (n = 734). Median baseline LDL cholesterol was higher in patients who received ezetimibe than in those who did not (109 vs 96 mg/dl). At baseline, 18% of patients who would later receive ezetimibe had LDL cholesterol <85 mg/dl, and 8% had LDL cholesterol <70 mg/dl. On maximum tolerated statin (with or without other lipid-lowering drugs), 40% had LDL cholesterol <85 mg/dl and 23% had LDL cholesterol <70 mg/dl before starting ezetimibe. At the final study visit, 68% of ezetimibe patients achieved LDL cholesterol <85 mg/dl, and 46% achieved LDL cholesterol <70 mg/dl. Using Cox regression analysis, the most significant factors associated with achieving LDL cholesterol goals were lower baseline LDL cholesterol, average statin dose, and ezetimibe use. In conclusion, after maximizing statin dose, the addition of ezetimibe results in a substantial increase in the percentage of patients who reach LDL cholesterol goal, a key component of optimal medical therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.02.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000319892100004
View details for PubMedID 23538020
Risk Factor Control for Coronary Artery Disease Secondary Prevention in Large Randomized Trials
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
2013; 61 (15): 1607-1615
This study evaluated data from 3 federally funded trials that focused on optimal medical therapy to determine if formalized attempts at risk factor control within clinical trials are effective in achieving guideline-driven treatment goals for diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).Despite clear evidence of benefit for CAD secondary prevention, the level of risk factor control in clinical practice has been disappointing.We obtained data from the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) diabetes subgroup, (n = 766 of 2,287), the BARI 2D (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes) trial (n = 2,368), and the FREEDOM (Comparison of Two Treatments for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease in Individuals With Diabetes) trial (n = 1,900) to evaluate the proportion of patients achieving guideline-based, protocol-driven treatment targets for systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking cessation, and hemoglobin A1c. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of diabetic CAD patients meeting all 4 pre-specified targets at 1 year after enrollment.The pooled data include 5,034 diabetic patients. The percentages of patients achieving the 1-year low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets compared with baseline increased from 55% to 77% in COURAGE, from 59% to 75% in BARI 2D, and from 34% to 42% in FREEDOM. Although similar improved trends were seen for systolic blood pressure, glycemic control, and smoking cessation, only 18% of the COURAGE diabetes subgroup, 23% of BARI 2D patients, and 8% of FREEDOM patients met all 4 pre-specified treatment targets at 1 year of follow-up.A significant proportion of diabetic CAD patients fail to achieve pre-specified targets for 4 major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in clinical trials. We conclude that fundamentally new thinking is needed to explore approaches to achieve optimal secondary prevention treatment goals. (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation; NCT00007657) (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes [BARI 2D]; NCT00006305) (Comparison of Two Treatments for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease in Individuals With Diabetes [FREEDOM]; NCT00086450).
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.01.044
View details for Web of Science ID 000317192700007
View details for PubMedID 23500281
- Revascularization for Silent Ischemia? Another Piece of the Puzzle JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY 2013; 61 (15): 1624-1625
- In Mildly Symptomatic Patients, Should an Invasive Strategy with Catheterization and Revascularization Be Routinely Undertaken? In Mildly Symptomatic Patients, an Invasive Strategy with Catheterization and Revascularization Should Not Be Routinely Undertaken CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS 2013; 6 (1): 114-121
Galectin 3 complements BNP in risk stratification in acute heart failure
2012; 17 (8): 706-713
Galectin 3 (G3) is a mediator of fibrosis and remodeling in heart failure.Patients diagnosed with and treated for Acute Heart Failure Syndromes were prospectively enrolled in the Decision Making in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure multicenter trial.Patients with a higher G3 had a history of renal disease, a lower heart rate and acute kidney injury. They also tended to have a history of HF and 30-day adverse events compared with B-type natriuretic peptide.In Acute Heart Failure Syndromes, G3 levels do not provide prognostic value, but when used complementary to B-type natriuretic peptide, G3 is associated with renal dysfunction and may predict 30-day events.
View details for DOI 10.3109/1354750X.2012.719037
View details for Web of Science ID 000311681100003
View details for PubMedID 22998064
Clinical pathway: helicopter scene STEMI protocol to facilitate long-distance transfer for primary PCI.
Critical pathways in cardiology
2012; 11 (4): 193-198
The latest American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients within 90 minutes from presentation to the emergency room. For interhospital transfers, the most recent PCI guidelines recommend first medical contact-to-device times ≤120 minutes. Although PCI-capable hospitals have improved door-to-balloon times, many patients present to non-PCI-capable facilities and have been excluded from national quality measures.In our acute myocardial infarction network, not only do we enable non-PCI hospitals to transfer STEMI patients but empower outside emergency medical services (EMS) to activate the catheterization laboratory team with a burst page and transfer STEMI patients directly from the scene. Data on patient characteristics, outcomes, and time elements were collected for "scene STEMI" patients who circumvented outlying rural non-PCI hospitals and are presented in this case series.From December 2007 to November 2010, 22 STEMI patients with higher than average acuity were transported by helicopter directly to our medical center for primary PCI. Median distance from the scene to our medical center was 47 miles [25th to 75th interquartile range (IQR) = 39-71 miles]. Median EMS-to-balloon time was 120 minutes (IQR = 111-134 minutes). There were no false activations by EMS. In comparison, our median time for interhospital STEMI transfers (N = 335) was 145 minutes (IQR = 121-186 minutes) from 2007 to 2009.In our single-center experience, 22 scene STEMI patients were diagnosed and appropriately triaged by EMS to our center for primary PCI. Our data show feasibility of an EMS-activated STEMI network over long distances with good reperfusion times.
View details for DOI 10.1097/HPC.0b013e318261c995
View details for PubMedID 23149361
Risk stratification in acute heart failure: Rationale and design of the STRATIFY and DECIDE studies
AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL
2012; 164 (6): 825-834
A critical challenge for physicians facing patients presenting with signs and symptoms of acute heart failure (AHF) is how and where to best manage them. Currently, most patients evaluated for AHF are admitted to the hospital, yet not all warrant inpatient care. Up to 50% of admissions could be potentially avoided and many admitted patients could be discharged after a short period of observation and treatment. Methods for identifying patients that can be sent home early are lacking. Improving the physician's ability to identify and safely manage low-risk patients is essential to avoiding unnecessary use of hospital beds.Two studies (STRATIFY and DECIDE) have been funded by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute with the goal of developing prediction rules to facilitate early decision making in AHF. Using prospectively gathered evaluation and treatment data from the acute setting (STRATIFY) and early inpatient stay (DECIDE), rules will be generated to predict risk for death and serious complications. Subsequent studies will be designed to test the external validity, utility, generalizability and cost-effectiveness of these prediction rules in different acute care environments representing racially and socioeconomically diverse patient populations.A major innovation is prediction of 5-day as well as 30-day outcomes, overcoming the limitation that 30-day outcomes are highly dependent on unpredictable, post-visit patient and provider behavior. A novel aspect of the proposed project is the use of a comprehensive cardiology review to correctly assign post-treatment outcomes to the acute presentation.Finally, a rigorous analysis plan has been developed to construct the prediction rules that will maximally extract both the statistical and clinical properties of every data element. Upon completion of this study we will subsequently externally test the prediction rules in a heterogeneous patient cohort.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.07.033
View details for Web of Science ID 000311634500009
View details for PubMedID 23194482
A comparison of criterion standard methods to diagnose acute heart failure.
Congestive heart failure (Greenwich, Conn.)
2012; 18 (5): 262-271
The authors sought to compare and contrast the clinical criterion standards currently used in a cohort of emergency department (ED) patients to diagnose acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS). In a prospective observational study of patients with signs and symptoms of AHFS, 3 criterion standards were examined: (1) the treating ED physician's diagnosis; (2) the hospital discharge diagnosis; and (3) a diagnosis based on medical record review by a panel of cardiologists. Using Cohen's kappa (κ) coefficient, the authors assessed agreement and then compared the different standards by repeatedly setting one as the criterion standard and the other two as index tests. A total of 483 patients were enrolled. Across all criterion standards, patients with AHFS were more likely to have a history of AHFS, congestion on physical examination and chest radiography, and elevated natriuretic peptide levels than those without AHFS. The standards agreed well (cardiology review vs hospital discharge diagnosis, κ=0.74; cardiology review vs ED diagnosis, κ=0.66; ED diagnosis vs hospital discharge diagnosis κ=0.59). Each method had similar sensitivity but differing specificities. Different criterion standards identify different patients from among those being evaluated for AHFS. Researchers should consider this when choosing between the various criterion standard approaches when evaluating new index tests.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1751-7133.2012.00288.x
View details for PubMedID 22994440
Baseline stress myocardial perfusion imaging results and outcomes in patients with stable ischemic heart disease randomized to optimal medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention
AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL
2012; 164 (2): 243-250
The COURAGE trial reported similar clinical outcomes for patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) receiving optimal medical therapy (OMT) with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The current post hoc substudy analysis examined the relationship between baseline stress myocardial ischemia and clinical outcomes based on randomized treatment assignment.A total of 1,381 randomized patients (OMT n = 699, PCI + OMT n = 682) underwent baseline stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging. Site investigators interpreted the extent of ischemia by the number of ischemic segments using a 6-segment myocardial model. Patients were divided into those with no to mild (<3 ischemic segments) and moderate to severe ischemia (≥ 3 ischemic segments). Cox proportional hazards models were calculated to assess time to the primary end point of death or myocardial infarction.At baseline, moderate to severe ischemia occurred in more than one-quarter of patients (n = 468), and the incidence was comparable in both treatment groups (P = .36). The primary end point, death or myocardial infarction, was similar in the OMT and PCI + OMT treatment groups for no to mild (18% and 19%, P = .92) and moderate to severe ischemia (19% and 22%, P = .53, interaction P value = .65). There was no gradient increase in events for the overall cohort with the extent of ischemia.From the COURAGE trial post hoc substudy, the extent of site-defined ischemia did not predict adverse events and did not alter treatment effectiveness. Currently, evidence supports equipoise as to whether the extent and severity of ischemia impact on therapeutic effectiveness.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.05.018
View details for Web of Science ID 000307673700018
View details for PubMedID 22877811
Relationship between Uric Acid Levels and Diagnostic and Prognostic Outcomes in Acute Heart Failure.
The open biomarkers journal
2012; 5: 9-15
We evaluated the association of plasma uric acid alone and in combination with b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for emergency department (ED) diagnosis and 30-day prognosis in patients evaluated for acute heart failure (AHF).We prospectively enrolled 322 adult ED patients with suspected AHF. Wilcoxon rank sum test, multivariable logistic regression and likelihood ratio (LR) tests were used for statistical analyses.Uric acid's diagnostic utility was poor and failed to show significant associations with 30-day clinical outcomes. Uric acid also did not add significantly to BNP results.Among ED patients with suspected AHF, uric acid has poor diagnostic and prognostic utility.
View details for PubMedID 24058387
Therapeutic procedures for coronary vasospasm-induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
Therapeutic advances in cardiovascular disease
2012; 6 (3): 115-121
Coronary vasospasm is an unusual cause of angina and myocardial ischemia, with the potential to provoke acute myocardial infarction, malignant cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis is largely clinical and requires a high index of suspicion. Provocation studies are rarely performed due to the risks of the procedure and the relatively low incidence of disease. A subset of patients does not respond to conventional medical therapy and a paucity of evidence exists to guide therapy. While generally believed a multifocal phenomenon, there have been reports of successful treatment of focal, refractory vasospasm with coronary stent implantation. Furthermore, consideration of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is warranted when vasospasm is complicated by lethal ventricular arrhythmias.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1753944712446303
View details for PubMedID 22547691
Soluble ST2 as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker for Acute Heart Failure Syndromes.
The open biomarkers journal
2012; 2012 (5): 1-8
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association of sST2 with diagnostic and prognostic outcomes and assessed whether it aids B-natriuretic peptide (BNP) in diagnosing and predicting outcomes in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected AHFS. METHODS: We recruited patients who presented to the ED of 3 tertiary hospitals with signs or symptoms of AHFS and met modified Framingham criteria for AHFS. Outcome measures were a final diagnosis of AHFS and 5-and 30-day adverse events. RESULTS: In the 295 subjects with sST2 available, the median sST2 was 0.20 ng/ml (IQR=0.10, 0.34). Although unadjusted analyses indicated sST2 was significantly associated with the diagnosis of AHFS (p=0.02), this was not so in the adjusted analysis (p=0.33). Moderately low diagnostic utility was noted with an AUC of 0.62 (95% CI=0.56, 0.69). Similar sST2 test characteristics were seen when BNP was restricted between 100 and 500 pg/ml. While sST2 was associated with AHFS readmission at 30-days (p=0.04), in the adjusted analyses it was not associated with adverse events. CONCLUSION: In patients with signs or symptoms of AHFS, unadjusted analyses indicated that sST2 was significantly associated with the diagnosis of AHFS and with 30-day AHFS recidivism. However, the associations did not carry over to adjusted analyses, and sST2 did not add significant information with regard to explaining the diagnostic and prognostic variability of BNP.
View details for PubMedID 23439880
Effectiveness of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Silent Myocardial Ischemia (Post Hoc Analysis of the COURAGE Trial)
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2012; 109 (7): 954-959
Previous studies have suggested that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) decreases long-term mortality in patients with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI), but whether PCI specifically decreases mortality when added to intensive medical therapy is unknown. We performed a post hoc analysis of clinical outcomes in patients in the COURAGE trial based on the presence or absence of anginal symptoms at baseline. Asymptomatic patients were classified as having SMI by electrocardiographic ischemia at rest or reversible stress perfusion imaging (exercise-induced or pharmacologic). Study end points included the composite primary end point (death or myocardial infarction [MI]); individual end points of death, MI, and hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome; and need for revascularization. Of 2,280 patients 12% (n = 283) had SMI and 88% were symptomatic (n = 1,997). There were no between-group differences in age, gender, cardiac risk factors, previous MI or revascularization, extent of angiographic disease, or ischemia by electrocardiogram or imaging. Compared to symptomatic patients, those with SMI had fewer subsequent revascularizations (16% vs 27%, p <0.001) regardless of treatment assignment and fewer hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome (7% vs 12%, p <0.04). No significant differences in outcomes were observed between the 2 treatment groups, although there was a trend toward fewer deaths in the PCI group (n = 7, 5%) compared to the optimal medical therapy (OMT) group (n = 16, 11%, p = 0.12). In conclusion, addition of PCI to OMT did not decrease nonfatal cardiac events in patients with SMI but showed a trend toward fewer deaths. Although underpowered, given similar outcomes in other small studies, these findings suggest the need for an adequately powered trial of revascularization versus OMT in SMI patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.11.023
View details for Web of Science ID 000302111400005
View details for PubMedID 22445578
Size- and charge-dependent non-specific uptake of PEGylated nanoparticles by macrophages
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE
2012; 7: 799-813
The assessment of macrophage response to nanoparticles is a central component in the evaluation of new nanoparticle designs for future in vivo application. This work investigates which feature, nanoparticle size or charge, is more predictive of non-specific uptake of nanoparticles by macrophages. This was investigated by synthesizing a library of polymer-coated iron oxide micelles, spanning a range of 30-100 nm in diameter and -23 mV to +9 mV, and measuring internalization into macrophages in vitro. Nanoparticle size and charge both contributed towards non-specific uptake, but within the ranges investigated, size appears to be a more dominant predictor of uptake. Based on these results, a protease-responsive nanoparticle was synthesized, displaying a matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)-cleavable polymeric corona. These nanoparticles are able to respond to MMP-9 activity through the shedding of 10-20 nm of hydrodynamic diameter. This MMP-9-triggered decrease in nanoparticle size also led to up to a six-fold decrease in nanoparticle internalization by macrophages and is observable by T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. These findings guide the design of imaging or therapeutic nanoparticles for in vivo targeting of macrophage activity in pathologic states.
View details for DOI 10.2147/IJN.S28531
View details for Web of Science ID 000302716500001
View details for PubMedID 22359457
Is cardiac catheterization necessary before initial management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease? Results from a Web-based survey of cardiologists
AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL
2011; 162 (6): 1034-U124
It is unknown whether preconceived beliefs regarding the need for cardiac catheterization and revascularization in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) would preclude a study randomizing patients with significant ischemia to a conservative strategy. Given the widespread practice of performing revascularization in patients with SIHD, we assessed the feasibility of conducting a randomized trial comparing initial invasive and conservative strategies in patients with SIHD and moderate or severe ischemia.An online survey to cardiologists queried their willingness to enroll a sample patient with frequent stable angina, >10% myocardial ischemia, and normal ejection fraction into a randomized trial with a 50% chance of being conservatively managed without cardiac catheterization.Among 499 respondents, 57% (95% CI 53%-62%) were willing to enroll the patient. Among 207 cardiologists unwilling to enroll, 55% (95% CI 48%-61%) would be willing if they knew the patient did not have very high-risk features on stress imaging, yielding a total of 80% (95% CI 76%-83%) of cardiologists willing to enroll. No differences were observed among different types of cardiologists (interventional, invasive/noninterventional, and noninvasive). Seventy-one percent (95% CI 67%-75%) were more likely to try initial medical therapy after the publication of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation trial results.Most surveyed cardiologists were willing to enroll SIHD patients with at least moderate ischemia into a trial with an initial noninvasive strategy arm. These findings support the feasibility of planning a large-scale trial to test the role of cardiac catheterization and revascularization in the initial management of SIHD patients with moderate or severe ischemia.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.09.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000298033300011
View details for PubMedID 22137077
Angiographic Disease Progression and Residual Risk of Cardiovascular Events While on Optimal Medical Therapy Observations From the COURAGE Trial
2011; 4 (6): 545-552
The extent to which recurrent events in patients with stable coronary artery disease is attributable to progression of an index lesion originally ≥50% diameter stenosis (DS) but not revascularized or originally <50% DS is unknown during optimal medical therapy (OMT).In the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial, 205 patients assigned to OMT plus percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 284 patients assigned to OMT only had symptom-driven angiograms suitable for analysis. Percentages of patients in the OMT+PCI and OMT-only cohorts with index lesions originally <50% DS were 30% and 32%, respectively; 20% and 68% had index lesions originally ≥50% DS. In both groups, index lesions originally <50% or ≥50% DS represented <4% and <25% of all such lesions, respectively. The only angiographic predictor of myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome was the number of lesions originally ≥50% DS that had not been revascularized (odds ratio, 1.15; confidence limits, 1.01-1.31; P<0.04).Lesions originally <50% DS were index lesions in one third of patients referred for symptom-driven repeat angiography, but represented <4% of all such lesions. Nonrevascularized lesions originally ≥50% DS were more often index lesions in OMT-only patients, but still represented a minority (<25%) of all such lesions. These findings underscore the need for improved therapies to arrest plaque progression and reliable strategies for selecting stenoses warranting PCI.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.110.960062
View details for Web of Science ID 000300549500005
View details for PubMedID 22045968
Impact of Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes on Prognosis and Outcomes With Early Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) Trial
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
2011; 58 (2): 131-137
Our purpose was to clarify the clinical utility of identifying metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).It is uncertain whether MetS influences prognosis in patients with CAD and whether the risk associated with MetS exceeds the risk associated with the sum of its individual components.In a post hoc analysis, we compared the incidence of death or myocardial infarction (MI) in stable CAD patients in the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial according to the presence (+) or absence (-) of MetS and diabetes: Group A, -MetS/-diabetes; Group B, +MetS/-diabetes; Group C, -MetS/+diabetes; and Group D, +MetS/+diabetes. We explored which MetS components best predicted adverse outcomes and whether MetS had independent prognostic significance beyond its individual components.Of 2,248 patients, 61% had MetS and 34% diabetes. Risk for death or MI increased from Group A (14%) to Group D (25%, p < 0.001). Hypertension (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98 to 1.71; p = 0.07), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.55; p = 0.03), and elevated glucose (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.47; p = 0.11) most strongly predicted death or MI. MetS was associated with an increased risk of death or MI (unadjusted HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.73; p = 0.001). However, after adjusting for its individual components, MetS was no longer significantly associated with outcome (HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.68; p = 0.46). Allocation to initial percutaneous coronary intervention did not affect the incidence of death or MI within any group.Among stable CAD patients in the COURAGE trial, the presence of MetS identified increased risk for death or MI, but MetS did not have independent prognostic significance after adjusting for its constituent components. The addition of early percutaneous coronary intervention to optimal medical therapy did not significantly reduce the risk of death or MI regardless of MetS or diabetes status. (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation [COURAGE]; NCT00007657).
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.02.046
View details for Web of Science ID 000292189300006
View details for PubMedID 21718908
The Cost-Effectiveness of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention as a Function of Angina Severity in Patients With Stable Angina
CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES
2011; 4 (2): 172-U72
The COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial compared percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) plus optimal medical therapy (OMT) to OMT alone in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in 2287 patients with stable coronary disease. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCI as a function of angina severity at the time of randomization.Angina severity was assessed with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). Patients were grouped into tertiles based on the distribution of baseline scores such that higher tertiles represented better health status. Clinically significant improvement from baseline within individual patients was defined as score increases of >8 for physical limitation, >20 for angina frequency, and >16 for quality-of-life domains. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for PCI was calculated as the difference in costs divided by the difference in proportion of patients with clinically significant improvement. Improvement in angina severity was significantly greater for PCI patients in the lowest and middle tertiles. The number of patients needed to treat was much larger for the highest tertile. The added in-trial cost of PCI ranged from $7300 to $13 000. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from $80 000 to $330 000 for the lowest and middle tertiles and from $520 000 to >$3 million for the highest tertile for 1 additional patient to achieve significant clinical improvement in health status.The incremental cost of PCI to provide meaningful clinical benefit above that achieved by OMT alone was lower for patients with severe angina than for those with mild or no angina. However, it is uncertain that at any level of angina severity that PCI as an initial strategy would achieve a socially acceptable cost threshold. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00007657.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.110.940502
View details for Web of Science ID 000288372200008
View details for PubMedID 21304091
Is Optimal Medical Therapy as Used in the COURAGE Trial Feasible for Widespread Use?
Current treatment options in cardiovascular medicine
2011; 13 (1): 16-25
Medical therapy is the foundation upon which all treatment for patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is based, regardless of whether revascularization is performed. Although professional societies recommend comprehensive lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions with specific risk factor targets, in practice this does not usually occur. The COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial tested multiple simultaneous lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions (referred to as "optimal medical therapy" [OMT]) with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with stable CAD. Nurse case managers were trained to counsel patients according to protocols designed to achieve predefined lifestyle and risk factor goals. Medications were provided at no cost to patients. Adherence to lifestyle and medication prescription was very high and resulted in significant improvement in risk factor targets. COURAGE found no benefit from the addition of PCI to OMT in the primary outcome of death or myocardial infarction. OMT as delivered in COURAGE has been praised but it has also been criticized as not achievable in "real world" clinical practice. The authors, all COURAGE investigators, believe that the delivery of OMT in COURAGE represents a viable model for secondary prevention that can be translated to real practice, but acknowledge that it is difficult to do so in our fee-for-service health care system. New models of team-based healthcare to achieve evidence-based treatment targets and improved clinical outcomes are needed. Successful translation of COURAGE OMT to everyday practice will require a health care system that rewards quality of care.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11936-010-0104-7
View details for PubMedID 21120640
Do Major Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease in the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation Trial Differ by Healthcare System?
CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES
2010; 3 (5): 476-483
The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial enrolled patients from 3 distinct healthcare systems (HCSs) in North America. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether there is a treatment difference in cardiovascular outcomes by HCS.The study population included 968 patients from the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), 386 from the US non-VA, and 931 from Canada with different comorbidities and prognoses. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) during the median 4.6-year follow-up. Baseline demographics were similar between percutaneous coronary intervention and optimal medical therapy treatment groups within each HCS. After follow-up, the primary end point of total mortality and nonfatal MI was not statistically significant between percutaneous coronary intervention and optimal medical therapy, regardless of HCS: VA, 22.3% versus 21.9% (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.80-1.38; P=0.95); US non-VA, 15.8% versus 21.8% (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.43-1.12; P=0.24); Canadian HCS, 17.3% versus 13.5% (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.83; P=0.17). The interaction between HCSs and treatment was not statistically significant. Long-term mortality was significantly higher in the VA system as a result of significantly greater comorbidity and worse left ventricular function.In the COURAGE trial, addition of percutaneous coronary intervention to optimal medical therapy did not improve 5-year survival or reduce MI or other major adverse cardiovascular events regardless of whether patients were Canadian or American or US veterans or non-veterans. Outcome differences were largely explained by differences in baseline characteristics known to affect long-term prognosis.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.109.901579
View details for Web of Science ID 000284262100008
View details for PubMedID 20664026
Intensive Multifactorial Intervention for Stable Coronary Artery Disease Optimal Medical Therapy in the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) Trial
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
2010; 55 (13): 1348-1358
This paper describes the medical therapy used in the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial and its effect on risk factors.Most cardiovascular clinical trials test a single intervention. The COURAGE trial tested multiple lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions (optimal medical therapy) with or without percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with stable coronary disease.All patients, regardless of treatment assignment, received equivalent lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions for secondary prevention. Most medications were provided at no cost. Therapy was administered by nurse case managers according to protocols designed to achieve predefined lifestyle and risk factor goals.The patients (n = 2,287) were followed for 4.6 years. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in proportion of patients achieving therapeutic goals. The proportion of smokers decreased from 23% to 19% (p = 0.025), those who reported <7% of calories from saturated fat increased from 46% to 80% (p < 0.001), and those who walked >or=150 min/week increased from 58% to 66% (p < 0.001). Body mass index increased from 28.8 +/- 0.13 kg/m(2) to 29.3 +/- 0.23 kg/m(2) (p < 0.001). Appropriate medication use increased from pre-randomization to 5 years as follows: antiplatelets 87% to 96%; beta-blockers 69% to 85%; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors 46% to 72%; and statins 64% to 93%. Systolic blood pressure decreased from a median of 131 +/- 0.49 mm Hg to 123 +/- 0.88 mm Hg. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from a median of 101 +/- 0.83 mg/dl to 72 +/- 0.88 mg/dl.Secondary prevention was applied equally and intensively to both treatment groups in the COURAGE trial by nurse case managers with treatment protocols and resulted in significant improvement in risk factors. Optimal medical therapy in the COURAGE trial provides an effective model for secondary prevention among patients with chronic coronary disease. (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation; NCT00007657).
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.10.062
View details for Web of Science ID 000275885900009
View details for PubMedID 20338496
- Having It Both Ways JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY 2010; 55 (9): 865-866
Optimal Medical Therapy With or Without Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2009; 104 (12): 1647-1653
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but it is unknown whether CKD influences the efficacy of alternative CAD treatment strategies. Thus, we compared outcomes in stable CAD patients with and without CKD randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and optimal medical therapy (OMT) or OMT alone in a post hoc analysis of the 2,287 patient COURAGE study. At baseline, 320 patients (14%) had CKD defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), as estimated by the abbreviated 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. The patients with CKD were older (68 +/- 9 vs 61 +/- 10 years; p <0.001) and more often had diabetes mellitus (42% vs 33%; p = 0.002), hypertension (81% vs 65%; p <0.03), heart failure (13% vs 3.4%; p <001), and three-vessel CAD (37% vs 29%, p = 0.01). After adjustment for these differences, CKD remained an independent predictor of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.90). PCI had no effect on these outcomes. Furthermore, at 36 months, a similar percentage of patients with CKD treated with OMT (70%) and PCI plus OMT (76%) were angina free compared to patients without CKD. In conclusion, CKD is an important determinant of clinical outcomes in patients with stable CAD, regardless of the treatment strategy. Although PCI did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction when added to OMT for patients with CKD, it also was not associated with worse outcomes in this high-risk group.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.07.043
View details for Web of Science ID 000278137800008
View details for PubMedID 19962469
Impact of an Initial Strategy of Medical Therapy Without Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in High-Risk Patients From the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) Trial
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2009; 104 (8): 1055-1062
We explored the safety and quality-of-life consequences of treating patients with stable coronary disease and high-risk features initially with optimal medical therapy (OMT) alone compared to OMT plus percutaneous coronary intervention. This was a post hoc analysis of Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial patients. We defined high risk as the onset of Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III angina within 2 months or stabilized acute coronary syndrome within 2 weeks of enrollment. The primary end point was death or myocardial infarction after 4.6 years. Of the 2,287 patients enrolled in the COURAGE trial, 264 (12%) were high risk and had a relative risk of 1.56 for death or myocardial infarction (p = 0.0008) compared to those with non-high-risk features. A total of 35 primary events occurred in the OMT group and 32 in the percutaneous coronary intervention plus OMT group (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.79; p = 0.68). No significant difference was found in the prevalence of angina between the 2 groups at 1 year. During the first year of follow-up, 30% of the OMT patients crossed over to the revascularization group. In conclusion, an initial strategy of OMT alone for high-risk patients in the COURAGE trial did not result in increased death or myocardial infarction at 4.6 years or worse angina at 1 year, but it was associated with a high rate of crossover to revascularization.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.05.056
View details for Web of Science ID 000270864600009
View details for PubMedID 19801024
Optimal Medical Therapy With or Without Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Older Patients With Stable Coronary Disease A Pre-Specified Subset Analysis of the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive druG Evaluation) Trial
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
2009; 54 (14): 1303-1308
Our aim was to access clinical effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when added to optimal medical therapy (OMT) in older patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).While older patients with CAD are at increased risk for cardiac events compared with younger patients, it is unclear whether PCI may mitigate this risk more effectively than OMT alone or, alternatively, may be associated with more complications.We conducted a pre-specified analysis of outcomes in stable CAD patients stratified by age and randomized to PCI+OMT or OMT alone in the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive druG Evaluation) trial.A total of 1,381 patients (60%) were <65 years of age (mean 56+/-6 years) and 904 patients (40%) were >or=65 years of age (mean 72+/-5 years). Achieved treatment targets for blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adherence to diet and exercise, and angina-free status did not differ by age or treatment assignment. Among older patients, there was a 2- to 3-fold higher death rate, but similar rates of myocardial infarction, stroke, and major cardiac events compared with younger patients. The addition of PCI to OMT did not improve or worsen clinical outcomes in patients>or=65 years of age during a median 4.6 year follow-up.These data support adherence to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guidelines that advocate OMT as an appropriate initial management strategy, regardless of age. (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation [COURAGE]; NCT00007657).
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.07.013
View details for Web of Science ID 000270082700013
View details for PubMedID 19778673
Impact of Optimal Medical Therapy With or Without Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Long-Term Cardiovascular End Points in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease (from the COURAGE Trial)
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2009; 104 (1): 1-4
The main results of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial revealed no significant differences in the primary end point of all-cause mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI] or major secondary end points (composites of death/MI/stroke; hospitalization for acute coronary syndromes [ACSs]) during a median 4.6-year follow-up in 2,287 patients with stable coronary artery disease randomized to optimal medical therapy (OMT) with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to assess the impact of PCI when added to OMT on major prespecified tertiary cardiovascular outcomes (time to first event), namely cardiac death and composites of cardiac death/MI, cardiac death/MI/hospitalization for ACS, cardiac death/MI/stroke, MI/stroke, or cardiac death/MI/ACS/stroke, during study follow-up. There were no significant differences between treatment arms for the composite of cardiac death or MI (15% in PCI + OMT group vs 14.2% in OMT group, hazard ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 1.33, p = 0.62) or in any of the major prespecified composite cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up, even after excluding periprocedural MI as an outcome of interest. Overall, cause-specific cardiovascular outcomes paralleled closely the primary and secondary composite outcomes of the trial as a whole. In conclusion, compared with an initial management strategy of OMT alone, addition of PCI did not decrease the incidence of major cardiovascular outcomes including cardiac death or the composite of cardiac death/MI/ACS/stroke in patients with stable coronary artery disease.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.02.059
View details for Web of Science ID 000267895100001
View details for PubMedID 19576311
Quantitative Results of Baseline Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the COURAGE Trial
CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES
2009; 2 (4): 320-U97
COURAGE compared outcomes in stable coronary patients randomized to optimal medical therapy plus percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus optimal medical therapy alone.Angiographic data were analyzed by treatment arm, health care system (Veterans Administration, US non-Veterans Administration, Canada), and gender. Veterans Administration patients had higher prevalence of coronary artery bypass graft surgery and left ventricular ejection fraction < or =50%. Men had worse diameter stenosis of the most severe lesion, higher prevalence of prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and more 3-vessel disease that included a proximal left anterior descending lesion (P<0.0001 for all comparisons versus women). Failure to cross rate (3%) and visual angiographic success of stent procedures (97%) were similar to contemporary practice in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. Quantitative angiographic PCI success was 93% (residual lesion <50% in-segment) and 82% (<20% in-stent), with only minor nonsignificant differences among health care systems and genders. Event rates were higher in patients with higher jeopardy scores and more severe vessel disease, but rates were similar irrespective of treatment strategy. Within the PCI plus optimal medical therapy arm, complete revascularization was associated with a trend toward lower rate of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Complete revascularization was similar between genders and among health care systems.PCI success and completeness of revascularization did not differ significantly by health care system or gender and were similar to contemporary practice. Angiographic burden of disease affected overall event rates but not response to an initial strategy of PCI plus optimal medical therapy or optimal medical therapy alone.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.108.830091
View details for Web of Science ID 000276074200007
View details for PubMedID 20031857
Health-Risk Appraisal With or Without Disease Management for Worksite Cardiovascular Risk Reduction
JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR NURSING
2008; 23 (6): 513-518
Worksite health promotion programs use health risk appraisal (HRA) surveys to identify employees at increased risk, then provide a range of interventions to encourage high-risk individuals to improve their health. Our objective was to determine how the intensity of intervention after HRA affected cardiovascular risk after 1 year, comparing individual follow-up counseling with environmental supports.133 employees of Vanderbilt University with cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned to worksite HRA plus targeted disease management (DM group) or HRA plus information about worksite health promotion programs (HRA group). The DM group received longitudinal individualized counseling for risk reduction, whereas the HRA group members received one feedback session about their risk factors and information about free worksite health promotion programs. The main outcome measure was the difference between groups in the change in average Framingham risk score from baseline to 1 year.There was no significant baseline difference between groups in the Framingham risk score. Among DM participants, the mean (SD) Framingham risk score decreased by 22.6%; among HRA participants, the mean score rose by 4.3% (P = .017 for the difference between groups).In this study of employees with cardiovascular risk factors, HRA followed by individual counseling was more effective than providing information about free worksite health promotion programs.
View details for Web of Science ID 000260533500010
View details for PubMedID 18953215
Cost-Effectiveness of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Optimally Treated Stable Coronary Patients
CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES
2008; 1 (1): 12-U33
The COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive druG Evaluations) trial compared the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) plus optimal medical therapy with optimal medical therapy alone on cardiovascular events in 2287 patients with stable coronary disease. After 4.6 years, there was no difference in the primary end point of death or myocardial infarction, although PCI improved quality of life. The present study evaluated the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of PCI in the COURAGE trial.Resource use was assessed by diagnosis-related group for hospitalizations and by current procedural terminology code for outpatient visits and tests and then converted to costs by use of 2004 Medicare payments. Medication costs were assessed with the Red Book average wholesale price. Life expectancy beyond the trial was estimated from Framingham survival data. Utilities were assessed by the standard gamble method. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was expressed as cost per life-year and cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained. The added cost of PCI was approximately $10,000, without significant gain in life-years or quality-adjusted life-years. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio varied from just over $168,000 to just under $300,000 per life-year or quality-adjusted life-year gained with PCI. A large minority of the distributions found that medical therapy alone offered better outcome at lower cost. The costs per patient for a significant improvement in angina frequency, physical limitation, and quality of life were $154,580, $112,876, and $124,233, respectively.The COURAGE trial did not find the addition of PCI to optimal medical therapy to be a cost-effective initial management strategy for symptomatic, chronic coronary artery disease.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.108.798462
View details for Web of Science ID 000207504300005
View details for PubMedID 20031783
Effect of PCI on quality of life in patients with stable coronary disease
NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
2008; 359 (7): 677-687
It has not been clearly established whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can provide an incremental benefit in quality of life over that provided by optimal medical therapy among patients with chronic coronary artery disease.We randomly assigned 2287 patients with stable coronary disease to PCI plus optimal medical therapy or to optimal medical therapy alone. We assessed angina-specific health status (with the use of the Seattle Angina Questionnaire) and overall physical and mental function (with the use of the RAND 36-item health survey [RAND-36]).At baseline, 22% of the patients were free of angina. At 3 months, 53% of the patients in the PCI group and 42% in the medical-therapy group were angina-free (P<0.001). Baseline mean (+/-SD) Seattle Angina Questionnaire scores (which range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better health status) were 66+/-25 for physical limitations, 54+/-32 for angina stability, 69+/-26 for angina frequency, 87+/-16 for treatment satisfaction, and 51+/-25 for quality of life. By 3 months, these scores had increased in the PCI group, as compared with the medical-therapy group, to 76+/-24 versus 72+/-23 for physical limitation (P=0.004), 77+/-28 versus 73+/-27 for angina stability (P=0.002), 85+/-22 versus 80+/-23 for angina frequency (P<0.001), 92+/-12 versus 90+/-14 for treatment satisfaction (P<0.001), and 73+/-22 versus 68+/-23 for quality of life (P<0.001). In general, patients had an incremental benefit from PCI for 6 to 24 months; patients with more severe angina had a greater benefit from PCI. Similar incremental benefits from PCI were seen in some but not all RAND-36 domains. By 36 months, there was no significant difference in health status between the treatment groups.Among patients with stable angina, both those treated with PCI and those treated with optimal medical therapy alone had marked improvements in health status during follow-up. The PCI group had small, but significant, incremental benefits that disappeared by 36 months. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00007657.)
View details for Web of Science ID 000258397900004
View details for PubMedID 18703470
- Reducing post-myocardial infarction mortality in the elderly JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY 2008; 51 (13): 1255-1257
Optimal medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention to reduce ischemic burden - Results from the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial nuclear substudy
2008; 117 (10): 1283-1291
Extent and severity of myocardial ischemia are determinants of risk for patients with coronary artery disease, and ischemia reduction is an important therapeutic goal. The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) nuclear substudy compared the effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ischemia reduction added to optimal medical therapy (OMT) with the use of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS).Of the 2287 COURAGE patients, 314 were enrolled in this substudy of serial rest/stress MPS performed before treatment and 6 to 18 months (mean=374+/-50 days) after randomization using paired exercise (n=84) or vasodilator stress (n=230). A blinded core laboratory analyzed quantitative MPS measures of percent ischemic myocardium. Moderate to severe ischemia encumbered > or = 10% myocardium. The primary end point was > or = 5% reduction in ischemic myocardium at follow-up. Treatment groups had similar baseline characteristics. At follow-up, the reduction in ischemic myocardium was greater with PCI+OMT (-2.7%; 95% confidence interval, -1.7%, -3.8%) than with OMT (-0.5%; 95% confidence interval, -1.6%, 0.6%; P<0.0001). More PCI+OMT patients exhibited significant ischemia reduction (33% versus 19%; P=0.0004), especially patients with moderate to severe pretreatment ischemia (78% versus 52%; P=0.007). Patients with ischemia reduction had lower unadjusted risk for death or myocardial infarction (P=0.037 [risk-adjusted P=0.26]), particularly if baseline ischemia was moderate to severe (P=0.001 [risk-adjusted P=0.08]). Death or myocardial infarction rates ranged from 0% to 39% for patients with no residual ischemia to > or = 10% residual ischemia on follow-up MPS (P=0.002 [risk-adjusted P=0.09]).In COURAGE patients who underwent serial MPS, adding PCI to OMT resulted in greater reduction in ischemia compared with OMT alone. Our findings suggest a treatment target of > or = 5% ischemia reduction with OMT with or without coronary revascularization.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.743963
View details for Web of Science ID 000253859100007
View details for PubMedID 18268144
Using COURAGE to treat angina.
Medscape journal of medicine
2008; 10 (12): 286-?
View details for PubMedID 19242592
- Does late PCI improve clinical outcome and survival in patients with arterial occlusion after MI? NATURE CLINICAL PRACTICE CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE 2007; 4 (5): 250-251
Optimal medical therapy with or without PCI for stable coronary disease
NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
2007; 356 (15): 1503-1516
In patients with stable coronary artery disease, it remains unclear whether an initial management strategy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with intensive pharmacologic therapy and lifestyle intervention (optimal medical therapy) is superior to optimal medical therapy alone in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events.We conducted a randomized trial involving 2287 patients who had objective evidence of myocardial ischemia and significant coronary artery disease at 50 U.S. and Canadian centers. Between 1999 and 2004, we assigned 1149 patients to undergo PCI with optimal medical therapy (PCI group) and 1138 to receive optimal medical therapy alone (medical-therapy group). The primary outcome was death from any cause and nonfatal myocardial infarction during a follow-up period of 2.5 to 7.0 years (median, 4.6).There were 211 primary events in the PCI group and 202 events in the medical-therapy group. The 4.6-year cumulative primary-event rates were 19.0% in the PCI group and 18.5% in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio for the PCI group, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.27; P=0.62). There were no significant differences between the PCI group and the medical-therapy group in the composite of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke (20.0% vs. 19.5%; hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.27; P=0.62); hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (12.4% vs. 11.8%; hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.37; P=0.56); or myocardial infarction (13.2% vs. 12.3%; hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.43; P=0.33).As an initial management strategy in patients with stable coronary artery disease, PCI did not reduce the risk of death, myocardial infarction, or other major cardiovascular events when added to optimal medical therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00007657 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).
View details for Web of Science ID 000245624400004
View details for PubMedID 17387127
The evolving pattern of symptomatic coronary artery disease in the United States and Canada: Baseline characteristics of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2007; 99 (2): 208-212
Major improvements in medical therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary artery disease (CAD) have emerged during the previous 2 decades, but no randomized trial in patients with stable CAD has been powered to compare these 2 strategies for the hard clinical end points of death or myocardial infarction (MI), and previous studies have not evaluated the effect of coronary stents and intensive medical therapy on cardiac events during long-term follow-up. Between 1999 and 2004, 2,287 patients with documented myocardial ischemia and angiographically confirmed CAD were randomized to the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial, with a principal hypothesis that a strategy of percutaneous coronary intervention plus intensive, guideline-driven medical therapy would be superior to a strategy of intensive medical therapy alone. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality or acute MI (time to first event) during a 2.5- to 7-year (median 5) follow-up. Baseline characteristics were a mean age of 62 +/- 5 years, 85% men, and 86% Caucasian. Mean duration of angina before randomization was 26 months (average 10 episodes/week), and 29% of patients were smokers, 67% had hypertension, 38% had previous MI, 71% had dyslipidemia, 34% had diabetes, 27% had previous revascularization, and 69% had multivessel CAD. Approximately 55% of patients met established criteria for the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, baseline characteristics of the COURAGE trial study population indicate a highly symptomatic group of patients with CAD who have a significant duration and frequency of antecedent angina pectoris and a high prevalence of cardiac risk factors.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.07.082
View details for Web of Science ID 000243545900012
View details for PubMedID 17223420
Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in the clinical outcomes utilizing revascularization and aggressive drug evaluation (COURAGE) trial, Veterans Administration Cooperative study no. 424
JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY
2006; 13 (5): 685-698
Stress gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (gSPECT) is increasingly used before and after intercurrent therapeutic intervention and is the basis for ongoing evaluation in the Department of Veterans Affairs clinical outcomes utilizing revascularization and aggressive drug evaluation (COURAGE) trial.The COURAGE trial is a North American multicenter randomized clinical trial that enrolled 2287 patients to aggressive medical therapy vs percutaneous coronary intervention plus aggressive medical therapy. Three COURAGE nuclear substudies have been designed. The goals of substudy 0 are to examine the diagnostic accuracy of the extent and severity of inducible ischemia at baseline in COURAGE patients compared with patient symptoms and quantitative coronary angiography and to explore the relationship between inducible ischemia and the benefit from revascularization when added to medical therapy. Substudy 1 will correlate the extent and severity of provocative ischemia with the frequency, quality, and instability of recurrent symptoms in postcatheterization patients. Substudy 2 (n = 300) will examine the usefulness of sequential gSPECT monitoring 6 to 18 months after therapeutic intervention. Together, these nuclear substudies will evaluate the role of gSPECT to determine the effectiveness of aggressive risk-factor modifications, lifestyle interventions, and anti-ischemic medical therapies with or without revascularization in reducing patients' ischemic burdens.The unfolding of evidence on the application of gSPECT in trials such as COURAGE defines a new era for nuclear cardiology. We hope the evidence that emerges from the COURAGE trial will further establish the role of nuclear imaging in the evidence-based management of patients with stable coronary disease.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nuclcard.2006.06.134
View details for Web of Science ID 000240320900014
View details for PubMedID 16945749
Design and rationale of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial: Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program no. 424
AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL
2006; 151 (6): 1173-1179
Major improvements in medical therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary heart disease have occurred during the past decade, but no randomized trial has compared these 2 strategies for the "hard" clinical end points of death or myocardial infarction nor have earlier studies incorporated the use of coronary stents and aggressive multifaceted medical therapy during long-term follow-up.The COURAGE trial is a multicenter study of patients with documented myocardial ischemia and angiographically confirmed single or multivessel coronary artery disease who are randomized to a strategy of PCI plus intensive medical therapy or intensive medical therapy alone. Medical therapy in both groups is guideline-driven and includes: aspirin, clopidogrel, simvastatin (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target 60-85 mg/dL), long-acting metoprolol and/or amlodipine, lisinopril or losartan, and long-acting nitrates, as well as lifestyle interventions. The primary end point is a composite of all-cause mortality or acute myocardial infarction, and there will be 85% power to detect an absolute 4.6% (relative 22%) difference between strategies. The principal hypothesis is that PCI plus aggressive medical therapy (projected event rate 16.4%) will be superior to aggressive medical therapy alone (projected event rate 21%) during a 2.5- to 7-year (median of 5 years) follow-up.COURAGE is the largest prospective randomized trial of PCI versus intensive medical therapy to date and will define the incremental benefits of PCI in the setting of contemporary optimal medical therapy for chronic coronary heart disease. A total of 2287 patients have been enrolled, and follow-up will conclude in June 2006.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2005.08.015
View details for Web of Science ID 000238614600004
View details for PubMedID 16781214
Ethnic differences in achievement of cholesterol treatment goals. Results from the National Cholesterol Education Program Evaluation Project Utilizing Novel E-Technology II.
Journal of general internal medicine
2006; 21 (4): 320-326
African Americans (AA) have the highest coronary heart disease mortality rate of any ethnic group in the United States. Data from the National Cholesterol Education Program Evaluation ProjecT Utilizing Novel E-Technology (NEPTUNE) II survey were used to assess ethnic differences in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement.NEPTUNE II surveyed patients with treated dyslipidemia to assess achievement of treatment goals established by the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. United States physicians working in primary care or relevant subspecialties enrolled 10 to 20 consecutive patients (May to September 2003), and patient data were recorded in Personal Digital Assistants and uploaded to a central database via the internet.Among 4,885 patients receiving treatment for dyslipidemia, 79.7% were non-Hispanic white (NHW) and 8.4% were AA. Non-Hispanic white and AA patients had significantly different frequencies of treatment success, with 69.0% and 53.7%, respectively, having achieved their LDL-C goal (P<.001). African-American patients were more likely to be in the highest risk category, and less likely to be using lipid drug therapy, taking high-efficacy statins, and receiving care from a subspecialist, but the difference in goal achievement remained significant (P<.001) after adjustment for these and other predictors of treatment success.The frequency of treatment success in dyslipidemia management was significantly lower in AA than NHW patients. Additional research is needed to elucidate reasons for this disparity and to evaluate strategies for improving goal achievement among AA patients receiving therapy for dyslipidemia.
View details for PubMedID 16686806
- Ethnic differences in achievement of cholesterol treatment goals JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE 2006; 21 (4): 320-326
Results of the National Cholesterol Education (NCEP) Program Evaluation Project Utilizing Novel E-Technology (NEPTUNE) II survey and implications for treatment under the recent NCEP Writing Group recommendations
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2005; 96 (4): 556-563
The most recent national survey of compliance with the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) guidelines was completed before ATP III and showed significant underachievement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol goals. The NCEP Evaluation ProjecT Utilizing Novel E-Technology (NEPTUNE) II was a national survey conducted in 2003. Of the 4,885 patients, 67% achieved their LDL cholesterol treatment goal, including 89%, 76%, and 57%, respectively, in the 0 or 1 risk factor, > or = 2 risk factors or coronary heart disease (CHD), and CHD risk equivalent categories. The percentage with triglyceride concentrations > or = 200 mg/dl (2.25 mmol/L) in each risk category who achieved their LDL cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals was 64%, 52%, and 27%, respectively. Patients with diabetes (55%) and other CHD risk equivalents (40%) were less likely to have achieved their LDL cholesterol targets than those with CHD (62%). Of the 1,447 patients with cardiovascular disease, 75% could be classified as very high risk according to the new July 2004 NCEP Writing Group recommendations, and 17.8% of those at very high risk had an LDL cholesterol level of <70 mg/dl (<1.81 mmol/L). In conclusion, these results suggest improved lipid management compared with previous surveys. The largest treatment gaps were found for features new to ATP III as of July 2004, including goal achievement for patients with CHD risk equivalents and for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. Most of those (75%) with cardiovascular disease in NEPTUNE II would be considered very high risk and candidates for aggressive therapy to reach the new optional treatment goals.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.04.019
View details for Web of Science ID 000231255100017
View details for PubMedID 16098311
- Can pravastatin lower coronary event rate if HDL and LDL cholesterol are at low levels? NATURE CLINICAL PRACTICE CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE 2004; 1 (1): 18-19
Flavonoids for reduction of atherosclerotic risk.
Current atherosclerosis reports
2004; 6 (1): 73-78
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and beverages derived from plants. Foods thought historically by many societies to have healing properties--cocoa, red wine, and tea--are particularly rich in flavonoids. A majority of prospective cohort studies demonstrate a significant inverse association between flavonoid consumption and cardiovascular risk. Short-term studies demonstrate numerous plausible mechanisms by which flavonoids may confer cardiovascular protection: they inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation, reduce thrombosis, improve endothelial function, and reduce inflammation. No long-term, randomized, controlled trials of flavonoids with hard clinical endpoints have been conducted. Although there are no recommended daily intake goals for flavonoids, the data presented provide additional rationale to eat a diet containing a variety of flavonoid-rich foods and beverages.
View details for PubMedID 14662111
Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract - A randomized controlled trial
ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
2003; 163 (12): 1448-1453
Tea consumption has been associated with decreased cardiovascular risk, but potential mechanisms of benefit are ill-defined. While epidemiologic studies suggest that drinking multiple cups of tea per day lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), previous trials of tea drinking and administration of green tea extract have failed to show any impact on lipids and lipoproteins in humans. Our objective was to study the impact of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract on the lipids and lipoproteins of subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial set in outpatient clinics in 6 urban hospitals in China. A total of 240 men and women 18 years or older on a low-fat diet with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to receive a daily capsule containing theaflavin-enriched green tea extract (375 mg) or placebo for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures were mean percentage changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride levels compared with baseline.After 12 weeks, the mean +/- SEM changes from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride levels were -11.3% +/- 0.9% (P =.01), -16.4% +/- 1.1% (P =.01), 2.3% +/- 2.1% (P =.27), and 2.6% +/- 3.5% (P =.47), respectively, in the tea extract group. The mean levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides did not change significantly in the placebo group. No significant adverse events were observed.The theaflavin-enriched green tea extract we studied is an effective adjunct to a low-saturated-fat diet to reduce LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic adults and is well tolerated.
View details for Web of Science ID 000183705400009
View details for PubMedID 12824094
Postexercise protein intake enhances whole-body and leg protein accretion in humans
MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE
2002; 34 (5): 828-837
Exercise increases the use of amino acids for glucose production and stimulates the oxidation of amino acids and other substrates to provide ATP for muscular contraction, and thus the availability of amino acids and energy for postexercise muscle protein synthesis may be limiting. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of postexercise nutrient intake to enhance the recovery of whole-body and skeletal muscle protein homeostasis in humans.Primed-continuous infusions of L-[1-13C]leucine and L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine were initiated in the antecubital vein and blood was sampled from a femoral vein and a heated (arterialized) hand vein. Each study consisted of a 30-min basal, a 60-min exercise (bicycle at 60% VO2max), and a 180-min recovery period. Five men and five women were studied three times with an oral supplement administered immediately following exercise in random order: NO = 0, 0, 0; SUPP = 0, 8, 3; or SUPP+PRO = 10, 8, 3 g of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid, respectively.Compared to NO, SUPP did not alter leg or whole-body protein homeostasis during the recovery period. In contrast, SUPP+PRO increased plasma essential amino acids 33%, leg fractional extraction of phenylalanine 4-fold, leg uptake of glucose 3.5-fold, and leg and whole-body protein synthesis 6-fold and 15%, respectively. Whereas postexercise intake of either NO or SUPP resulted in a net leg release of essential amino acids and net loss of whole-body and leg protein, SUPP+PRO resulted in a net leg uptake of essential amino acids and net whole-body and leg protein gain.These findings suggest that the availability of amino acids is more important than the availability of energy for postexercise repair and synthesis of muscle proteins.
View details for Web of Science ID 000175402700016
View details for PubMedID 11984302
Postexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasis
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
2001; 280 (6): E982-E993
Although the importance of postexercise nutrient ingestion timing has been investigated for glycogen metabolism, little is known about similar effects for protein dynamics. Each subject (n = 10) was studied twice, with the same oral supplement (10 g protein, 8 g carbohydrate, 3 g fat) being administered either immediately (EARLY) or 3 h (LATE) after 60 min of moderate-intensity exercise. Leg blood flow and circulating concentrations of glucose, amino acids, and insulin were similar for EARLY and LATE. Leg glucose uptake and whole body glucose utilization (D-[6,6-2H(2)]glucose) were stimulated threefold and 44%, respectively, for EARLY vs. LATE. Although essential and nonessential amino acids were taken up by the leg in EARLY, they were released in LATE. Although proteolysis was unaffected, leg (L-[ring-2H(5)]phenylalanine) and whole body (L-[1-13C]leucine) protein synthesis were elevated threefold and 12%, respectively, for EARLY vs. LATE, resulting in a net gain of leg and whole body protein. Therefore, similar to carbohydrate homeostasis, EARLY postexercise ingestion of a nutrient supplement enhances accretion of whole body and leg protein, suggesting a common mechanism of exercise-induced insulin action.
View details for Web of Science ID 000168809700016
View details for PubMedID 11350780
The epidemiology of low levels of high-density lipoproteins cholesterol in patients with and without coronary artery disease
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2000; 86 (12A): 11L-14L
Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and elevated total cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratios are independently associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. In observational studies, every 1-mg/dL increment in HDL-C is associated with a 2% decreased risk of coronary artery disease in men and 3% decreased risk in women. On average, HDL-C levels are lower in men than in women, and are lower in whites than in blacks. Low HDL-C has also been found to be linked to higher risk of ischemic stroke, degree of carotid atherosclerosis, increased atherosclerotic progression as measured by coronary arteriography, higher coronary mortality among people with cardiovascular disease, and the development of coronary artery disease among patients with diabetes mellitus.
View details for Web of Science ID 000166228700003
View details for PubMedID 11374848
Percutaneous coronary intervention versus medical therapy for coronary heart disease.
Current atherosclerosis reports
2000; 2 (4): 290-296
Medical therapy reduces myocardial infarction and death in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). In contrast, there is little evidence available to evaluate the impact of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on hard endpoints in such patients. Four randomized, controlled trials have compared PCI with medical therapy. These studies have demonstrated that PCI results in an improvement in angina and exercise tolerance compared with medical therapy, but they also suggest that medical therapy may be preferable to PCI with respect to the risk of cardiac events. Interpretation of these studies has been limited by small sample size, exclusion of high-risk subjects, no or reduced use of stents, lack of a cost- effectiveness evaluation, and absence of risk factor intervention (except for Atorvastatin versus Revascularization Treatment, which used aggressive low-density lipoprotein lowering with atorvastatin in the medical group only). The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial will permit better definition of the role of PCI in the treatment of stable or recently stabilized patients with CHD.
View details for PubMedID 11122756
Self-reported cardiac risk factors in emergency department nurses and paramedics.
Prehospital and disaster medicine
2000; 15 (2): 14-17
Our objective was to assess the prevalence of cardiac risk factors in a sample of urban paramedics and emergency department (ED) nurses.We asked 175 paramedics and ED nurses working at a busy, urban ED to complete a cardiovascular risk assessment. The survey asked subjects to report smoking history, diet, exercise habits, weight, stress levels, medication use, history of hypertension or cardiac disease, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cholesterol level (if known).129 of 175 surveys were returned (74% return rate) by 85 paramedics and 44 nurses. The percentages of paramedics and nurses at high or very high risk for cardiac disease were 48% and 41%, respectively. Forty-one percent of female respondents and 46% of male respondents were at high or very high risk. Cigarette smoking was reported in 19% of the paramedics and 14% of the nurses. The percentages of paramedics and nurses who reported hypertension were 13% and 11%, respectively. High cholesterol was reported in 31% of paramedics and 16% of nurses.Forty-eight percent of paramedics and 41% of ED nurses at this center are at high or very high risk for cardiovascular disease, by self-report. Efforts should be made to better educate and intervene in this population of health-care providers in order to reduce their cardiac risk.
View details for PubMedID 11183456
Current perspectives on statins
2000; 101 (2): 207-213
Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are used widely for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. They inhibit HMG-CoA reductase competitively, reduce LDL levels more than other cholesterol-lowering drugs, and lower triglyceride levels in hypertriglyceridemic patients. Statins are well tolerated and have an excellent safety record. Clinical trials in patients with and without coronary heart disease and with and without high cholesterol have demonstrated consistently that statins reduce the relative risk of major coronary events by approximately 30% and produce a greater absolute benefit in patients with higher baseline risk. Proposed mechanisms include favorable effects on plasma lipoproteins, endothelial function, plaque architecture and stability, thrombosis, and inflammation. Mechanisms independent of LDL lowering may play an important role in the clinical benefits conferred by these drugs and may ultimately broaden their indication from lipid-lowering to antiatherogenic agents.
View details for Web of Science ID 000084821700024
View details for PubMedID 10637210
Nonlipid primary and secondary prevention strategies for coronary heart disease
1996; 19 (5): 419-423
Widespread application of proven primary and secondary preventive strategies for coronary heart disease would result in substantial savings of life and health care dollars. Proven strategies (excluding lipid therapy) include quitting smoking, treating hypertension, physical activity, aspirin therapy, and appropriate use of anticoagulants, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in survivors of myocardial infarction. Estrogen replacement therapy is currently under clinical investigation. Avoidance of obesity and tight control of diabetes are prudent interventions as yet unproved by clinical trials. Unfortunately, preventive strategies are frequently underutilized. The greatest challenge for preventive cardiology is to put into practice what we already know to prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UH68300015
View details for PubMedID 8723603
EFFECTS OF INTENSIVE MULTIPLE RISK FACTOR REDUCTION ON CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND CLINICAL CARDIAC EVENTS IN MEN AND WOMEN WITH CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE - THE STANFORD-CORONARY-RISK-INTERVENTION-PROJECT (SCRIP)
1994; 89 (3): 975-990
Recent clinical trials have shown that modification of plasma lipoprotein concentrations can favorably alter progression of coronary atherosclerosis, but no data exist on the effects of a comprehensive program of risk reduction involving both changes in lifestyle and medications. This study tested the hypothesis that intensive multiple risk factor reduction over 4 years would significantly reduce the rate of progression of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries of men and women compared with subjects randomly assigned to the usual care of their physician.Three hundred men (n = 259) and women (n = 41) (mean age, 56 +/- 7.4 years) with angiographically defined coronary atherosclerosis were randomly assigned to usual care (n = 155) or multifactor risk reduction (n = 145). Patients assigned to risk reduction were provided individualized programs involving a low-fat and -cholesterol diet, exercise, weight loss, smoking cessation, and medications to favorably alter lipoprotein profiles. Computer-assisted quantitative coronary arteriography was performed at baseline and after 4 years. The main angiographic outcome was the rate of change in the minimal diameter of diseased segments. All subjects underwent medical and risk factor evaluations at baseline and yearly for 4 years, and reasons for all hospitalizations and deaths were documented. Of the 300 subjects randomized, 274 (91.3%) completed a follow-up arteriogram, and 246 (82%) had comparative measurements of segments with visible disease at baseline and follow-up. Intensive risk reduction resulted in highly significant improvements in various risk factors, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (both, 22%), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+12%), plasma triglycerides (-20%), body weight (-4%), exercise capacity (+20%), and intake of dietary fat (-24%) and cholesterol (-40%) compared with relatively small changes in the usual-care group. No change was observed in lipoprotein(a) in either group. The risk-reduction group showed a rate of narrowing of diseased coronary artery segments that was 47% less than that for subjects in the usual-care group (change in minimal diameter, -0.024 +/- 0.066 mm/y versus -0.045 +/- 0.073 mm/y; P < .02, two-tailed). Three deaths occurred in each group. There were 25 hospitalizations in the risk-reduction group initiated by clinical cardiac events compared with 44 in the usual-care group (rate ratio, 0.61; P = .05; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9).Intensive multifactor risk reduction conducted over 4 years favorably altered the rate of luminal narrowing in coronary arteries of men and women with coronary artery disease and decreased hospitalizations for clinical cardiac events.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NA76200008
View details for PubMedID 8124838
SATURATED FAT INTAKE AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN MEN WITH CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE
1991; 84 (5): 2020-2027
To determine whether there is an association between diet and plasma insulin concentration that is independent of obesity, we studied the relation of dietary composition and caloric intake to obesity and plasma insulin concentrations in 215 nondiabetic men aged 32-74 years with angiographically proven coronary artery disease.After adjusting for age, the intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol were positively correlated (p less than 0.05) with body mass index (r = 0.18, r = 0.16), waist-to-hip circumference ratio (r = 0.21, r = 0.22), and fasting insulin (r = 0.26, r = 0.23). Carbohydrate intake was negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.21), waist-to-hip ratio (r = -0.21), and fasting insulin (r = -0.16). Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids did not correlate significantly with body mass index or waist-to-hip circumference ratio but did correlate positively with fasting insulin (r = 0.24). Intake of dietary calories was negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.15). In multivariate analysis, intake of saturated fatty acids was significantly related to elevated fasting insulin concentration independently of body mass index.These cross-sectional findings in nondiabetic men with coronary artery disease suggest that increased consumption of saturated fatty acids is associated independently with higher fasting insulin concentrations.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991GN52200015
View details for PubMedID 1934376
DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG ADOLESCENT BINGE EATERS AND PURGERS - A DEFINED POPULATION STUDY
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
1987; 77 (12): 1539-1541
We surveyed 646 tenth grade females in Northern California to assess the prevalence of binge eating and purging behaviors. Of these, 10.3 per cent met study criteria for bulimia and an additional 10.4 per cent reported purging behaviors for weight control. Bulimics and purgers were heavier, had greater triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, and reported higher rates of drunkenness, marijuana use, cigarette use, and greater levels of depressive symptomatology.
View details for Web of Science ID A1987K958400013
View details for PubMedID 3674255
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE IN PRACTICE - THE STATE OF THE ART
WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
1981; 134 (4): 367-372
Primary and secondary prevention, as opposed to tertiary prevention, is the logical approach to attack today's leading causes of premature death. To apply preventive medicine in their practices, physicians may use a number of tools. The traditional annual examination should be abandoned in favor of periodic screening of asymptomatic patients according to age and sex. Screening should be done on a case-finding basis, facilitated by use of a longitudinal screening flow sheet and evaluated by use of a retrospective audit. An age-sex register can help identify which patients belong to a high-risk group. Health hazard appraisal is a tool for estimating a patient's risk before and after prescribed preventive intervention, and may stimulate patient risk factor reduction-as may other behavior modification techniques. In many cases these tools can be applied by paramedical personnel. Further research is needed to gauge the effects of these techniques on risk, morbidity and mortality.
View details for Web of Science ID A1981LM98100032
View details for PubMedID 7245742