Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Professor of Geological & Environmental Sciences, Stanford University (1998 - Present)
  • Associate Professor of Geological & Environmental Sciences, Stanford University (1993 - 1998)
  • Associate Professor of Geology, Stanford University (1989 - 1993)
  • Assistant Professor of Geology, Stanford University (1982 - 1989)
  • Research Associate, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (1981 - 1982)
  • Lecturer, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (1980 - 1981)
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (1978 - 1980)
  • Field Geologist, Denver, U.S. Geological Survey (1972 - 1972)
  • Surveyor, U.S. Forest Service (1968 - 1971)

Honors & Awards


  • Fellow, Mineralogical Society of America (2001)
  • School of Earth Sciences Teaching Award, Stanford University (1990)
  • Grant-in-Aid Recipient, American Association of Petroleum Geologists (1974)
  • Arthur L. Coggins Research Fellow, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (1974)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, School and Earth Sciences Geobiology search Committee, Stanford University (2011 - 2012)
  • Member, I-Earth Committee, Stanford University (2008 - 2010)
  • Member, Writing and Rhetoric Governance Board, Stanford University (2006 - 2012)
  • Member, Graduate Admissions Committee (GES), Stanford University (2004 - 2007)
  • Undergraduate Program Director (GES), Stanford University (2002 - 2012)
  • Fellow, Mineralogical Society of America (2001 - 2001)
  • Member, Undergraduate Planning Committee, Stanford University (2000 - 2001)
  • Member, Graduate Admissions Committee, Stanford University (1996 - 2000)
  • Member, Geohistory and Geology display Committee for Geology Corner, Stanford University (1995 - 1996)
  • Member, Mudd, Gamble Ore Deposits Fund Committee, Stanford University (1994 - 2000)
  • Member, Howard Fund committee, Stanford University (1994 - 2000)
  • Member, Lawton and Jenkins Fund Committee, Stanford University (1994 - 2000)
  • Member, GES 1 (Planet Earth) Committee, Stanford University (1994 - 2001)
  • Chairman, G&ES Undergraduate Committee, Stanford University (1994 - 1999)
  • Co-Chair, G&ES Undergraduate Affairs, Stanford University (1993 - 2000)
  • Faculty advisor, Stanford Outdoor Education Program, Stanford University (1992 - Present)
  • Member, Advisory Board, Stanford Center of Teaching and Learning, Stanford University (1988 - 2001)
  • Associate editor, American Journal Science (1987 - Present)
  • Chairman, G&ES Shell Foundation Fund Committee, Stanford University (1986 - 1996)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, Geology (1978)
  • M.S., University of California, Riverside, Geology (1975)
  • B.S., University of California, Riverside, Geology (1971)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Research
My students and I study chemical and physical processes related to water-rock reaction in Earth's crust, and the geologic consequences of life's metabolic processes. As theoretical geochemists, we investigate the properties of solution-mineral reactions to predict the nature of elemental mass transfer by reactive fluids in weathering, diagenetic, hydrothermal, and metamorphic environments. Recent efforts focus on the environmental geochemistry of chromium and arsenic, CO2 sequestration in large igneous provinces, paleoclimate proxies preserved in weathered basaltic tephras of the North Atlantic Igneous Province, and exhumation rates of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks of China. Our geobiology efforts focus on the geologic consequences of the photosynthesis on early Earth, specifically processes leading to the rise of continents, and in historic times, the effects of synpandemic fire suppression and reforestation in tropical Americans on atmospheric CO2 during European conquest.

Teaching
I teach courses for graduate and undergraduate students on the geochemical thermodynamics of water-rock reactions relevant to understanding transport of elements of environmental concern, and to understanding diagenetic, hydrothermal, metamorphic, and igneous processes in Earth's crust. I teach a lower division undergraduate seminar on the geologic background and environmental impact of the California Gold Rush, a class that satisfies the university second year Writing and Rhetoric Requirement (WRR2), and I co-teach the Senior Seminar in GES, which satisfies the Writing in the Major requirement (WIM) for our undergraduates. For the past 22 years I have been the faculty advisor for Stanford's Outdoor Education Program (OEP), a group of student instructors who teach the Wilderness Skills Class in GES (GES 7A[Fall], 7B[Winter], and 7C[Spring])

Professional Activities
Associate editor, American Journal Science (1987-present); fellow, Mineralogical Society of America (2001); School of Earth Sciences Teaching Award (1990); GES Undergraduate Program Director (2002-2012); member, Stanford University Writing and Rhetoric Governance Board (2006-2012); member, GES Graduate Admissions Committee (2005-06)

2014-15 Courses


Journal Articles


  • Stable isotopes of hydrothermal minerals as tracers for geothermal fluids in Iceland GEOTHERMICS Pope, E. C., Bird, D. K., Arnorsson, S. 2014; 49: 99-110
  • BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE SOURCE OF GEONEUTRINOS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS A Sleep, N. H., Bird, D. K., Rosing, M. T. 2013; 28 (30)
  • KARRAT ISFJORD: A NEWLY DISCOVERED PALEOPROTEROZOIC CARBONATITE-SOURCED REF DEPOSIT, CENTRAL WEST GREENLAND ECONOMIC GEOLOGY Mott, A. V., Bird, D. K., Grove, M., Rose, N., Bernstein, S., Mackay, H., Krebs, J. 2013; 108 (6): 1471-1488
  • Evolution of low-O-18 Icelandic crust EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Pope, E. C., Bird, D. K., Arnorsson, S. 2013; 374: 47-59
  • Composition and origin of rhyolite melt intersected by drilling in the Krafla geothermal field, Iceland CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY Zierenberg, R. A., Schiffman, P., Barfod, G. H., Lesher, C. E., Marks, N. E., Lowenstern, J. B., Mortensen, A. K., Pope, E. C., Bird, D. K., Reed, M. H., Frioleifsson, G. O., Elders, W. A. 2013; 165 (2): 327-347
  • Stable Isotopes of Hydrothermal Minerals as Tracers for Geothermal Fluids in Iceland Geothermics Pope, E. C., Bird, D. K., Arnorsson, S. 2013
  • Isotope composition and volume of Earth's early oceans PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Pope, E. C., Bird, D. K., Rosing, M. T. 2012; 109 (12): 4371-4376

    Abstract

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Earth's seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes among mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust), and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time the oxygen mass budget was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen's was not, as it can escape to space. Isotopic properties of serpentine from the approximately 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are used to characterize hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of ancient seawater. Archaean oceans were depleted in deuterium [expressed as ?D relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] by at most 25 ± 5‰, but oxygen isotope ratios were comparable to modern oceans. Mass balance of the global hydrogen budget constrains the contribution of continental growth and planetary hydrogen loss to the secular evolution of hydrogen isotope ratios in Earth's oceans. Our calculations predict that the oceans of early Earth were up to 26% more voluminous, and atmospheric CH(4) and CO(2) concentrations determined from limits on hydrogen escape to space are consistent with clement conditions on Archaean Earth.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1115705109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301712600014

    View details for PubMedID 22392985

  • Paleontology of Earth's Mantle ANNUAL REVIEW OF EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES, VOL 40 Sleep, N. H., Bird, D. K., Pope, E. 2012; 40: 277-300
  • Serpentinite and the dawn of life PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Sleep, N. H., Bird, D. K., Pope, E. C. 2011; 366 (1580): 2857-2869

    Abstract

    Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO(2) atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO(2) dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ? 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9-11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO(2) in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rstb.2011.0129

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294993100002

    View details for PubMedID 21930576

  • Neotropical human-landscape interactions, fire, and atmospheric CO2 during European conquest HOLOCENE Nevle, R. J., Bird, D. K., Ruddiman, W. F., Dull, R. A. 2011; 21 (5): 853-864
  • Origin of a rhyolite that intruded a geothermal well while drilling at the Krafla volcano, Iceland GEOLOGY Elders, W. A., Frioleifsson, G. O., Zierenberg, R. A., Pope, E. C., Mortensen, A. K., Guomundsson, A., Lowenstern, J. B., Marks, N. E., Owens, L., Bird, D. K., Reed, M., Olsen, N. J., Schiffman, P. 2011; 39 (3): 231-234

    View details for DOI 10.1130/G31393.1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287374900012

  • No climate paradox under the faint early Sun NATURE Rosing, M. T., Bird, D. K., Sleep, N. H., Bjerrum, C. J. 2010; 464 (7289): 744-U117

    Abstract

    Environmental niches in which life first emerged and later evolved on the Earth have undergone dramatic changes in response to evolving tectonic/geochemical cycles and to biologic interventions, as well as increases in the Sun's luminosity of about 25 to 30 per cent over the Earth's history. It has been inferred that the greenhouse effect of atmospheric CO(2) and/or CH(4) compensated for the lower solar luminosity and dictated an Archaean climate in which liquid water was stable in the hydrosphere. Here we demonstrate, however, that the mineralogy of Archaean sediments, particularly the ubiquitous presence of mixed-valence Fe(II-III) oxides (magnetite) in banded iron formations is inconsistent with such high concentrations of greenhouse gases and the metabolic constraints of extant methanogens. Prompted by this, and the absence of geologic evidence for very high greenhouse-gas concentrations, we hypothesize that a lower albedo on the Earth, owing to considerably less continental area and to the lack of biologically induced cloud condensation nuclei, made an important contribution to moderating surface temperature in the Archaean eon. Our model calculations suggest that the lower albedo of the early Earth provided environmental conditions above the freezing point of water, thus alleviating the need for extreme greenhouse-gas concentrations to satisfy the faint early Sun paradox.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature08955

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276205000042

    View details for PubMedID 20360739

  • The Columbian Encounter and the Little Ice Age: Abrupt Land Use Change, Fire, and Greenhouse Forcing ANNALS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN GEOGRAPHERS Dull, R. A., Nevle, R. J., Woods, W. I., Bird, D. K., Avnery, S., Denevan, W. M. 2010; 100 (4): 755-771
  • Geochemical Evolution of a High Arsenic, Alkaline Pit-Lake in the Mother Lode Gold District, California ECONOMIC GEOLOGY Savage, K. S., Ashley, R. P., Bird, D. K. 2009; 104 (8): 1171-1211
  • Processes controlling Sr in surface and ground waters of Tertiary tholeiitic flood basalts in Northern Iceland GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Fridriksson, T., Arnorsson, S., Bird, D. K. 2009; 73 (22): 6727-6746
  • HYDROTHERMAL MINERALS RECORD CO2 PARTIAL PRESSURES IN THE REYKJANES GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, ICELAND AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Freedman, A. J., Bird, D. K., Arnorsson, S., Fridriksson, T., Elders, W. A., Fridleifsson, G. O. 2009; 309 (9): 788-833

    View details for DOI 10.2475/09.2009.02

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273502700002

  • Isotopic constraints on ice age fluids in active geothermal systems: Reykjanes, Iceland GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Pope, E. C., Bird, D. K., Arnorsson, S., Fridriksson, T., Elders, W. A., Fridleifsson, G. O. 2009; 73 (15): 4468-4488
  • Peptide Synthesis in Early Earth Hydrothermal Systems ASTROBIOLOGY Lemke, K. H., Rosenbauer, R. J., Bird, D. K. 2009; 9 (2): 141-146

    Abstract

    We report here results from experiments and thermodynamic calculations that demonstrate a rapid, temperature-enhanced synthesis of oligopeptides from the condensation of aqueous glycine. Experiments were conducted in custom-made hydrothermal reactors, and organic compounds were characterized with ultraviolet-visible procedures. A comparison of peptide yields at 260 degrees C with those obtained at more moderate temperatures (160 degrees C) gives evidence of a significant (13 kJ . mol(-1)) exergonic shift. In contrast to previous hydrothermal studies, we demonstrate that peptide synthesis is favored in hydrothermal fluids and that rates of peptide hydrolysis are controlled by the stability of the parent amino acid, with a critical dependence on reactor surface composition. From our study, we predict that rapid recycling of product peptides from cool into near-supercritical fluids in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems will enhance peptide chain elongation. It is anticipated that the abundant hydrothermal systems on early Earth could have provided a substantial source of biomolecules required for the origin of life.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ast.2008.0166

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265707200001

    View details for PubMedID 19371157

  • Evolutionary ecology during the rise of dioxygen in the Earth's atmosphere PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Sleep, N. H., Bird, D. K. 2008; 363 (1504): 2651-2664

    Abstract

    Pre-photosynthetic niches were meagre with a productivity of much less than 10(-4) of modern photosynthesis. Serpentinization, arc volcanism and ridge-axis volcanism reliably provided H(2). Methanogens and acetogens reacted CO(2) with H(2) to obtain energy and make organic matter. These skills pre-adapted a bacterium for anoxygenic photosynthesis, probably starting with H(2) in lieu of an oxygen 'acceptor'. Use of ferrous iron and sulphide followed as abundant oxygen acceptors, allowing productivity to approach modern levels. The 'photobacterium' proliferated rooting much of the bacterial tree. Land photosynthetic microbes faced a dearth of oxygen acceptors and nutrients. A consortium of photosynthetic and soil bacteria aided weathering and access to ferrous iron. Biologically enhanced weathering led to the formation of shales and, ultimately, to granitic rocks. Already oxidized iron-poor sedimentary rocks and low-iron granites provided scant oxygen acceptors, as did freshwater in their drainages. Cyanobacteria evolved dioxygen production that relieved them of these vicissitudes. They did not immediately dominate the planet. Eventually, anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis oxidized much of the Earth's crust and supplied sulphate to the ocean. Anoxygenic photosynthesis remained important until there was enough O(2) in downwelling seawater to quantitatively oxidize massive sulphides at mid-ocean ridge axes.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rstb.2008.0018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257571100004

    View details for PubMedID 18468980

  • An hydrothermal experimental study of the cobalt-cobalt oxide redox buffer CHEMICAL GEOLOGY Lemke, K. H., Rosenbauer, R. J., Bischoff, J. L., Bird, D. K. 2008; 252 (3-4): 136-144
  • Effects of syn-pandemic fire reduction and reforestation in the tropical Americas on atmospheric CO2 during European conquest PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY Nevle, R. J., Bird, D. K. 2008; 264 (1-2): 25-38
  • Chronology of gold mineralization in the Sierra Nevada Foothills from Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of Mariposite INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGY REVIEW Snow, C. A., Bird, D. K., Metcalf, J., McWilliams, M. 2008; 50 (6): 503-518
  • High- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the North Qaidam and South Altyn Terranes, western China INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGY REVIEW Mattinson, C. G., Menold, C. A., ZANG, J. X., Bird, D. K. 2007; 49 (11): 969-995
  • Niches of the pre-photosynthetic biosphere and geologic preservation of Earth's earliest ecology GEOBIOLOGY Sleep, N. H., Bird, D. K. 2007; 5 (2): 101-117
  • Genesis of hexavalent chromium from natural sources in soil and groundwater PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Oze, C., Bird, D. K., Fendorf, S. 2007; 104 (16): 6544-6549

    Abstract

    Naturally occurring Cr(VI) has recently been reported in ground and surface waters. Rock strata rich in Cr(III)-bearing minerals, in particular chromite, are universally found in these areas that occur near convergent plate margins. Here we report experiments demonstrating accelerated dissolution of chromite and subsequent oxidation of Cr(III) to aqueous Cr(VI) in the presence of birnessite, a common manganese mineral, explaining the generation of Cr(VI) by a Cr(III)-bearing mineral considered geochemically inert. Our results demonstrate that Cr(III) within ultramafic- and serpentinite-derived soils/sediments can be oxidized and dissolved through natural processes, leading to hazardous levels of aqueous Cr(VI) in surface and groundwater.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0701085104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245869200012

    View details for PubMedID 17420454

  • Placer diamonds in unconsolidated sands of the Cretaceous Atane Fm, Disko Island, West Greenland Report of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bernstein, S., Knudsen, C., Bird, D. K., Bruun, M. 2007; 2007/13: 1-62
  • Niches of the pre-photosynthetic biosphere and geologic preservation of Earth's earliest ecology Geobiology Bernstein, S., Knudsen, C., Bird, D. K., Bruun, M. 2007; 5 (2): 101-117
  • A tribute to Charles Kent Brooks LITHOS Tegner, C., Bernstein, S., Bird, D. K. 2006; 92 (1-2): VII-XI
  • Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Mattinson, C. G., Wooden, J. L., Liou, J. G., Bird, D. K., Wu, C. L. 2006; 306 (9): 683-711

    View details for DOI 10.2475/09.2006.01

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244139500001

  • The rise of continents - An essay on the geologic consequences of photosynthesis PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY Rosing, M. T., Bird, D. K., Sleep, N. H., Glassley, W., Albarede, F. 2006; 232 (2-4): 99-113
  • H-2-rich fluids from serpentinization: Geochemical and biotic implications PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sleep, N. H., Meibom, A., Fridriksson, T., Coleman, R. G., Bird, D. K. 2004; 101 (35): 12818-12823

    Abstract

    Metamorphic hydration and oxidation of ultramafic rocks produces serpentinites, composed of serpentine group minerals and varying amounts of brucite, magnetite, and/or FeNi alloys. These minerals buffer metamorphic fluids to extremely reducing conditions that are capable of producing hydrogen gas. Awaruite, FeNi3, forms early in this process when the serpentinite minerals are Fe-rich. Olivine with the current mantle Fe/Mg ratio was oxidized during serpentinization after the Moon-forming impact. This process formed some of the ferric iron in the Earth's mantle. For the rest of Earth's history, serpentinites covered only a small fraction of the Earth's surface but were an important prebiotic and biotic environment. Extant methanogens react H2 with CO2 to form methane. This is a likely habitable environment on large silicate planets. The catalytic properties of FeNi3 allow complex organic compounds to form within serpentinite and, when mixed with atmospherically produced complex organic matter and waters that circulated through basalts, constitutes an attractive prebiotic substrate. Conversely, inorganic catalysis of methane by FeNi3 competes with nascent and extant life.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0405289101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223694700010

    View details for PubMedID 15326313

  • A lower limit for atmospheric carbon dioxide levels 3.2 billion years ago NATURE Hessler, A. M., Lowe, D. R., Jones, R. L., Bird, D. K. 2004; 428 (6984): 736-738

    Abstract

    The quantification of greenhouse gases present in the Archaean atmosphere is critical for understanding the evolution of atmospheric oxygen, surface temperatures and the conditions for life on early Earth. For instance, it has been argued that small changes in the balance between two potential greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, may have dictated the feedback cycle involving organic haze production and global cooling. Climate models have focused on carbon dioxide as the greenhouse gas responsible for maintaining above-freezing surface temperatures during a time of low solar luminosity. However, the analysis of 2.75-billion-year (Gyr)-old palaeosols--soil samples preserved in the geologic record--have recently provided an upper constraint on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels well below that required in most climate models to prevent the Earth's surface from freezing. This finding prompted many to look towards methane as an additional greenhouse gas to satisfy climate models. Here we use model equilibrium reactions for weathering rinds on 3.2-Gyr-old river gravels to show that the presence of iron-rich carbonate relative to common clay minerals requires a minimum partial pressure of carbon dioxide several times higher than present-day values. Unless actual carbon dioxide levels were considerably greater than this, climate models predict that additional greenhouse gases would still need to have a role in maintaining above-freezing surface temperatures.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature02471

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220823800035

    View details for PubMedID 15085128

  • Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of ion-exchange in heulandite: Binary ion-exchange experiments at 55 and 85 degrees C involving Ca2+, Sr2+, Na+, and K+ AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Fridriksson, T., Neuhoff, P. S., Viani, B. E., Bird, D. K. 2004; 304 (4): 287-332
  • Chrominium geochemistry of serpentine soils INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGY REVIEW Oze, C., Fendorf, S., Bird, D. K., Coleman, R. G. 2004; 46 (2): 97-126
  • Chromium geochemistry in serpentinized ultramafic rocks and serpentine soils from the Franciscan Complex of California AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Oze, C., Fendorf, S., Bird, D. K., Coleman, R. G. 2004; 304 (1): 67-101
  • Epidote in geothermal systems EPIDOTES Bird, D. K., Spieler, A. R. 2004; 56: 235-300
  • Hydrogen-bonded water in laumontite II: Experimental determination of site-specific thermodynamic properties of hydration of the W1 and W5 sites AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Fridriksson, T., Carey, J. W., Bish, D. L., Neuhoff, P. S., Bird, D. K. 2003; 88 (7): 1060-1072
  • Hydrogen-bonded water in laumontite I: X-ray powder diffraction study of water site occupancy and structural changes in laumontite during room-temperature isothermal hydration/dehydration AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Fridriksson, T., Bish, D. L., Bird, D. K. 2003; 88 (2-3): 277-287
  • Si-Al disorder and solid solutions in analcime, chabazite, and wairakite AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Neuhoff, P. S., Stebbins, J. F., Bird, D. K. 2003; 88 (2-3): 410-423
  • Volcanic stratigraphy of the southern Prinsen af Wales Bjerge region, East Greenland Geological Society of London, Special Publication, North Atlantic Igneous Province: Stratigraphy, tectonics, volcanic and magmatic processes Hansen, H., Pedersen, A. K., Duncan, R. A., Bird, D. K., Brooks, C. K., Fawcett, J. J., Gittins, J., Gorton, M., O'Day, P. A. 2002; 197: 183-218
  • Geochemical and mineralogical controls on trace element release from the Penn Mine base-metal slag dump, California APPLIED GEOCHEMISTRY Parsons, M. B., Bird, D. K., Einaudi, M. T., Alpers, C. N. 2001; 16 (14): 1567-1593
  • Geological constraints on the thermodynamic properties of the stilbite-stellerite solid solution in low-grade metabasalts GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Fridriksson, T., Neuhoff, P. S., Arnorsson, S., Bird, D. K. 2001; 65 (21): 3993-4008
  • Pyroclastic deposits within the East Greenland Tertiary flood basalts JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Heister, L. E., O'Day, P. A., Brooks, C. K., Neuhoff, P. S., Bird, D. K. 2001; 158: 269-284
  • Partial dehydration of laumontite: thermodynamic constraints and petrogenetic implications MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE Neuhoff, P. S., Bird, D. K. 2001; 65 (1): 59-70
  • Arsenic speciation in pyrite and secondary weathering phases, Mother Lode Gold District, Tuolumne County, California APPLIED GEOCHEMISTRY Savage, K. S., Tingle, T. N., O'Day, P. A., WAYCHUNAS, G. A., Bird, D. K. 2000; 15 (8): 1219-1244
  • A gold- and platinum-mineralized layer in gabbros of the Kap Edvard Holm complex: Field, petrologic, and geochemical relations ECONOMIC GEOLOGY AND THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC GEOLOGISTS Arnason, J. G., Bird, D. K. 2000; 95 (5): 945-970
  • Legacy of the California Gold Rush: Environmental geochemistry of arsenic in the southern Mother Lode Gold District INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGY REVIEW Savage, K. S., Bird, D. K., Ashley, R. P. 2000; 42 (5): 385-415
  • Formation of wehrlites through dehydration of metabasalt xenoliths in layered gabbros of the Noe-Nygaard Intrusion, Southeast Greenland GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE Bernstein, S., Bird, D. K. 2000; 137 (2): 109-128
  • Zeolite parageneses in the north Atlantic igneous province: Implications for geotectonics and groundwater quality of basaltic crust INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGY REVIEW Neuhoff, P. S., Fridriksson, T., Bird, D. K. 2000; 42 (1): 15-44
  • Effects of H2O on phase relations during crystallization of gabbros in the Kap Edvard Helm Complex, East Greenland JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY Brandriss, M. E., Bird, D. K. 1999; 40 (6): 1037-1064
  • Porosity evolution and mineral paragenesis during low-grade metamorphism of basaltic lavas at Teigarhorn, eastern Iceland AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Neuhoff, P. S., Fridriksson, T., Arnorsson, S., Bird, D. K. 1999; 299 (6): 467-501
  • Clays and zeolites record alteration history at Teigarhorn, eastern Iceland GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE Fridriksson, T., Neuhoff, P. S., Bird, D. K., Arnorsson, S. 1999: 377-380
  • Ar-40-Ar-39 geochronology of Tertiary mafic intrusions along the East Greenland rifted margin: Relation to flood basalts and the Iceland hotspot track EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS Tegner, C., Duncan, R. A., Bernstein, S., Brooks, C. K., Bird, D. K., Storey, M. 1998; 156 (1-2): 75-88
  • Timing and structural relations of regional zeolite zones in basalts of the East Greenland continental margin GEOLOGY Neuhoff, P. S., Watt, W. S., Bird, D. K., Pedersen, A. K. 1997; 25 (9): 803-806
  • Gold and platinum-group element mineralization in the Kruuse Fjord Gabbro complex, East Greenland ECONOMIC GEOLOGY AND THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC GEOLOGISTS Arnason, J. G., Bird, D. K., Bernstein, S., Kelemen, P. B. 1997; 92 (4): 490-501
  • Petrology and geochemistry of the Kruuse Fjord Gabbro Complex, east Greenland GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE Arnason, J. G., Bird, D. K., Bernstein, S., ROSE, N. M., Manning, C. E. 1997; 134 (1): 67-89
  • Dehydration, partial melting, and assimilation of metabasaltic xenoliths in gabbros of the Kap Edvard Holm Complex, East Greenland AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Brandriss, M. E., Bird, D. K., ONEIL, J. R., Cullers, R. L. 1996; 296 (4): 333-393
  • IMPRINT OF METEORIC WATER ON THE STABLE-ISOTOPE COMPOSITIONS OF IGNEOUS AND SECONDARY MINERALS, KAP-EDVARD-HOLM-COMPLEX, EAST GREENLAND CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY Brandriss, M. E., NEVLE, R. J., Bird, D. K., ONEIL, J. R. 1995; 121 (1): 74-86
  • A GOLD-BEARING HORIZON IN THE KAP EDVARD HOLM COMPLEX, EAST GREENLAND ECONOMIC GEOLOGY AND THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC GEOLOGISTS Radford, G., Bernstein, S., GANNICOTT, R. A., Kelemen, P. B. 1995; 90 (5): 1288-1300
  • A gold-bearing horizon in the Kap Edvard Holm Complex, East Greenland Economic Geology, Bird, D. K., Arnason, J. G., Brandriss, M. E., Nevle, R. J., Radford, G., Bernstein, S., Guanacos, R. A., Keleman, P. B. 1995; 90: 1288-1300
  • TERTIARY PLUTONS MONITOR CLIMATE-CHANGE IN EAST GREENLAND GEOLOGY NEVLE, R. J., Brandriss, M. E., Bird, D. K., McWilliams, M. O., ONEIL, J. R. 1994; 22 (9): 775-778
  • HYDROTHERMALLY ALTERED DOLERITE DYKES IN EAST GREENLAND - IMPLICATIONS FOR CA-METASOMATISM OF BASALTIC PROTOLITHS CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY ROSE, N. M., Bird, D. K. 1994; 116 (4): 420-432
  • Porosity, permeability and basalt metamorphism Geological Society of America Special Paper Manning, C. E., Bird, D. K. 1994; 296: 123-140

    View details for DOI 10.1130/SPE296-p123

  • MISSING MINERAL ZONES IN CONTACT METAMORPHOSED BASALTS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Manning, C. E., Ingebritsen, S. E., Bird, D. K. 1993; 293 (9): 894-938
  • AL-FE3+ AND F-OH SUBSTITUTIONS IN TITANITE AND CONSTRAINTS ON THEIR P-T DEPENDENCE EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MINERALOGY Enami, M., Suzuki, K., Liou, J. G., Bird, D. K. 1993; 5 (2): 219-231
  • CI-BEARING AMPHIBOLE IN THE SALTON-SEA GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, CALIFORNIA CANADIAN MINERALOGIST Enami, M., Liou, J. G., Bird, D. K. 1992; 30: 1077-1092
  • METHANE-BEARING, AQUEOUS, SALINE SOLUTIONS IN THE SKAERGAARD INTRUSION, EAST-GREENLAND CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY Larsen, R. B., Brooks, C. K., Bird, D. K. 1992; 112 (2-3): 428-437
  • AN OCEAN-RIDGE TYPE MAGMA CHAMBER AT A PASSIVE VOLCANIC, CONTINENTAL-MARGIN - THE KAP-EDVARD-HOLM LAYERED GABBRO COMPLEX, EAST GREENLAND GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE Bernstein, S., Rosing, M. T., Brooks, C. K., Bird, D. K. 1992; 129 (4): 437-456
  • EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MASS-TRANSFER ALBITE, CAAL-SILICATES, AND AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE ROSE, N. M., Bird, D. K., Liou, J. G. 1992; 292 (1): 21-57
  • DEPENDENCE OF HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION ON ROCK TEXTURE AND MICROPOROSITY IN MAFIC CRYSTALLINE ROCKS WATER-ROCK INTERACTION, VOLS 1 AND 2 Brandriss, M. E., Bird, D. K., ONEIL, J. R. 1992: 1477-1480
  • ENHANCEMENT OF POROSITY IN GABBROS BY DIKE INTRUSION WATER-ROCK INTERACTION, VOLS 1 AND 2 NEVLE, R. J., Bird, D. K. 1992: 1533-1536
  • A GOLD-BEARING HORIZON IN THE SKAERGAARD INTRUSION, EAST-GREENLAND ECONOMIC GEOLOGY AND THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC GEOLOGISTS Bird, D. K., Brooks, C. K., GANNICOTT, R. A., Turner, P. A. 1991; 86 (5): 1083-1092
  • OXYGEN-ISOTOPE EXCHANGE AND MINERAL ALTERATION IN GABBROS OF THE LOWER LAYERED SERIES, KAP EDVARD HOLM COMPLEX, EAST GREENLAND GEOLOGY Fehlhaber, K., Bird, D. K. 1991; 19 (8): 819-822
  • POROSITY EVOLUTION AND FLUID-FLOW IN THE BASALTS OF THE SKAERGAARD MAGMA-HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM, EAST GREENLAND AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Manning, C. E., Bird, D. K. 1991; 291 (3): 201-257
  • FLUORIAN GARNETS FROM THE HOST ROCKS OF THE SKAERGAARD INTRUSION - IMPLICATIONS FOR METAMORPHIC FLUID COMPOSITION AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Manning, C. E., Bird, D. K. 1990; 75 (7-8): 859-873
  • CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF EAST GREENLAND TERTIARY MAGMAS BY 2-LIQUID INTERDIFFUSION GEOLOGY Rosing, M. T., Lesher, C. E., Bird, D. K. 1989; 17 (7): 626-629
  • PROGRADE PHASE-RELATIONS IN THE STATE 2-14 WELL METASANDSTONES, SALTON-SEA GEOTHERMAL-FIELD, CALIFORNIA JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Cho, M., Liou, J. G., Bird, D. K. 1988; 93 (B11): 13081-13103
  • EPIDOTE-BEARING VEINS IN THE STATE 2-14 DRILL HOLE - IMPLICATIONS FOR HYDROTHERMAL FLUID COMPOSITION JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Caruso, L. J., Bird, D. K., Cho, M., Liou, J. G. 1988; 93 (B11): 13123-13133
  • COMPOSITIONAL, ORDER-DISORDER, AND STABLE ISOTOPE CHARACTERISTICS OF AL-FE EPIDOTE, STATE 2-14 DRILL HOLE, SALTON-SEA GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH AND PLANETS Bird, D. K., Cho, M., Janik, C. J., Liou, J. G., Caruso, L. J. 1988; 93 (B11): 13135-13144
  • HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF TERTIARY LAYERED GABBROS, EAST GREENLAND AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Bird, D. K., Manning, C. E., ROSE, N. M. 1988; 288 (5): 405-457
  • PREHNITE EPIDOTE PHASE-RELATIONS IN THE NORDRE APUTITEQ AND KRUUSE FJORD LAYERED GABBROS, EAST GREENLAND JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY ROSE, N. M., Bird, D. K. 1987; 28 (6): 1193-1218
  • VARIATION IN SERICITE COMPOSITIONS FROM FRACTURE-ZONES WITHIN THE COSO HOT-SPRINGS GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Bishop, B. P., Bird, D. K. 1987; 51 (5): 1245-1256
  • HYDRATION OF CORUNDUM-BEARING XENOLITHS IN THE QORQUT GRANITE COMPLEX, GODTHABSFJORD, WEST GREENLAND AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Rosing, M. T., Bird, D. K., Dymek, R. F. 1987; 72 (1-2): 29-38
  • FRACTURE PROPAGATION ASSOCIATED WITH DIKE EMPLACEMENT AT THE SKAERGAARD INTRUSION, EAST GREENLAND JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY Rogers, R. D., Bird, D. K. 1987; 9 (1): 71-86
  • MINERALOGY AND GEOCHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE LITTLE 3 PEGMATITE-APLITE LAYERED INTRUSIVE, RAMONA, CALIFORNIA AMERICAN MINERALOGIST Stern, L. A., Brown, G. E., Bird, D. K., JAHNS, R. H., Foord, E. E., Shigley, J. E., SPAULDING, L. B. 1986; 71 (3-4): 406-427
  • HYDROTHERMAL CLINOPYROXENES OF THE SKAERGAARD INTRUSION CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY Manning, C. E., Bird, D. K. 1986; 92 (4): 437-447
  • HYDROTHERMAL MINERALOGY OF CALCAREOUS SANDSTONES FROM THE COLORADO RIVER DELTA IN THE CERRO PRIETO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, BAJA-CALIFORNIA, MEXICO MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE Schiffman, P., Bird, D. K., Elders, W. A. 1985; 49 (352): 435-449
  • Geologic field studies of the Miki Fjord area, East Greenland Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark Bird, D. K., Rosing, M. T., Manning, C. E., Rose, N. M. 1985; 34: 219-236
  • HYDROTHERMAL FLOW REGIME AND MAGMATIC HEAT-SOURCE OF THE CERRO PRIETO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, BAJA-CALIFORNIA, MEXICO GEOTHERMICS Elders, W. A., Bird, D. K., Williams, A. E., Schiffman, P. 1984; 13 (1-2): 27-47
  • THE GEOMETRY AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE BRITTLE DEFORMATION OF THE SKAERGAARD INTRUSION JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH Norton, D., Taylor, H. P., Bird, D. K. 1984; 89 (NB12): 178-192
  • ACTIVE METASOMATISM IN THE CERRO-PRIETO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, BAJA-CALIFORNIA, MEXICO - A TELESCOPED LOW-PRESSURE, LOW-TEMPERATURE METAMORPHIC FACIES SERIES GEOLOGY Schiffman, P., Elders, W. A., Williams, A. E., McDowell, S. D., Bird, D. K. 1984; 12 (1): 12-15
  • CALC-SILICATE MINERALIZATION IN ACTIVE GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS ECONOMIC GEOLOGY Bird, D. K., Schiffman, P., Elders, W. A., Williams, A. E., McDowell, S. D. 1984; 79 (4): 671-695
  • CHEMICAL INTERACTION OF AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS WITH EPIDOTE-FELDSPAR MINERAL ASSEMBLAGES IN GEOLOGIC SYSTEMS .2. EQUILIBRIUM CONSTRAINTS IN METAMORPHIC-GEOTHERMAL PROCESSES AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Bird, D. K., Helgeson, H. C. 1981; 281 (5): 576-614
  • THEORETICAL PREDICTION OF PHASE-RELATIONS AMONG AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS AND MINERALS - SALTON-SEA GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Bird, D. K., Norton, D. L. 1981; 45 (9): 1479-1493
  • CHEMICAL INTERACTION OF AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS WITH EPIDOTE-FELDSPAR MINERAL ASSEMBLAGES IN GEOLOGIC SYSTEMS .1. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PHASE-RELATIONS IN THE SYSTEM CAO-FEO-FE2O3-AL2O3-SIO2-H2O-CO2 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Bird, D. K., Helgeson, H. C. 1980; 280 (9): 907-941

Books and Book Chapters


  • Variables controlling epidote composition Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt v.293 Arnason, J. G., Bird, D. K., Liou, J. G. edited by Hock, V., Koller, F. 1993: 17-25

Conference Proceedings


  • Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): Stable isotope evidence of fluid evolution in Icelandic Geothermal Systems Proceeding World Geothermal Congress Pope, E. C., Bird, D. K., Arnorsson, S., Fridriksson, T., Elders, W. A., Fridleifsson, G. O. 2010: 25-29
  • Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): Arsenic distribution and mobility in active and fossil geothermal systems in Iceland Proceeding World Geothermal Congress Olsen, N. J., Bird, D. K., Arnorsson, S., Fridkriksson, T., Fridleifsson, G. O., Elders, W. A. 2010: 25-29
  • Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): Hydrothermal minerals record CO2 partial pressures in the Reykjanes Geothermal System, Iceland Proceeding World Geothermal Congress Freedman, A. E., Bird, D. K., Arnorsson, S., Fridriksson, T., Elders, W. A., Fridleifsson, G. O. 2010
  • Paragneiss zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China Mattinson, C. G., Wooden, J. L., Zhang, J. X., Bird, D. K. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2009: 298-309
  • The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: Stable isotope constraints of fluid source and evolution in Icelandic geothermal systems Proceeding Geothermal Resources Council Pope, E. C., Bird, D. K., Arnorsson, C., Fridriksson, T., Elders, W. A., Fridleifsson, G. O. 2009
  • Regional very low-grade metamorphism of basaltic lavas, Disko-Nuussuaq region, West Greenland Neuhoff, P. S., Rogers, K. L., Stannius, L. S., Bird, D. K., Pedersen, A. K. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2006: 33-54
  • CO2 metasomatism in a basalt-hosted petroleum reservoir, Nuussuaq, West Greenland Rogers, K. L., Neuhoff, P. S., Pedersen, A. K., Bird, D. K. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2006: 55-82
  • Geochronology and tectonic significance of Middle Proterozoic granitic orthogneiss, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China Mattinson, C. G., Wooden, J. L., Liou, J. G., Bird, D. K., Wu, C. L. SPRINGER WIEN. 2006: 227-241
  • Arsenic speciation in synthetic jarosite Savage, K. S., Bird, D. K., O'Day, P. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2005: 473-498