The Role of Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
Frontiers in immunology
2021; 12: 684657
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic, incurable condition characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling, perivascular inflammation, and right heart failure. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) stave off autoimmunity, and there is increasing evidence for their compromised activity in the inflammatory milieu of PAH. Abnormal Treg function is strongly correlated with a predisposition to PAH in animals and patients. Athymic Treg-depleted rats treated with SU5416, an agent causing pulmonary vascular injury, develop PAH, which is prevented by infusing missing CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ Tregs. Abnormal Treg activity may also explain why PAH disproportionately affects women more than men. This mini review focuses on the role of Tregs in PAH with a special view to sexual dimorphism and the future promise of Treg therapy.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2021.684657
View details for PubMedID 34489935
Leukotrienes in Tumor-Associated Inflammation.
Frontiers in pharmacology
2020; 11: 1289
Leukotrienes are biologically active eicosanoid lipid mediators that originate from oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid. Biosynthesis of leukotrienes involves a set of soluble and membrane-bound enzymes that constitute a machinery complex primarily expressed by cells of myeloid origin. Leukotrienes and their synthetic enzymes are critical immune modulators for leukocyte migration. Increased concentrations of leukotrienes are implicated in a number of inflammatory disorders. More recent work indicates that leukotrienes may also interact with a variety of tissue cells, contributing to the low-grade inflammation of cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and metabolic conditions, as well as that of cancer. Leukotriene signaling contributes to the active tumor microenvironment, promoting tumor growth and resistance to immunotherapy. This review summarizes recent insights into the intricate roles of leukotrienes in promoting tumor growth and metastasis through shaping the tumor microenvironment. The emerging possibilities for pharmacological targeting of leukotriene signaling in tumor metastasis are considered.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fphar.2020.01289
View details for PubMedID 32973519
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7466732
- Leukotrienes in Tumor-Associated Inflammation FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 2020; 11
Decreased lymphatic HIF-2α accentuates lymphatic remodeling in lymphedema.
The Journal of clinical investigation
Pathologic lymphatic remodeling in lymphedema evolves during periods of tissue inflammation and hypoxia through poorly defined processes. In human and mouse lymphedema, there is a significant increase of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, but a reduction of HIF-2α protein expression in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). We questioned whether dysregulated expression of these transcription factors contributes to disease pathogenesis and found that LEC-specific deletion of Hif-2α exacerbated lymphedema pathology. Even without lymphatic vascular injury, the loss of LEC-specific Hif-2α caused anatomic pathology and a functional decline in fetal and adult mice. These findings suggest that HIF-2α is an important mediator of lymphatic health. HIF-2α promoted protective phosphorylated TIE2 (p-TIE2) signaling in LECs, a process also replicated by upregulating TIE2 signaling through adenovirus-mediated angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) gene therapy. Our study suggests that HIF-2α normally promotes healthy lymphatic homeostasis and raises the exciting possibility that restoring HIF-2α pathways in lymphedema could mitigate long-term pathology and disability.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI136164
View details for PubMedID 32673288