Current Role at Stanford


Research Manager and Scientist for hand related research both at VA HCS and Stanford Hospitals and Clinics

Education & Certifications


  • BS, UCLA, Kinesiology (1984)
  • MS, San Jose State University, Occupational Therapy (1992)

All Publications


  • Surgery to Restore Upper Extremity Function in Tetraplegia-Preferences for Early and Frequent Access to Information. PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation L'Hotta, A. J., James, A. S., Curtin, C. M., Kennedy, C., Kenney, D., Tam, K., Ota, D., Stenson, K., Novak, C. B., Fox, I. K. 2022

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION: People with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) identify improving upper extremity (UE) function as a top priority. In addition to comprehensive rehabilitation, UE surgeries, including nerve and tendon transfers, enhance function. However, barriers exist to disseminating information about surgical options to enhance UE function.OBJECTIVE: To assess the experiences and preferences of people with cervical SCI and their caregivers in accessing information about surgery to enhance UE function.DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Participants were followed for 24 months and completed up to three interviews.SETTING: Tertiary care at academic and affiliated Veterans Administration Health Care Centers.PARTICIPANTS: Adults with cervical SCI (n=35) ages 18 to 80years with mid-cervical SCI American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A, B, or C (at least six months post-injury) and their caregivers (n=23) were eligible to participate. Participants were enrolled in three groups: nerve transfer, tendon transfer, or no UE reconstructive surgery.INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Semi-structured interviews about surgical knowledge and experiences.RESULTS: Data were analyzed and three themes were identified. First, providing information about UE surgical options early post-injury was recommended. The acute or inpatient rehabilitation phases of recovery were the preferred times to receive surgical information. Second, challenges with information dissemination were identified. Participants learned about UE surgery through independent research, medical provider interactions, or peers. Third, peers were identified as valuable resources for SCI needs and surgical information.CONCLUSIONS: Following cervical SCI, information about UE reconstructive surgeries should be a standard component of education during rehabilitation. An increased understanding of the reconstructive options available to improve UE function is necessary to educate stakeholders. Future research is needed to support the development of strategies to effectively present surgical information to individuals with SCI and healthcare providers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pmrj.12862

    View details for PubMedID 35665476

  • Evaluation of the PROMIS Upper Extremity Against Validated Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients with Early Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis. The Journal of hand surgery Garcia-Lopez, E., Moore, D. C., Kenney, D. E., Ladd, A. L., Weiss, A. C., Crisco, J. J. 2022

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Internal consistency, construct, and criterion validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) upper extremity (UE) v1.2 were evaluated in patients with early-stage carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that in patients with early CMC OA, PROMIS UE scores would: (1) be lower than those in asymptomatic controls; (2) correlate with established patient-reported outcomes; (3) correlate with pinch and grip strengths; and (4) not correlate with radiographic disease progression.METHODS: Patients with early CMC OA (modified Eaton stage 0 or 1) and matched asymptomatic control patients completed the PROMIS UE, Australian and Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index, and Patient-Rated Wrist-Hand Evaluation at 2 time points. The PROMIS UE's internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha, construct validity by Spearman correlation coefficients among the patient-reported outcome measures, and criterion validity using measures of strength. A floor or ceiling effect was indicated if more than 15% of patients achieved the lowest or highest possible score.RESULTS: The PROMIS UE had high internal consistency. Patients with early CMC OA had a lower score than healthy controls (average, 42 vs 54, respectively). We observed moderate to high correlations between the PROMIS UEv1.2, Australian and Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index, and Patient-Rated Wrist-Hand Evaluation and good criterion validity when compared to key pinch and grip strengths. The PROMIS UE did not correlate to radiographic disease severity.CONCLUSIONS: The PROMIS UE had a high correlation with Australian and Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index and a moderate correlation with Patient-Rated Wrist-Hand Evaluation. The PROMIS UE had high internal consistency and good criterion validity.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The PROMIS UE is a valid assessment for disability in patients with early CMC OA and can serve as a clinical adjunct to an outcome assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2022.03.003

    View details for PubMedID 35527094

  • Adhesive Taping Shows Better Cosmetic Outcomes Than Tissue Adhesives for Sutured Upper Extremity Incisions: A Single-Blind Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial ORTHOPEDICS Mcquillan, T. J., Vora, M., Hawkins, J., Kenney, D., Diaz, R., Ladd, A. L. 2022; 45 (1): E42-E46

    Abstract

    Adhesive taping is commonly used to reinforce wound closure and approximate minor lacerations. Recently, tissue adhesives such as 2-octylcyanoacrylate have gained popularity because of their high tensile strength, bacteriostatic properties, and spontaneous peeling. We sought to evaluate the cosmetic result of upper extremity incisions closed primarily by subcuticular suture, randomizing the application of tissue adhesive vs adhesive taping to different halves of the same surgical incision. Subjects were recruited from patients undergoing common procedures at the senior surgeon's hand surgery clinic. After primary closure, we applied either quarter-inch adhesive tape or tissue adhesive to the proximal and distal aspects of the wounds, based on a preoperative randomization protocol. We assessed the scars at approximately 3 months (range, 2-5 months). Subjects completed a validated scar assessment questionnaire, and a blinded photograph was obtained to allow 2 independent surgeons to assess the scar. Mean age was 63 years (SD, 11.8 years; range, 21-88 years); 56% of patients were women, and 44% were men. Most of the incisions were open carpal tunnel release and thumb carpometacarpal arthroplasty (14 each). Adhesive taping showed a better overall mean score based on evaluation by the hand surgeons, a finding that was statistically significant. The greatest differences were observed between color and size, but no subcategories were significantly different. Patients reported nonstatistical, but slightly better overall cosmetic outcomes with adhesive taping rather than tissue adhesive. Adhesive strips provide a modest but significant improvement in cosmetic outcomes vs more expensive tissue adhesive. Future evaluation of closure methods that evaluate cost, speed of application, suture technique, and dressing will optimize scar appearance. [Orthopedics. 2022;45(1):e42-e46.].

    View details for DOI 10.3928/01477447-20211101-08

    View details for Web of Science ID 000759519200014

    View details for PubMedID 34734780

  • Ultrasound of Thumb Muscles and Grasp Strength in Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis. The Journal of hand surgery Lai, C., Kenney, D., Kerkhof, F., Finlay, A., Ladd, A., Roh, E. 2021

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) involves complex interactions between the ligaments and muscles supporting the joint. Factors such as muscle volume and strength may be more relevant in early disease. We used ultrasound as a noninvasive method to explore differences in the intrinsic hand muscles of patients with early CMC OA, as determined using physical exam and radiographs, and healthy controls. We also assessed differences in grip strength.METHODS: A convenience sample of postmenopausal women with early CMC OA diagnosed using a physical examination or radiographs was recruited from an orthopedic clinic specializing in hand surgery. Healthy controls who were matched for age and hand dominance were recruited from the same clinic. We used ultrasound to determine the length of the first metacarpal and the muscle thickness of the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis (OPP), and first dorsal interosseous. Grip strength measurements were taken using a standard Jamar dynamometer and 2 custom-designed tools for cylindrical grasp and pinch strength.RESULTS: Twenty-three subjects were enrolled, with a total of 32 thumbs measured: 15 thumbs with arthritis and 17 healthy thumbs. Multivariable logistic regression models indicated that thumbs with thicker OPP had 0.85 lower odds (95% CI= 0.71-0.97) of early OA, adjusting for hand dominance and the first metacarpal length. Linear regression models indicated no association between early OA and grip strength.CONCLUSIONS: The size of OPP may have a weak association with the diagnosis of early OA.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study supports further exploration of the role of OPP in stabilizing the CMC joint, particularly with regard to minimizing joint subluxation. This may be clinically relevant to providers who treat patients with CMC OA early in the course of the disease, when nonsurgical treatment is the most relevant.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2021.07.021

    View details for PubMedID 34509311

  • Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) in Hand Surgery: Does a One-Question Outcome Instrument Compare Favorably? The Journal of hand surgery Gire, J. D., Koltsov, J. C., Segovia, N. A., Kenney, D. E., Yao, J., Ladd, A. L. 2020

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Patient-reported outcome measures are increasingly used to measure patient status, impairments, and disability, but often require lengthy surveys and place a considerable burden on patients. We hypothesized that the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), composed of a single question, would be a valid and responsive instrument to provide a global assessment of hand function.METHODS: The SANE, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Upper Extremity (PROMIS-UE), and Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) data are routinely collected electronically in our hand and upper-extremity center. To identify our cohort, we used Current Procedural Terminology codes to query our electronic medical record research data repository for the 7 most common hand surgery procedures performed over 2 years from December 2016 to 2018. These procedures included carpal tunnel release, trigger finger release, thumb carpometacarpal arthroplasty, wrist arthroscopy, distal radius fracture fixation, first dorsal compartment release, and cubital tunnel release. Patients undergoing a single isolated procedure with questionnaires obtained in the preoperative and/or postoperative period were included in the analysis. Convergent validity, coverage, and responsiveness for each instrument were assessed.RESULTS: We identified 214 patients for inclusion. The SANE score had a moderate to strong correlation with the QuickDASH and PROMIS-UE. Floor and ceiling effects for the SANE were less than 10% at baseline and follow-up. Overall, the QuickDASH was the most responsive, followed by SANE and PROMIS-UE; all 3 instruments exceeded the acceptable thresholds for responsiveness and demonstrated significant changes before to after surgery. Responsiveness of the SANE varied by procedure and was acceptable for carpal tunnel release, carpometacarpal arthroplasty, wrist arthroscopy, and trigger finger release.CONCLUSIONS: The single-item SANE is a reasonable measure of global function in patients undergoing common hand procedures and demonstrates psychometric properties comparable to those of the PROMIS-UE and QuickDASH outcome scores.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The SANE score is a reasonable outcome measure of global hand function that may have utility in demonstrating response to treatment in a practice setting and may provide a useful adjunct to multiple-item measures in clinical research studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2020.03.024

    View details for PubMedID 32482496

  • The Association of AUSCAN and PRWHE Patient-reported Outcome Measures With Radiographic Progression of Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthritis at 36-Month Follow-up Is Limited to Subtle Changes in the Pain Subscale. Hand (New York, N.Y.) Gil, J. A., Kleiner, J. n., McQuillan, T. J., Kenney, D. n., Ladd, A. L., Weiss, A. C., Crisco, J. J. 2020: 1558944720928489

    Abstract

    There is a paucity of literature that examines how patient-reported outcomes correspond to early radiographic progression of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA). This study examines how Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN) and Patient-Rated Hand and Wrist Evaluation (PRWHE) scores change over 36 months in subjects with early CMC OA.Ninety-one subjects with symptomatic early thumb CMC OA were enrolled. Differences in AUSCAN and PRWHE scores were measured between subjects at baseline and at 18-month follow-up, and between the subjects at baseline and at 36-month follow-up. Radiographic progression was defined as an increase in modified Eaton Stage. Differences in AUSCAN and PRWHE scores were compared between these 2 groups in order to determine if radiographic progression was associated with a greater change in AUSCAN and PRWHE at 18- and 36-month follow-up.At 18- and 36-month follow-up visits, there were no significant differences in AUSCAN or PRWHE compared to baseline. Multivariable logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant differences between subjects with radiographic progression to subjects without radiographic progression at 18-month follow-up. At 36-month follow-up, this analysis did demonstrate that subjects with evidence of radiographic progression had a significant increase in the PRWHE pain subscale.AUSCAN and PRWHE scores were not found to significantly progress at 18-month and 36-month follow-up. However, when comparing the subset of subjects with and without radiographic OA, subjects with early CMC OA who had 1 stage of radiographic progression were found to have a significantly higher intensity of pain on the PRWHE pain subscale at 36-month follow-up.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1558944720928489

    View details for PubMedID 32935579

  • Reduction in Cylindrical Grasp Strength Is Associated With Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Coughlan, M. J., Bourdillon, A., Crisco, J. J., Kenney, D., Weiss, A., Ladd, A. L. 2017; 475 (2): 522-528

    Abstract

    Advanced thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) can cause substantial impairment in hand function, from grasping heavy objects to fine manipulation of implements and tools. In the clinical setting, we commonly measure the grip strength of gross grasp with a hand dynamometer in patients with CMC OA. Cylindrical grasp, which requires more thumb contribution than gross grasp, is an alternative method of measuring grip strength and one that may provide insight into thumb-related conditions. Because gross grasp and cylindrical grasp use the thumb in different planes, measurement of gross grasp alone might underestimate impairment. Therefore, it is important to evaluate cylindrical grasp as well. To our knowledge this tool has yet to be examined in a population with early thumb CMC OA.(1) Is cylindrical grasp and gross grasp strength reduced in subjects with early thumb CMC OA compared with asymptomatic control subjects? (2) What is the association of cylindrical and gross grasp to thumb CMC OA after adjusting for age, sex, and hand dominance?We recruited 90 subjects with early symptomatic and radiographic thumb CMC OA and 38 asymptomatic healthy control subjects for this multisite controlled study. Demographic information, hand examination, comprehensive histories, plain film radiographs, and cylindrical and gross grasp strength data were collected on all 128 subjects. Mean grasp strength was calculated for cylindrical and gross grasp in the population with early CMC OA and the control population. A t-test was performed on cylindrical and gross grasp to evaluate the difference between the mean in the control and early CMC OA populations. We used separate linear regression models for the two types of grasp to further quantify the association of grasp with a diagnosis of early thumb CMC OA controlling for age, sex, and whether the subject used their dominant or nondominant hand in the study.Cylindrical grasp was weaker in the population with thumb CMC OA compared with healthy control subjects (6.3 ± 2.7 kg versus 8.4 ± 2.5 kg; mean difference, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1; p < 0.001), but there was no difference in gross grasp force (29.6 ± 11.6 kg versus 31.4 ± 10.1 kg; mean difference, 1.7; 95% CI, -2.5 to 6.0; p = 0.425). When adjusting for age, sex, and handedness, cylindrical grasp reduction was related to CMC OA (β = -2.3; standard error [SE], 0.46; p < 0.001) (Y-intercept = 8.2; SE, 1.8; R(2) = 0.29), whereas gross grasp was not reduced in early thumb CMC OA (β = -2.8; SE, 1.6; p = 0.072) (Y-intercept = 34.3; SE, 6.3; R(2) = 0.48).A reduction in cylindrical grasp is associated with early symptomatic and radiographic CMC OA, whereas gross grasp is not associated with early thumb CMC OA, suggesting that cylindrical grasp may be a better tool to detect changes in thumb and hand function seen during early disease stages.Cylindrical grasp may serve as a more-sensitive measure for detecting early changes in early CMC OA. The associated decline in hand function also might provide an opportunity for measuring the effectiveness of treatment and intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-016-5151-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000391931600039

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5213951

  • The AUSCAN and PRWHE Demonstrate Comparable Internal Consistency and Validity in Patients With Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis. Hand (New York, N.Y.) McQuillan, T. J., Vora, M. M., Kenney, D. E., Crisco, J. J., Weiss, A. C., Ebert, K. A., Snelgrove, K. E., Sarnowski, A. n., Ladd, A. L. 2017: 1558944717729217

    Abstract

    The Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN) and Patient-Rated Wrist-Hand Evaluation (PRWHE) are 2 patient-related outcome measures to assess pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the AUSCAN and PRWHE in a large-scale, longitudinal cohort of patients with early thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) OA.We obtained baseline data on 135 individuals (92 with early CMC OA participants and 43 asymptomatic controls) and at follow-up (year 1.5) on 83 individuals. We assessed the internal consistency using Cronbach alpha, and construct and criterion validity using other pain scales and objective measures of strength, respectively. We also examined the correlation between the AUSCAN and PRWHE and correlation coefficients at baseline and follow-up, as well as the correlation between changes in these instruments over the follow-up period.Internal consistency was high for both AUSCAN and PRWHE totals and subscales (Cronbach α > 0.70). Both instruments demonstrated construct validity compared with the Verbal Rating Scale ( r = 0.52-0.60, P < .01), an assessment of pain, and moderate criterion validity compared with key pinch and grip strength ( r = -.24 to -.33, P < .05). These instruments were highly correlated with each other at baseline and follow-up time points ( r = 0.76-.94, P < .01), and changes in a patient's total scores over time were also correlated ( r = 0.83, P < .01).The AUSCAN and PRWHE are both valid assessments for pain and/or disability in patients with early thumb CMC OA.

    View details for PubMedID 28934868

  • Changes in Local Bone Density in Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Osteoarthritis. The Journal of hand surgery Schreiber, J. J., McQuillan, T. J., Halilaj, E. n., Crisco, J. J., Weiss, A. P., Patel, T. n., Kenney, D. n., Ladd, A. L. 2017

    Abstract

    Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) represents a major source of functional morbidity. The effects of early CMC OA on loading and use patterns potentially lead to changes in local bone density and microarchitecture. Hounsfield units (HU), a quantitative attenuation coefficient obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans, have been shown to be a reliable marker of bone density. We hypothesized that early CMC OA is associated with lower local bone density about the CMC joint as assessed by HU.We examined HU units from CT scans in 23 asymptomatic subjects and 91 patients with early CMC OA. The HU measurements were obtained within cancellous portions of the trapezium, capitate, first and third metacarpal bases, and distal radius. Linear regression models, with age and sex included as covariates, were used to assess the relationship between CMC OA and HU values at each anatomical site.Early OA patients had significantly lower HU than asymptomatic subjects within the trapezium (mean, 377 HU vs 436 HU) and first metacarpal bases (265 HU vs 324 HU). No significant group differences were noted at the capitate, third metacarpal, or distal radius. Male sex and younger age were associated with significantly higher HU at all the anatomical sites, except the first metacarpal base, where age had no significant effect.Subjects presenting with early CMC OA had significantly lower bone density as assessed with HU at the thumb CMC joint (trapezium and first metacarpal base). Early thumb CMC OA and discomfort may lead to diminished loading across the basal joint, producing focal disuse osteopenia. These findings in symptomatic early arthritis suggest a relationship between symptoms, functional use of the CMC joint, and local bone density.Diagnostic II.

    View details for PubMedID 29029863

  • Reduction in Cylindrical Grasp Strength Is Associated With Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Coughlan, M. J., Bourdillon, A., Crisco, J. J., Kenney, D., Weiss, A., Ladd, A. L. 2016: -?

    Abstract

    Advanced thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) can cause substantial impairment in hand function, from grasping heavy objects to fine manipulation of implements and tools. In the clinical setting, we commonly measure the grip strength of gross grasp with a hand dynamometer in patients with CMC OA. Cylindrical grasp, which requires more thumb contribution than gross grasp, is an alternative method of measuring grip strength and one that may provide insight into thumb-related conditions. Because gross grasp and cylindrical grasp use the thumb in different planes, measurement of gross grasp alone might underestimate impairment. Therefore, it is important to evaluate cylindrical grasp as well. To our knowledge this tool has yet to be examined in a population with early thumb CMC OA.(1) Is cylindrical grasp and gross grasp strength reduced in subjects with early thumb CMC OA compared with asymptomatic control subjects? (2) What is the association of cylindrical and gross grasp to thumb CMC OA after adjusting for age, sex, and hand dominance?We recruited 90 subjects with early symptomatic and radiographic thumb CMC OA and 38 asymptomatic healthy control subjects for this multisite controlled study. Demographic information, hand examination, comprehensive histories, plain film radiographs, and cylindrical and gross grasp strength data were collected on all 128 subjects. Mean grasp strength was calculated for cylindrical and gross grasp in the population with early CMC OA and the control population. A t-test was performed on cylindrical and gross grasp to evaluate the difference between the mean in the control and early CMC OA populations. We used separate linear regression models for the two types of grasp to further quantify the association of grasp with a diagnosis of early thumb CMC OA controlling for age, sex, and whether the subject used their dominant or nondominant hand in the study.Cylindrical grasp was weaker in the population with thumb CMC OA compared with healthy control subjects (6.3 ± 2.7 kg versus 8.4 ± 2.5 kg; mean difference, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1; p < 0.001), but there was no difference in gross grasp force (29.6 ± 11.6 kg versus 31.4 ± 10.1 kg; mean difference, 1.7; 95% CI, -2.5 to 6.0; p = 0.425). When adjusting for age, sex, and handedness, cylindrical grasp reduction was related to CMC OA (β = -2.3; standard error [SE], 0.46; p < 0.001) (Y-intercept = 8.2; SE, 1.8; R(2) = 0.29), whereas gross grasp was not reduced in early thumb CMC OA (β = -2.8; SE, 1.6; p = 0.072) (Y-intercept = 34.3; SE, 6.3; R(2) = 0.48).A reduction in cylindrical grasp is associated with early symptomatic and radiographic CMC OA, whereas gross grasp is not associated with early thumb CMC OA, suggesting that cylindrical grasp may be a better tool to detect changes in thumb and hand function seen during early disease stages.Cylindrical grasp may serve as a more-sensitive measure for detecting early changes in early CMC OA. The associated decline in hand function also might provide an opportunity for measuring the effectiveness of treatment and intervention.

    View details for PubMedID 27822895

  • Weaker Functional Pinch Strength Is Associated With Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH McQuillan, T. J., Kenney, D., Crisco, J. J., Weiss, A., Ladd, A. L. 2016; 474 (2): 557-561

    Abstract

    The thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint orchestrates pinch in its various positions, and thumb CMC osteoarthritis (OA) is a major source of orthopaedic morbidity. Self-reported pain, weakness, and physical examination may not correspond to radiographic findings when diagnosing early thumb CMC OA. Weakness is a prominent feature of the disease, but little evidence exists to quantify self-reported loss of strength with time, or to compare weakness with that of a nonarthritic population during early disease.We asked: (1) Is pinch strength in subjects with early thumb CMC OA less than that in asymptomatic control subjects; and (2) weakness in which pinch position (key, tripod, or tip pinch) has the strongest association with early OA diagnosis?For this case-control study, we recruited 23 subjects who were asymptomatic and 91 with early OA for comprehensive history, physical examination, strength measurements, pain surveys, and radiographic evaluation. We used multivariate logistic regression to quantify the association between declining pinch strength and early OA diagnosis after controlling for age, sex, and BMI. This analysis was performed for three different pinch positions (key, tripod, and tip pinch) to evaluate which measurement was most closely associated with diagnosis.Pinch strength was less in patients with early thumb CMC OA. Key pinch had the most robust association with OA diagnosis, in which a 20% decrease in key pinch strength from the control subjects' baseline was associated with a 10% increase in the OA diagnosis (95% CI, 3%-16%; p = 0.004). This had a stronger association with OA diagnosis than tip pinch, in which a 20% decrease in strength was associated with a 6% increase in early CMC OA (95% CI, 1.0%-11%; p = 0.031). Tripod pinch also was associated to a lesser extent; a 20% reduction in tripod pinch led to a 5% increase in OA (95% CI, 1.3%-9%; p = 0.048).Decreasing pinch strength, especially key pinch, is associated with early CMC arthritis before the development of extensive radiographic disease.Weakness in pinch strength, especially key pinch, is an important feature in the pathogenesis of early CMC OA and may appear before radiographic disease is present or advanced. These findings suggest a role for intervention in early disease for promoting nonoperative joint protection and strengthening, and designing surgical procedures aimed to delay or prevent clinical and radiographic progression.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-015-4599-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000368021900047

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4709288

  • Multiple Collagenase Injections Are Safe for Treatment of Dupuytren's Contractures. Orthopedics Gajendran, V. K., Hentz, V., Kenney, D., Curtin, C. M. 2014; 37 (7): e657-60

    Abstract

    The authors report the case of a 65-year-old, right-hand-dominant man who had severe Dupuytren's disease with multiple cords and flexion contractures of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of both hands and underwent repeated collagenase injections for treatment. Collagenase has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of Dupuytren's contractures when administered as a single dose, but the results of multiple injections over a prolonged period are unknown. Antibodies to collagenase develop in all patients after several treatments, raising concerns about safety and efficacy as a result of sensitization from repeated exposures. The antibodies generated as a result of repeated exposure to collagenase could theoretically render it less effective with time and could also lead to immune reactions as severe as anaphylaxis. The authors present the case of a single patient who experienced continued correction of his contractures with only minor and self-limited adverse reactions after administration of 12 collagenase doses through 15 injections during a 4-year period. Over time, the injections continued to be effective at correcting metacarpophalangeal joint contractures, but less effective at correcting proximal interphalangeal joint contractures. The patient did eventually require a fasciectomy, but the safety and modest success of the repeated collagenase injections shows promise for a less invasive treatment with a better risk profile than open fasciectomy. Although further studies are needed, repeated administration of collagenase appears to be safe and modestly effective for severe Dupuytren's contractures, although a fasciectomy may ultimately be required in the most severe cases.

    View details for DOI 10.3928/01477447-20140626-64

    View details for PubMedID 24992063

  • Functional task kinematics of the thumb carpometacarpal joint. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Luker, K. R., Aguinaldo, A., Kenney, D., Cahill-Rowley, K., Ladd, A. L. 2014; 472 (4): 1123-1129

    Abstract

    Abnormal biomechanical loading has been identified as an associated risk factor of osteoarthritis in the wrist and hand. Empirical data to date are insufficient to describe the role of altered biomechanics in thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis.This is a pilot study to evaluate motion analysis of the upper extremity while performing functional tasks. We wished to describe the in vivo kinematics of the thumb and hand in relation to the larger joints of the upper extremity in subjects without arthritis in functional positions at rest and while loading the CMC joint. If reproducible, we then planned to compare kinematics between these subjects and a subject with advanced thumb CMC arthritis.In vivo kinematics of the hand and upper extremity during the functional tasks of grasp, jar opening, and pinch with and without loading of the CMC joint were evaluated using cameras and a motion-capture system in four asymptomatic female subjects and one female subject with advanced radiographic (Eaton Stage IV) osteoarthritis.Kinematics of the hand and upper extremity can be reliably quantified. Loading of the CMC joint did not alter the hand and forearm kinematics in control subjects. In the subject with osteoarthritis, the adduction-extension deformity at the CMC joint resulted in kinematic alterations as compared with the four control subjects.This study represents preliminary steps in defining thumb CMC position, motion, and loading associated with activities of daily living. These findings enhance our understanding of motion at the CMC joint and how it differs in arthritic patients.Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-2964-0

    View details for PubMedID 23549712

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3940744

  • Robot-assisted upper-limb therapy in acute rehabilitation setting following stroke: Department of Veterans Affairs multisite clinical trial JOURNAL OF REHABILITATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Burgar, C. G., Lum, P. S., Scremin, A., Garber, S. L., Van der Loos, H., Kenney, D., Shor, P. 2011; 48 (4): 445–58

    Abstract

    This randomized, controlled, multisite Department of Veterans Affairs clinical trial assessed robot-assisted (RA) upper-limb therapy with the Mirror Image Movement Enabler (MIME) in the acute stroke rehabilitation setting. Hemiparetic subjects (n = 54) received RA therapy using MIME for either up to 15 hours (low-dose) or 30 hours (high-dose) or received up to 15 hours of additional conventional therapy in addition to usual care (control). The primary outcome measure was the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). The secondary outcome measures were the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Wolf Motor Function Test, Motor Power, and Ashworth scores at intake, discharge, and 6-month follow-up. Mean duration of study treatment was 8.6, 15.8, and 9.4 hours for the low-dose, high-dose, and control groups, respectively. Gains in the primary outcome measure were not significantly different between groups at follow-up. Significant correlations were found at discharge between FMA gains and the dose and intensity of RA. Intensity also correlated with FMA gain at 6 months. The high-dose group had greater FIM gains than controls at discharge and greater tone but no difference in FIM changes compared with low-dose subjects at 6 months. As used during acute rehabilitation, motor-control changes at follow-up were no less with MIME than with additional conventional therapy. Intensity of training with MIME was positively correlated with motor-control gains.

    View details for DOI 10.1682/JRRD.2010.04.0062

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291372200011

    View details for PubMedID 21674393

  • Identification of key pinch forces required to complete functional tasks JOURNAL OF REHABILITATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Smaby, N., Johanson, M. E., Baker, B., Kenney, D. E., Murray, W. M., Hentz, V. R. 2004; 41 (2): 215-223

    Abstract

    Reconstructive hand surgeries restore key pinch to individuals with pinch force deficits caused by tetraplegia. Data that define the magnitudes of force necessary to complete functional key pinch tasks are limited. This study aims to establish target pinch forces for completing selected tasks that represent a range of useful functional activities. A robot arm instrumented with a force sensor completed the tasks and simultaneously measured the forces applied to the task objects. Lateral pinch force requirements were calculated from these measured object forces. Pinch force requirements ranged from 1.4 N to push a button on a remote to 31.4 N to insert a plug into an outlet. Of the tasks studied, 9 of 12 required less than 10.5 N. These pinch force requirements, when compared to pinch forces produced by 14 individuals with spinal cord injuries (with and without surgical reconstruction of pinch), accurately predicted success or failure in 81% of subject trials. The prediction errors indicate a need to measure other factors such as pinch opening, force location, force direction, and proximal joint control.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221807600014

    View details for PubMedID 15558375