As a licensed clinical psychologist working in diabetes and Cystic Fibrosis clinics for the past 10 years, Dr. Naranjo focuses on the psychosocial needs of patients and families with diabetes and CF. Through clinical research, she aims to understand barriers and facilitators to diabetes self-management, how families and individuals with diabetes respond to health technology, and how to best provide services that engage youth and their families. She is a member of the Stanford Diabetes Research Center.
Clinical Professor, Pediatrics - Endocrinology and Diabetes
Clinical Associate Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Member, Stanford Diabetes Research Center (2016 - Present)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Publication & Presentation Committee Member, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's Success with Therapies Research Consortium (2015 - Present)
Clinical Advisory Committee, College Diabetes Network (2014 - Present)
Diabetes Health Sense Task Group Member, National Diabetes Education Program (2013 - Present)
Advisory Board Member, CarbDM (2013 - Present)
PhD Training: Arizona State University (2009) AZ
Fellowship: UCSF Psychiatry Residency (2011) CA
Internship: Boston Children's Hospital (2009) MA
Feasibility of a Mobile Medication Plan Application in CF Patient Care
This is a pilot, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled study to evaluate the feasibility of an innovative medication adherence intervention utilizing a web-based, mobile medication management application [MedActionPlan® (MAP)] to encourage self-management by reinforcing adherence and education about treatment regimens in Participants with cystic fibrosis (CF) (ages 12 years and older). Outcomes of interest for this study are 1) feasibility of MAP in real-world setting which will be evaluated using patient/caregiver and clinician feedback regarding value, ease of use, and challenges with use, 2) effect of MAP on patient/caregiver knowledge and perception of medication use, 3) effect of MAP on adherence to inhaled and oral medications used in chronic management of CF. Preliminary data regarding outcomes on exacerbations, lung function, and health care system utilization (e.g., emergency department visits, hospitalization) will also be examined as part of this study.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Spectrum Child Health, 650-724-1175.
Cost considerations for adoption of diabetes technology are pervasive: a qualitative study of persons living with type 1 diabetes and their families.
Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
BACKGROUND: Cost is a major consideration in the uptake and continued use of diabetes technology. With increasing use of automated insulin delivery systems, it is important to understand the specific cost-related barriers to technology adoption. In this qualitative analysis, we were interested in understanding and examining the decision-making process around cost and diabetes technology use.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four raters coded transcripts of four stakeholder groups using inductive coding for each stakeholder group to establish relevant themes/nodes. We applied the Social Ecological Model in the interpretation of five thematic levels of cost.RESULTS: We identified five thematic levels of cost: policy, organizational, insurance, interpersonal, and individual. Equitable diabetes technology access was an important policy-level theme. The insurance-level theme had multiple sub-themes which predominantly carried a negative valence. Participants also emphasized the psychosocial burden of cost specifically identifying diabetes costs to their families, the guilt of diabetes related costs, and frustration in the time and involvement required to ensure insurance coverage.CONCLUSION: We found broad consensus in how cost is experienced by stakeholder groups. Cost considerations for diabetes technology uptake extended beyond finances to include time, cost to society, morality, and interpersonal relationships. Cost also reflected an important moral principle tied to the shared desire for equitable access to diabetes technology. Knowledge of these considerations can help clinicians and researchers promote equitable device uptake while anticipating barriers for all persons living with type 1 diabetes and their families.
View details for DOI 10.1111/dme.14575
View details for PubMedID 33794006
Do Youth Want Psychosocial Screenings in Diabetes Clinic? Profiles of Acceptability.
Journal of pediatric psychology
AIMS: Psychosocial screenings are recommended and increasingly common in pediatric subspecialty clinics, though little is known about their acceptability. This study seeks to uncover profiles of acceptability and assess demographic and clinical correlates among adolescents with diabetes.METHODS: A sample of 124 adolescents (57.7% female) ages 12-21years (M=16.2±2.3) completed screenings during routine diabetes appointments. K-means clustering of responses to acceptability items derived profiles; Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests assessed correlates.RESULTS: Adolescents with the most common profile (72.6%) placed high importance on medical providers' awareness of their emotions and reported no difficulties/discomfort with the screener. These youth had moderate depressive symptoms, low diabetes distress, and low A1c. Those who fit a less common profile (18.5%) were uncomfortable with the screener and had the highest depressive symptoms and lowest A1c. Youth who fit a smaller profile (6.5%) endorsed technical difficulties and had high depressive symptoms and lowest diabetes distress. The smallest profile (2.4%, N=3) had difficulty understanding and experienced discomfort with the screening and had the lowest depressive symptoms and the highest diabetes distress and A1c. These differences in depressive symptoms (F=3.54, p=.017), A1c values (F=4.03, p=.009), and diabetes distress (F=3.27, p=.036) were significant though differences in age, gender, and diabetes duration were not.CONCLUSIONS: Most youth responded favorably to in-clinic psychosocial screenings. Youth who were less satisfied were at increased risk for psychosocial and medical complications. Findings highlight areas of need, such as enhanced support with and an emphasized rationale for screenings, which may improve patient experience in subspecialty care.
View details for DOI 10.1093/jpepsy/jsaa112
View details for PubMedID 33316061
You, Me, and Diabetes: Intimacy and Technology Among Adults With T1D and Their Partners
FAMILIES SYSTEMS & HEALTH
2020; 38 (4): 418–27
Limited research has examined the impact of technology on intimacy and relationships among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The current study examined the experiences of individuals with T1D and their partners and evaluated the expectations for how advances in technology such as automated insulin delivery systems may impact physical intimacy.The Insulin Delivery Systems: Perceptions, Ideas, Reflections and Expectations (INSPIRE) study is a multisite study examining expectations for automated insulin delivery systems among adults and youth with T1D as well as partners and caregivers. For the current analysis, data regarding the impact of diabetes on relationship intimacy were extracted from focus groups or individual semistructured interviews with adults with T1D (n = 113) and partners of individuals with T1D (n = 55).Three independent coders conducted thematic analysis utilizing NVivo software. Two primary themes were identified: vulnerability in romantic relationships because of managing diabetes and the unique challenges of physical intimacy because of the use of diabetes technology.Participants expressed the hope that diabetes technology, and automated insulin delivery systems in particular, will offer opportunities for flexibility in their diabetes management. These options may decrease their sense of vulnerability through provision of greater control over diabetes management and when/whether to disclose diabetes, minimizing discomforts in the context of sexual intimacy, and reduction of fear about diabetes complications. Patient-reported outcomes and expectations for diabetes technology should be incorporated into patient-provider conversations about sensitive issues. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
View details for DOI 10.1037/fsh0000485
View details for Web of Science ID 000619667800008
View details for PubMedID 33591783
A Real-World Prospective Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of the Loop Open Source Automated Insulin Delivery System.
Diabetes technology & therapeutics
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Loop Do-It-Yourself (DIY) automated insulin delivery system.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective real-world observational study was conducted, which included 558 adults and children (age range 1 to 71 years, mean HbA1c 6.8±1.0%) who initiated Loop either on their own or with community-developed resources and provided data for 6 months.RESULTS: Mean time-in-range 70-180 mg/dL (TIR) increased from 67±16% at baseline (prior to starting Loop) to 73±13% during the 6 months (mean change from baseline 6.6%, 95% confidence interval 5.9% to 7.4%; P<0.001). TIR increased in both adults and children, across the full range of baseline HbA1c, and in participants with both high and moderate income levels. Median time <54 mg/dL was 0.40% at baseline and changed by -0.05% (95% confidence interval -0.09% to -0.03%, P<0.001). Mean HbA1c was 6.8±1.0% at baseline and decreased to 6.5±0.8% after 6 months (mean difference= -0.33%, 95% confidence interval -0.40% to -0.26%, P<0.001). The incidence rate of reported severe hypoglycemia events was 18.7 per 100 person-years, a reduction from the incidence rate of 181 per 100 person-years during the 3 months prior to the study. Among the 481 users providing Loop data at 6 months, median CGM use was 96% (interquartile range 91% to 98%) and median time Loop was modulating basal insulin was at least 83% (interquartile range 73% to 88%).CONCLUSIONS: The Loop open source system can be initiated with community-developed resources and used safely and effectively by adults and children with T1D.
View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2020.0535
View details for PubMedID 33226840
- Trust in hybrid closed loop among people with diabetes: Perspectives of experienced system users JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY 2020; 25 (4): 429–38
Exposure to Closed Loop Barriers Using Virtual Reality.
Journal of diabetes science and technology
BACKGROUND: Closed loop (CL) automated insulin delivery systems are demonstrated to be safe and effective in regulating glucose levels and reducing cognitive burden in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, given the limited market options and the do-it-yourself nature of most systems, it can be difficult for potential users to shape their expectations fitting them into daily lives and management routines. As such, we examined the potential feasibility of a virtual reality (VR) intervention.METHODS: A four-part VR intervention was created to expose adults with T1D to expected CL system barriers: body image, perceived hassles of using CL, deskilling fears, and unwanted social attention. Goals of the pilot were to assess feasibility and expose patients to CL. Surveys were conducted pre- and postparticipating in the VR experience.RESULTS: A total of 20 adults with T1D completed the pilot. Average time to complete the experience was 14.1minutes (8.8-39.9). Reported VR sickness was low. Willingness to use VR was maintained in 90% (n=18) and did not change expectations of CL in 95% (n=19). Virtual reality changed perceived hassles of CL in 25% (n=5) with four concerned over alarms and one connectivity issues: positive diabetes technology attitudes, confidence in managing hypoglycemia, overall perceptions of appearance, and positive affect maintained after the VR intervention. Negative affect significantly decreased after exposure and perceptions of being overweight trended toward significance.CONCLUSION: This pilot VR intervention demonstrated high potential in addressing expected barriers to uptake and usage of CL systems without decreasing enthusiasm or changing expectations of CL.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1932296820902771
View details for PubMedID 32019329
- An Intolerable Burden: Suicide, Intended Self-Injury and Diabetes. Canadian journal of diabetes 2020
Parental Perspectives: Identifying Profiles of Parental Attitudes and Barriers Related to Diabetes Device Use.
Diabetes technology & therapeutics
BACKGROUND: Despite the demonstrated benefits of diabetes device use, uptake of insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) remains quite low. The current study aimed to identify profiles of parents of youth with type 1 diabetes based on their attitudes toward diabetes-specific technology and barriers to diabetes technology uptake.METHODS: Online survey data were collected from 471 parents in the T1D Exchange Clinic Network (child's age=12.0±3.2 years; diabetes duration=7.0±2.9 years; A1c=8.4%±1.3; 75% using insulin pump; 27% using CGM).RESULTS: K-means cluster analyses revealed 5 parent profiles: Embracers (50.7%), Burdened (15.7%), Hopeful but Hassled (14.2%), Distrusting (12.7%), and Data Minimalists (6.6%). ANOVAs and Chi-square tests identified differences between groups based on diabetes distress, worry over hypoglycemia, device use, and demographic characteristics.CONCLUSIONS: Providers encouraging device uptake may benefit from tailoring their approaches based on these distinct groups and their corresponding concerns and needs.
View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2019.0492
View details for PubMedID 31971451
- Exercising with an automated insulin delivery system: qualitative insight into the hopes and expectations of people with type 1 diabetes PRACTICAL DIABETES 2020; 37 (1): 19–23
Suicide and Self-inflicted Injury in Diabetes: A Balancing Act.
Journal of diabetes science and technology
Glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remains a challenge for many, despite the availability of modern diabetes technology. While technologies have proven glycemic benefits and may reduce excess mortality in some populations, both mortality and complication rates remain significantly higher in T1DM than the general population. Diabetes technology can reduce some burdens of diabetes self-management, however, it may also increase anxiety, stress, and diabetes-related distress. Additional workload associated with diabetes technologies and the dominant focus on metabolic control may be at the expense of quality-of-life. Diabetes is associated with significantly increased risk of suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicide. The risk increases for those with diabetes and comorbid mood disorder. For example, the prevalence of depression is significantly higher in people with diabetes than the general population, and thus, people with diabetes are at even higher risk of suicide. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported a 24% rise in US national suicide rates between 1999 and 2014, the highest in 30 years. In the United Kingdom, 6000 suicides occur annually. Rates of preventable self-injury mortality stand at 29.1 per 100 000 population. Individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of suicide, being three to four times more likely to attempt suicide than the general population. Furthermore, adolescents aged 15 to 19 are most likely to present at emergency departments for self-inflicted injuries (9.6 per 1000 visits), with accidents, alcohol-related injuries, and self-harm being the strongest risk factors for suicide, the second leading cause of death among 10 to 24 year olds. While we have developed tools to improve glycemic control, we must be cognizant that the psychological burden of chronic disease is a significant problem for this vulnerable population. It is crucial to determine the psychosocial and behavioral predictors to uptake and continued use of technology in order to aid the identification of those individuals most likely to realize benefits of any intervention as well as those individuals who may require more support to succeed with technology.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1932296819891136
View details for PubMedID 31801353
Diabetes and male sexual health: an unmet challenge
2019; 36 (6): 201–6
View details for Web of Science ID 000512379700004
- Diabetes and female sexual health: an ongoing challenge PRACTICAL DIABETES 2019; 36 (5): 165–69
Depression in Context: Important Considerations for Youth with Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes.
Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for depression. However, severity and correlates of depressive symptoms may differ by diabetes type.Associations of depressive symptoms with global health, diabetes duration, and gender were compared between youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.A sample of 149 youth ages 12-21 diagnosed with either type 1 (n = 122) or type 2 (n = 27) diabetes were screened during routine clinic appointments. Regression models were constructed to examine differences by diabetes type.Adolescents with type 2 diabetes had significantly higher depressive symptom scores (4.89 vs 2.99, P = 0.025) than those with type 1 diabetes. A significant interaction between global health and diabetes type on depressive symptoms revealed inverse associations between global health and depressive symptoms that was stronger among youth with type 2 diabetes (β = -0.98, P < 0.001) than type 1 (β = -0.48, P < 0.001). Further probing revealed that among youth with better global health, adolescents with type 1 had more depressive symptoms than those with type 2 diabetes (β = 0.33, P = 0.035). Diabetes duration and depressive symptoms were positively associated among individuals with type 2 (β = 0.86, P = 0.043), but not type 1 diabetes. No gender differences were detected.These findings suggest that correlates of depressive symptoms in youth with diabetes differ by diabetes type. Global health appears to be an important correlate among youth with both types, whereas diabetes duration was only a significant factor among those with type 2 diabetes. The current findings can inform future psychosocial intervention efforts within both these populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1111/pedi.12939
View details for PubMedID 31644828
ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018: Assessment and management of hypoglycemia in children and adolescents with diabetes
WILEY. 2018: 178–92
View details for PubMedID 29869358
Psychosocial and Human Factors During a Trial of a Hybrid Closed Loop System for Type 1 Diabetes Management.
Diabetes technology & therapeutics
BACKGROUND: Hybrid closed loop (HCL) systems are designed to automate insulin delivery to improve type 1 diabetes (T1D) outcomes and reduce user burden and distress. Because the systems only automate some aspects of diabetes care, psychosocial and human factors remain an important consideration in their use. Thus, we examined whether psychosocial and human factors (i.e., distress related to diabetes management, fear of hypoglycemia, and technology attitudes) would (1) change after using the system and (2) predict glycemic outcomes during the trial.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fourteen adults and 15 adolescents with T1D participated in a multisite clinical trial of an investigational version of the MiniMed 670G system (Medtronic, Northridge, CA) over 4 to 5 days in a semisupervised outpatient setting. Users completed surveys assessing psychosocial and human factors before beginning the HCL system and at the conclusion of the study. t-Tests and regression analyses were conducted to examine whether these factors changed following trial exposure to the HCL system and predicted glycemic outcomes during the trial.RESULTS: Diabetes management distress decreased and diabetes technology attitudes became more positive over the trial period. Fear of hypoglycemia did not change over the trial period. There was a trend toward greater pretrial management distress predicting less time in range during the trial, controlling for time in range before the trial.CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that this system is promising for enhancing technology attitudes and reducing management distress. Psychosocial factors, such as management distress, may negatively impact glycemic outcomes and should be a priority area for further investigation.
View details for PubMedID 30239219
- Psychosocial and Human Factors During a Trial of a Hybrid Closed Loop System for Type 1 Diabetes Management DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS 2018; 20 (10): 648–53
From Wary Wearers to d-Embracers: Personas of Readiness to Use Diabetes Devices.
Journal of diabetes science and technology
BACKGROUND: Diabetes devices such as insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are associated with improved health and quality of life in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, uptake remains low. The aim of this study was to develop different "personas" of adults with T1D in relation to readiness to adopt new diabetes technology.METHODS: Participants were 1498 T1D Exchange participants who completed surveys on barriers to uptake, technology attitudes, and other psychosocial variables. HbA1c data was available from the T1D Exchange for 30% of the sample. K-means cluster analyses grouped the sample by device barriers and attitudes. The authors assigned descriptive labels based on cluster characteristics. ANOVAs and chi-square tests assessed group differences by demographic and psychosocial variables (eg, diabetes duration, diabetes distress).RESULTS: Analyses yielded five distinct personas. The d-Embracers (54% of participants) endorsed few barriers to device use and had the highest rates of device use, lowest HbA1c, and were the least distressed. The Free Rangers (23%) had the most negative technology attitudes. The Data Minimalists (10%) used pumps but had lower CGM use and did not want more diabetes information. The Wary Wearers (11%) had lower overall device use, were younger, more distressed, endorsed many barriers, and had higher HbA1c. The High Distress (3%) group members were the youngest, had the shortest diabetes duration, reported the most barriers, and were the most distressed.CONCLUSION: These clinically meaningful personas of device readiness can inform tailored interventions targeting barriers and psychosocial needs to increase device uptake.
View details for PubMedID 30132692
Using Cluster Analysis to Understand Clinician Readiness to Promote Continuous Glucose Monitoring Adoption.
Journal of diabetes science and technology
BACKGROUND: Background:Many people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) report barriers to using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Diabetes care providers may have their own barriers to promoting CGM uptake. The goal of this study was to develop clinician "personas" with regard to readiness to promote CGM uptake.METHODS: Diabetes care providers who treat people with T1D (N = 209) completed a survey on perceived patient barriers to device uptake, technology attitudes, and characteristics and barriers specific to their clinical practice. K-means cluster analyses grouped the sample by CGM barriers and attitudes. ANOVAs and chi-square tests assessed group differences on provider and patient characteristics. The authors assigned descriptive names for each persona.RESULTS: Analyses yielded three clinician personas regarding readiness to promote CGM uptake. Ready clinicians (20% of sample; 24% physicians, 38% certified diabetes educators/CDEs) had positive technology attitudes, had clinic time to work with patients using CGM, and found it easy to keep up with technology advances. In comparison, Cautious clinicians (41% of sample; 17% physicians, 53% CDEs) perceived that their patients had many barriers to adopting CGM and had less time than the Ready group to work with patients using CGM data. Not Yet Ready clinicians (40% of sample; 9% physicians; 79% CDEs) had negative technology attitudes and the least clinic time to work with CGM data. They found it difficult to keep up with technology advances.CONCLUSION: Some diabetes clinicians may benefit from tailored interventions and additional time and resources to empower them to help facilitate increased uptake of CGM technology.
View details for PubMedID 29991281
HUMAN FACTORS DURING TRIAL OF A HYBRID CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM FOR TYPE 1 DIABETES MANAGEMENT
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2018: S718
View details for Web of Science ID 000431185202153
Automated Insulin Delivery Systems: Hopes and Expectations of Family Members
DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS
2018; 20 (3): 222–28
This study examines the hopes and expectations that children, adolescents, and adults with type 1 diabetes and their families have for new automated insulin delivery systems. The study also aims to examine how the automated insulin delivery system may impact family functioning and individual members' psychosocial adjustment.Forty-eight semistructured focus groups (n = 195) and 89 individual interviews were conducted with children, adolescents, and adults with type 1 diabetes and parents and partners. Coders reviewed results in key themes most likely to contain references to the family system. Clusters were analyzed using thematic analysis to identify participants' salient hopes and expectations of how new technology may impact family relationships and individual psychosocial functioning.Three main themes emerged for participants' hopes and expectations for implementation of the automated insulin delivery system. First, there is an expectation that this diabetes technology will alleviate diabetes-specific worry and burden for the people with diabetes and other family members. Second, there is also hope that this system may reduce day-to-day stress and, third, improve family relationships.The unique perspective of a broad age group provides insight into how individuals and families creatively address the multiple tasks required in daily diabetes management. Study findings elucidate the very high hopes and expectations held by those managing type 1 diabetes and the impact this new technology may have on family relationships. Awareness of these hopes and expectations is important for developers and clinicians in addressing potential challenges to uptake and to ensure that expectations are set appropriately.
View details for PubMedID 29565721
What End Users and Stakeholders Want From Automated Insulin Delivery Systems
2017; 40 (11): 1453–61
The purpose of this study was to rigorously explore psychosocial factors associated with automated insulin delivery systems among people living with type 1 diabetes.Across four sites in the U.S. and U.K., 284 participants completed structured interviews or focus groups on expectations, desired features, potential benefits, and perceived burdens of automated insulin delivery systems. Recorded audio files were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo.Three themes were identified as critical for uptake of automated insulin delivery: considerations of trust and control, system features, and concerns and barriers to adoption. Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes primarily identified needs specific to their life stage and social contexts (e.g., school). Adults with type 1 diabetes, parents of youth with type 1 diabetes, and partners of adults with type 1 diabetes were most concerned about the accuracy, adaptability, and algorithm quality alongside expectations that systems stabilize glucose levels and reduce risk for long-term complications.Incorporating stakeholder perspectives on use of automated insulin delivery systems will improve the adoption of devices, quality of life, and likelihood of optimal health. Efforts to build trust in systems, optimize user-system interactions, and provide clear guidance about device capabilities and limitations may help potential users achieve optimal glycemic outcomes.
View details for PubMedID 28842523
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5864142
Trust in hybrid closed loop among people with diabetes: Perspectives of experienced system users.
Journal of health psychology
Automated closed loop systems will greatly change type 1 diabetes management; user trust will be essential for acceptance of this new technology. This qualitative study explored trust in 32 individuals following a hybrid closed loop trial. Participants described how context-, system-, and person-level factors influenced their trust in the system. Participants attempted to override the system when they lacked trust, while trusting the system decreased self-management burdens and decreased stress. Findings highlight considerations for fostering trust in closed loop systems. Systems may be able to engage users by offering varying levels of controls to match trust preferences.
View details for PubMedID 28810490
Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Cambodia: Results from Two Screening Studies.
Journal of diabetes
Despite growing attention to diabetes throughout Asia, data from Southeast Asia are limited. This article reports rates of diabetes, hypertension and obesity in Cambodia.Two studies were conducted across different regions of Cambodia: a 2012 screening study across urban, semi-urban and rural areas that used point of care capillary glucose for determination of diabetes (n = 13,997) and a 2005 epidemiological study with random selection from two main urban areas that used oral glucose tolerance tests for determination of diabetes (n = 1,863). Blood pressure and anthropometrics were also measured.In the screening study, urban sites showed significantly higher rates of diabetes than rural sites; semi-urban rates were intermediate. There was a significant dose-response effect for urbanicity on overweight, obesity, and waist-to-hip ratio with higher rates for urban vs semi-urban and semi-urban vs rural locales. Rural sites had the lowest hypertension rates followed by urban and then semi-urban. Among persons who screened positive for diabetes, there was a dose-response effect for urbanicity on undiagnosed diabetes; rates of previously undiagnosed diabetes were lowest in urban (51%) vs semi-urban (55%) vs rural locales (67%). Rural participants reported the highest rates of smoking and alcohol use. In the urban epidemiological study, prevalence rates of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were approximately 10%, indicating a prevalence of total glucose intolerance of approximately 20%.Diabetes rates in Cambodia are high and disproportionately affect urban residents. A public health response is urgently needed; as development continues, rates of diabetes are expected to rise.
View details for DOI 10.1111/1753-0407.12570
View details for PubMedID 28544429
Expectations and Attitudes of Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes After Using a Hybrid Closed Loop System
2017; 43 (2): 223-232
Purpose The first hybrid closed loop (HCL) system, which automates insulin delivery but requires user inputs, was approved for treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 2016. The purpose of this study was to explore the benefits, expectations, and attitudes of individuals with T1D following a clinical trial of an HCL system. Methods Thirty-two individuals with T1D (17 adults, 15 adolescents) participated in focus groups after 4 to 5 days of system use. Content analysis generated themes regarding perceived benefits, hassles, and limitations. Results Some participants felt misled by terms such as "closed loop" and "artificial pancreas," which seemed to imply a more "hands-off" experience. Perceived benefits were improved glycemic control, anticipated reduction of long-term complications, better quality of life, and reduced mental burden of diabetes. Hassles and limitations included unexpected tasks for the user, difficulties wearing the system, concerns about controlling highs, and being reminded of diabetes. Conclusion Users are willing to accept some hassles and limitations if they also perceive health and quality-of-life benefits beyond current self-management. It is important for clinicians to provide a balanced view of positives and negatives to help manage expectations.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0145721717697244
View details for PubMedID 28340542
Diabetes Device Use in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Barriers to Uptake and Potential Intervention Targets.
2017; 40 (2): 181-187
Diabetes devices (insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors [CGMs]) are associated with benefits for glycemic control, yet uptake of these devices continues to be low. Some barriers to device uptake may be modifiable through psychosocial intervention, but little is known about which barriers and which patients to target.We surveyed 1,503 adult T1D Exchange participants (mean age 35.3 [SD 14.8] years, mean diagnosis duration 20.4 [SD 12.5] years) to investigate barriers to device uptake, understand profiles of device users versus nonusers, and explore differences by age and sex. Scales used were the Diabetes Distress Scale, Technology Use Attitudes (General and Diabetes-Specific), and Barriers to Device Use and Reasons for Discontinuing Devices.Most commonly endorsed modifiable barriers were related to the hassle of wearing devices (47%) and disliking devices on one's body (35%). CGM users (37%) were older than nonusers (mean 38.3 vs. 33.5 years), had diabetes for longer (22.9 vs. 18.8 years), had more positive technology attitudes (22.6-26.0 vs. 21.4-24.8), and reported fewer barriers to using diabetes technology than nonusers (3.3 vs. 4.3). The youngest age-group (18-25 years) had the lowest CGM (26% vs. 40-48%) and insulin pump (64% vs. 69-77%) uptake, highest diabetes distress (2.2 vs. 1.8-2.1), and highest HbA1c levels (8.3% [67 mmol/mol] vs. 7.2-7.4% [55-57 mmol/mol]).Efforts to increase device use need to target physical barriers to wearing devices. Because young adults had the lowest device uptake rates, highest distress, and highest HbA1c compared with older age-groups, they should be the focus of future interventions to increase device use.
View details for DOI 10.2337/dc16-1536
View details for PubMedID 27899489
Implementation of Depression Screening and Global Health Assessment in Pediatric Subspecialty Clinics.
The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Adolescents with chronic illness face greater risk of psychosocial difficulties, complicating disease management. Despite increased calls to screen for patient-reported outcomes, clinical implementation has lagged. Using quality improvement methods, this study aimed to investigate the feasibility of standardized screening for depression and assessment of global health and to determine recommended behavioral health follow-up, across three pediatric subspecialty clinics.A total of 109 patients aged 12-22 years (median = 16.6) who were attending outpatient visits for treatment of diabetes (80% type 1), inflammatory bowel disease, or cystic fibrosis completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric Global Health measures on electronic tablets. Patients screening positive on the PHQ-9 received same-day behavioral health assessment and regular phone check-ins to facilitate necessary follow-up care.Overall, 89% of 122 identified patients completed screening during a 6-month window. Patients completed measures in a timely manner (within 3 minutes) without disruption to clinic flow, and they rated the process as easy, comfortable, and valuable. Depression scores varied across disease type. Patients rated lower global health relative to a previously assessed validation cohort. Depression and global health related significantly to certain medical outcomes. Fifteen percent of patients screened positive on the PHQ-9, of whom 50% confirmed attending behavioral health appointments within 6 months of screening.A standardized depression and global health assessment protocol implemented across pediatric subspecialties was feasible and effective. Universal behavioral health screening for adolescents and young adults living with chronic disease is necessary to meet programmatic needs in pediatric subspecialty clinics.
View details for PubMedID 28830798
Fear of Hypoglycemia in Children and Adolescents and Their Parents with Type 1 Diabetes.
Current diabetes reports
2016; 16 (8): 77-?
Hypoglycemia is a frequent occurrence in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. A variety of efforts have been made to standardize the definition of hypoglycemia and to define one of its most significant psychosocial consequences-fear of hypoglycemia (FOH). In addition to documenting the experience of FOH in children and adolescents type 1 diabetes and their parents, studies have investigated the relations between FOH and glycemic control and diabetes technology use. This review provides a summary of the recent FOH literature as it applies to pediatric type 1 diabetes.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11892-016-0762-2
View details for PubMedID 27370530
Diabetes Technology: Uptake, Outcomes, Barriers, and the Intersection With Distress.
Journal of diabetes science and technology
2016; 10 (4): 852-858
Patients managing type 1 diabetes have access to new technologies to assist in management. This manuscript has two aims: 1) to briefly review the literature on diabetes technology use and how this relates to psychological factors and 2) to present an example of human factors research using our data to examine psychological factors associated with technology use. Device/technology uptake and use has increased over the years and at present day is a common clinical practice. There are mixed results in terms of health and psychosocial outcomes, with specific subgroups doing better than others with technology. Our data demonstrated that patients have moderately elevated diabetes distress across differing types of technology used, from low-tech to high-tech options, possibly meaning that technology does not add or take away distress. In addition, users on multiple daily injections compared to all other technology groups have less positive attitudes about technology. Finally, we discuss implications for clinical practice and future research.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1932296816650900
View details for PubMedID 27234809
International and Interdisciplinary Identification of Health Care Transition Outcomes
2016; 170 (3): 205-211
There is a lack of agreement on what constitutes successful outcomes for the process of health care transition (HCT) among adolescent and young adults with special health care needs.To present HCT outcomes identified by a Delphi process with an interdisciplinary group of participants.A Delphi method involving 3 stages was deployed to refine a list of HCT outcomes. This 18-month study (from January 5, 2013, of stage 1 to July 3, 2014, of stage 3) included an initial literature search, expert interviews, and then 2 waves of a web-based survey. On this survey, 93 participants from outpatient, community-based, and primary care clinics rated the importance of the top HCT outcomes identified by the Delphi process. Analyses were performed from July 5, 2014, to December 5, 2014.Health care transition outcomes of adolescents and young adults with special health care needs.Importance ratings of identified HCT outcomes rated on a Likert scale from 1 (not important) to 9 (very important).The 2 waves of surveys included 117 and 93 participants as the list of outcomes was refined. Transition outcomes were refined by the 3 waves of the Delphi process, with quality of life being the highest-rated outcome with broad agreement. The 10 final outcomes identified included individual outcomes (quality of life, understanding the characteristics of conditions and complications, knowledge of medication, self-management, adherence to medication, and understanding health insurance), health services outcomes (attending medical appointments, having a medical home, and avoidance of unnecessary hospitalization), and a social outcome (having a social network). Participants indicated that different outcomes were likely needed for individuals with cognitive disabilities.Quality of life is an important construct relevant to HCT. Future research should identify valid measures associated with each outcome and further explore the role that quality of life plays in the HCT process. Achieving consensus is a critical step toward the development of reliable and objective comparisons of HCT outcomes across clinical conditions and care delivery locations.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3168
View details for Web of Science ID 000372304700010
Diabetes in ethnically diverse youth: disparate burden and intervention approaches.
Current diabetes reviews
2015; 11 (4): 251-260
There is a rising prevalence of diabetes in youth and children, and the burden of this epidemic has shifted from primarily one affecting white youth to now affecting multiple ethnicities. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes rise in ethnically diverse youth, indices of health and care in these populations are important to examine to understand the state of disparities and address them. Research reviewed indicates that there is evidence of disparities in glycemic control, as well as shortand long-term complications. Multisystemic factors contributing to these disparities include: 1) individual risk factors, 2) contextual risk factors, and 3) systemic risk factors. Interventions developed specifically to address these disparities, those that are tailored for these groups, and those that simply include ethnically diverse youth in their analyses are discussed below. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
View details for PubMedID 25901501
Predictors of Self-Management in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes: Individual, Family, Systemic, and Technologic Influences
CURRENT DIABETES REPORTS
2014; 14 (11)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex chronic disease that has many facets for successful management. The burden of this management falls largely on the individual and their family members. Self-management has a major influence on T1D health outcomes, and with successful management, children and adolescents with T1D can lead long and healthy lives. We discuss how various individual, family, and systemic/technologic factors influence T1D self-management, providing research that supports interventions targeting each of these factors. With this information, health care practitioners and researchers can better understand the role of T1D self-management and bolster this important aspect of T1D care.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11892-014-0544-7
View details for Web of Science ID 000344325200004
View details for PubMedID 25200590
Age and Glycemic Control Among Low-Income Latinos
JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT AND MINORITY HEALTH
2013; 15 (5): 898-902
Younger adult patients with diabetes often have poorer glycemic control (HbA1c) than older patients. It is not known if this relationship holds true in the Latino population. Objective was to explore the relationship between age and HbA1c in a Mexican American population and what plausible factors might mediate this relationship. We analyzed data from 387 patients with diabetes self-identified as Mexican American recruited as a part of a cross-sectional study of safety net patients in two cities. Patients completed questionnaires and their last HbA1c was extracted from the medical record. We conducted multivariate regression analyses and Baron and Kenny tests of mediation. Participants were young with mean age of 53 ± 12 years. Younger age was associated with a higher HbA1c and having a higher fat diet. High fat diet partially mediated the relationship between age and HbA1c (p < 0.001 to p < 0.01). Age's indirect effect on HbA1c through diet was significant (Sobel = -2.44, p = 0.01). Younger Mexican American patients had higher HbA1c compared to older patients. Having a diet high in fat partially explained this relationship. Future epidemiological studies are needed to understand the multifaceted relationship between age and glycemic control.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10903-012-9689-0
View details for Web of Science ID 000323757500006
View details for PubMedID 22843322
REDEEM: A Pragmatic Trial to Reduce Diabetes Distress
2013; 36 (9): 2551-2558
To compare three interventions to reduce diabetes distress (DD) and improve self-management among non-clinically depressed adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).In REDEEM, 392 adults with T2DM and DD were randomized to computer-assisted self-management (CASM), CASM plus DD-specific problem solving (CAPS), or a computer-administered minimal supportive intervention. Primary outcomes were Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) total, the Emotional Burden (EB) and Regimen Distress (RD) DDS subscales, and diet, exercise, and medication adherence.Significant and clinically meaningful reductions in DD (DDS, EB, and RD) and self-management behaviors occurred in all three conditions (P < 0.001), with no significant between-group differences. There was, however, a significant group × baseline distress interaction (P < 0.02), in which patients with high baseline RD in the CAPS condition displayed significantly larger RD reductions than those in the other two conditions. RD generated the most distress and displayed the greatest distress reduction as a result of intervention. The pace of DD reduction varied by patient age: older patients demonstrated significant reductions in DD early in the intervention, whereas younger adults displayed similar reductions later. Reductions in DD were accompanied by significant improvements in healthy eating, physical activity, and medication adherence, although not by change in HbA1c.DD is malleable and highly responsive to intervention. Interventions that enhance self-management also reduce DD significantly, but DD-specific interventions may be necessary for patients with high initial levels of DD. Future research should identify the minimal, most cost-effective interventions to reduce DD and improve self-management.
View details for DOI 10.2337/dc12-2493
View details for Web of Science ID 000323420200038
View details for PubMedID 23735726
Health and Psychosocial Outcomes in US Adult Patients with Diabetes from Diverse Ethnicities
CURRENT DIABETES REPORTS
2012; 12 (6): 729-738
Within the United States, diabetes is a serious public health concern and patients with diabetes are more likely to experience clinical depression, psychological distress, and depressive symptoms than those without. Negative psychosocial factors are associated with poorer diabetes management and glycemic control. Overall, both the rates of diabetes and related psychological distress are greater for persons of diverse ethnicities than for non-Latino whites, and have reached epidemic proportions in certain groups. The following article will provide an overview across ethnicities of the rates of diabetes, health outcomes, psychosocial outcomes, and unique cultural and linguistic challenges that contribute to disparities within US diabetes patients of diverse ethnicities. Using this information, our hope is that health care practitioners and researchers alike can better respond to the psychosocial needs of ethnically diverse patients.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11892-012-0319-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000310706500012
View details for PubMedID 22961116
2012; 29 (5): 61-64
View details for PubMedID 23057179
Young adult African American patients with type 2 diabetes: A high risk patient sub-group with few supports for good diabetes management
JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
2012; 17 (4): 535-544
This study examined age differences in support, BMI, and HbA1c among African American patients with type 2 diabetes. Participants were 158 African American adults with type 2 diabetes. Average HbA1c was 1% higher among patients aged 20-49 than patients 60-77, and double the number of younger patients had a BMI ≥35 than older patients. Younger patients reported less trust in their physician and greater disagreement with recommendations. They reported relying less on partners, greater unresolved conflict with partners around diabetes, and less church involvement. The association between age and HbA1c was partially mediated by patients' trust of their physician.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1359105311422120
View details for Web of Science ID 000303396100008
View details for PubMedID 21963680
AASAP: A program to increase recruitment and retention in clinical trials
PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELING
2012; 86 (3): 372-377
To evaluate a theory based, subject-centered, staff/subject communication program, AASAP (anticipate, acknowledge, standardize, accept, plan), to increase recruitment and retention in RCTs.AASAP was evaluated with logistical regression by comparing rates of recruitment (at telephone screening, baseline assessment, initial intervention) and intervention retention (over 16 weeks) before (-AASAP) and after (+AASAP) it was introduced to a 3-arm RCT to reduce disease distress among highly distressed subjects with type 2 diabetes.Included were 250 subjects in -AASAP and 338 in +AASAP. Significant improvement in recruitment occurred at each of the 3 recruitment stages: agreed at screening (OR=2.52; p<0.001), attended baseline assessment (OR=1.91; p<0.001), attended initial intervention (OR=1.46; p<0.03). Higher education and shorter diabetes duration predicted better recruitment in -AASAP (OR=2.23; p<0.001), but not in +AASAP. AASAP also improved intervention retention over 16 weeks (OR=3.46; p<0.05).AASAP is a structured program of subject/staff communication that helps improve external validity by enhancing both subject recruitment and retention.AASAP can be taught to non-professional staff and can be adapted to a variety of health settings. It can also be used by clinicians to engage patients in programs of ongoing care.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pec.2011.07.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000302672700016
View details for PubMedID 21831557
Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at Risk for Major Depressive Disorder Over Time
ANNALS OF FAMILY MEDICINE
2011; 9 (2): 115-120
We wanted to identify risk factors associated with the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) among patients with type 2 diabetes over time.In a noninterventional study, 338 adult patients with type 2 diabetes and no MDD diagnosis at baseline were assessed 3 times during 18 months (9-month intervals) to ascertain predictors of MDD. We tested a model incorporating personal, behavioral, biologic, and psychosocial variables to identify predictors of MDD. Exploratory analyses tested whether current negative affect mediated the relationship between predictors and subsequent MDD. We also conducted a stratified analysis of moderate vs high negative affect to explore whether level of baseline negative affect mediated the relationship between specific predictors and MDD.Prior MDD and negative affect predicted future development of MDD. In subpopulations stratified by moderate negative affect, negative life events, an elevated body mass index (BMI), prior MDD, and poor control of glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A(1c)) each predicted MDD. In subpopulations stratified by elevated negative affect, negative life events and poor control of hemoglobin A(1c) predicted MDD. Current negative affect partially mediated the relationship between prior MDD and subsequent MDD, as well as the relationship between negative life events and subsequent MDD.Although negative affect at baseline was the primary predictor of subsequent MDD, when stratified by negative affect, negative life events, BMI, and poor control of hemoglobin A(1c) also predicted MDD. Thus, life stresses and patients' disease-related concerns are important when understanding what predicts subsequent MDD. Addressing depressive symptoms and broader life context issues expands the scope of a potential intervention to reduce the risk of developing MDD in persons with type 2 diabetes.
View details for DOI 10.1370/afm.1212
View details for Web of Science ID 000289024100005
View details for PubMedID 21403137
Substance use treatment outcomes in a sample of male serious juvenile offenders
JOURNAL OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT
2009; 36 (2): 183-194
This study examined drug-treatment-related reductions in alcohol and marijuana use, cigarette smoking, and nondrug offending among male adolescents who had been adjudicated of a serious (almost exclusively felony) offense. Results indicated that the "real-world" drug treatments that these adolescents experienced had significant effects on substance use, which could not be explained solely by incarceration in controlled environments. However, effects on cigarette smoking and criminal offending were found only for treatments that included family involvement. Results suggest that involving families in adolescents' treatment may be useful for promoting desistence from criminal offending in this population.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsat.2008.06.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000263305700007
View details for PubMedID 18657942
Cultural traditions as "protective factors" among Latino children of illicit drug users
SUBSTANCE USE & MISUSE
2007; 42 (4): 621-642
Family bonding was examined among Hispanic adolescents whose fathers are illicit drug users to ascertain whether such adolescents maintain close affective family ties or alienate themselves from their families given their father's use of illicit drugs and referral to a drug screening and treatment program. It was hypothesized that high levels of paternal drug use would be associated with the youth's alienation from the family. In addition, it was postulated that the adolescent's endorsement of traditional cultural values and social responsibility would protect her or him against this effect in relation to family bonding. These hypotheses are based on prior research that suggests that youth bonding to prosocial institutions, such as family, school, church, and community organizations, can be "protective" against drug use. More specifically, our analyses examined the role of level of acculturation in middle school, family traditionalism, American orientation, Latino orientation, and social responsibility in predicting adolescents' family bonding. Results indicated that the father's level of marijuana and/or methamphetamine use was unrelated to youth family bonding. Additionally, Latino and American cultural orientations and level of acculturation in middle school were not associated with family bonding. By contrast, social responsibility (the youth's citizenship and responsibility to the community) and family traditionalism (endorsing conservative cultural values regarding the maintenance of family traditions and respect for elders and family) were significantly associated with family bonding. In other words, among children of Latino illicit drug users, the youth's conservative family values and a responsible attitude toward community traditions were dual factors related to family bonding, perhaps operating also as sources of "protection" against youth problem behaviors.
View details for DOI 10.1080/10826080701202247
View details for Web of Science ID 000246961400003
View details for PubMedID 17558954