Institute Affiliations

  • Member, Maternal & Child Health Research Institute (MCHRI)

Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, RadboudUniversityNijmegen (2020)
  • Master of Science, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (2012)
  • Bachelor of Science, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (2010)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Integrated Single-Cell and Plasma Proteomic Modeling to Predict Surgical Site Complications: A Prospective Cohort Study. Annals of surgery Rumer, K. K., Hedou, J., Tsai, A., Einhaus, J., Verdonk, F., Stanley, N., Choisy, B., Ganio, E., Bonham, A., Jacobsen, D., Warrington, B., Gao, X., Tingle, M., McAllister, T. N., Fallahzadeh, R., Feyaerts, D., Stelzer, I., Gaudilliere, D., Ando, K., Shelton, A., Morris, A., Kebebew, E., Aghaeepour, N., Kin, C., Angst, M. S., Gaudilliere, B. 1800


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether single-cell and plasma proteomic elements of the host's immune response to surgery accurately identify patients who develop a surgical site complication (SSC) after major abdominal surgery.SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: SSCs may occur in up to 25% of patients undergoing bowel resection, resulting in significant morbidity and economic burden. However, the accurate prediction of SSCs remains clinically challenging. Leveraging high-content proteomic technologies to comprehensively profile patients' immune response to surgery is a promising approach to identify predictive biological factors of SSCs.METHODS: Forty-one patients undergoing non-cancer bowel resection were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples collected before surgery and on postoperative day one (POD1) were analyzed using a combination of single-cell mass cytometry and plasma proteomics. The primary outcome was the occurrence of an SSC, including surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, or wound dehiscence within 30 days of surgery.RESULTS: A multiomic model integrating the single-cell and plasma proteomic data collected on POD1 accurately differentiated patients with (n = 11) and without (n = 30) an SSC [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.86]. Model features included coregulated proinflammatory (eg, IL-6- and MyD88- signaling responses in myeloid cells) and immunosuppressive (eg, JAK/STAT signaling responses in M-MDSCs and Tregs) events preceding an SSC. Importantly, analysis of the immunological data obtained before surgery also yielded a model accurately predicting SSCs (AUC = 0.82).CONCLUSIONS: The multiomic analysis of patients' immune response after surgery and immune state before surgery revealed systemic immune signatures preceding the development of SSCs. Our results suggest that integrating immunological data in perioperative risk assessment paradigms is a plausible strategy to guide individualized clinical care.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000005348

    View details for PubMedID 34954754

  • Multi-Omic, Longitudinal Profile of Third-Trimester Pregnancies Identifies a Molecular Switch That Predicts the Onset of Labor. Stelzer, I., Ghaemi, M., Han, X., Ando, K., Hedou, J., Feyaerts, D., Peterson, L., Ganio, E., Tsai, A., Tsai, E., Rumer, K., Stanley, N., Fallazadeh, R., Becker, M., Culos, A., Gaudilliere, D., Wong, R., Winn, V., Shaw, G., Snyder, M., Stevenson, D., Contrepois, K., Angst, M., Aghaeepour, N., Gaudilliere, B. SPRINGER HEIDELBERG. 2021: 233A-234A
  • Integrated trajectories of the maternal metabolome, proteome, and immunome predict labor onset. Science translational medicine Stelzer, I. A., Ghaemi, M. S., Han, X., Ando, K., Hedou, J. J., Feyaerts, D., Peterson, L. S., Rumer, K. K., Tsai, E. S., Ganio, E. A., Gaudilliere, D. K., Tsai, A. S., Choisy, B., Gaigne, L. P., Verdonk, F., Jacobsen, D., Gavasso, S., Traber, G. M., Ellenberger, M., Stanley, N., Becker, M., Culos, A., Fallahzadeh, R., Wong, R. J., Darmstadt, G. L., Druzin, M. L., Winn, V. D., Gibbs, R. S., Ling, X. B., Sylvester, K., Carvalho, B., Snyder, M. P., Shaw, G. M., Stevenson, D. K., Contrepois, K., Angst, M. S., Aghaeepour, N., Gaudilliere, B. 2021; 13 (592)


    Estimating the time of delivery is of high clinical importance because pre- and postterm deviations are associated with complications for the mother and her offspring. However, current estimations are inaccurate. As pregnancy progresses toward labor, major transitions occur in fetomaternal immune, metabolic, and endocrine systems that culminate in birth. The comprehensive characterization of maternal biology that precedes labor is key to understanding these physiological transitions and identifying predictive biomarkers of delivery. Here, a longitudinal study was conducted in 63 women who went into labor spontaneously. More than 7000 plasma analytes and peripheral immune cell responses were analyzed using untargeted mass spectrometry, aptamer-based proteomic technology, and single-cell mass cytometry in serial blood samples collected during the last 100 days of pregnancy. The high-dimensional dataset was integrated into a multiomic model that predicted the time to spontaneous labor [R = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.79 to 0.89], P = 1.2 * 10-40, N = 53, training set; R = 0.81, 95% CI [0.61 to 0.91], P = 3.9 * 10-7, N = 10, independent test set]. Coordinated alterations in maternal metabolome, proteome, and immunome marked a molecular shift from pregnancy maintenance to prelabor biology 2 to 4 weeks before delivery. A surge in steroid hormone metabolites and interleukin-1 receptor type 4 that preceded labor coincided with a switch from immune activation to regulation of inflammatory responses. Our study lays the groundwork for developing blood-based methods for predicting the day of labor, anchored in mechanisms shared in preterm and term pregnancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.abd9898

    View details for PubMedID 33952678

  • A Peripheral Immune Signature of Labor Induction. Frontiers in immunology Ando, K., Hédou, J. J., Feyaerts, D., Han, X., Ganio, E. A., Tsai, E. S., Peterson, L. S., Verdonk, F., Tsai, A. S., Marić, I., Wong, R. J., Angst, M. S., Aghaeepour, N., Stevenson, D. K., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Sultan, P., Carvalho, B., Stelzer, I. A., Gaudillière, B. 2021; 12: 725989


    Approximately 1 in 4 pregnant women in the United States undergo labor induction. The onset and establishment of labor, particularly induced labor, is a complex and dynamic process influenced by multiple endocrine, inflammatory, and mechanical factors as well as obstetric and pharmacological interventions. The duration from labor induction to the onset of active labor remains unpredictable. Moreover, prolonged labor is associated with severe complications for the mother and her offspring, most importantly chorioamnionitis, uterine atony, and postpartum hemorrhage. While maternal immune system adaptations that are critical for the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy have been previously characterized, the role of the immune system during the establishment of labor is poorly understood. Understanding maternal immune adaptations during labor initiation can have important ramifications for predicting successful labor induction and labor complications in both induced and spontaneous types of labor. The aim of this study was to characterize labor-associated maternal immune system dynamics from labor induction to the start of active labor. Serial blood samples from fifteen participants were collected immediately prior to labor induction (baseline) and during the latent phase until the start of active labor. Using high-dimensional mass cytometry, a total of 1,059 single-cell immune features were extracted from each sample. A multivariate machine-learning method was employed to characterize the dynamic changes of the maternal immune system after labor induction until the establishment of active labor. A cross-validated linear sparse regression model (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, LASSO) predicted the minutes since induction of labor with high accuracy (R = 0.86, p = 6.7e-15, RMSE = 277 min). Immune features most informative for the model included STAT5 signaling in central memory CD8+ T cells and pro-inflammatory STAT3 signaling responses across multiple adaptive and innate immune cell subsets. Our study reports a peripheral immune signature of labor induction, and provides important insights into biological mechanisms that may ultimately predict labor induction success as well as complications, thereby facilitating clinical decision-making to improve maternal and fetal well-being.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2021.725989

    View details for PubMedID 34566984

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8458888

  • Single-Cell Analysis of the Neonatal Immune System Across the Gestational Age Continuum. Frontiers in immunology Peterson, L. S., Hedou, J., Ganio, E. A., Stelzer, I. A., Feyaerts, D., Harbert, E., Adusumelli, Y., Ando, K., Tsai, E. S., Tsai, A. S., Han, X., Ringle, M., Houghteling, P., Reiss, J. D., Lewis, D. B., Winn, V. D., Angst, M. S., Aghaeepour, N., Stevenson, D. K., Gaudilliere, B. 2021; 12: 714090


    Although most causes of death and morbidity in premature infants are related to immune maladaptation, the premature immune system remains poorly understood. We provide a comprehensive single-cell depiction of the neonatal immune system at birth across the spectrum of viable gestational age (GA), ranging from 25 weeks to term. A mass cytometry immunoassay interrogated all major immune cell subsets, including signaling activity and responsiveness to stimulation. An elastic net model described the relationship between GA and immunome (R=0.85, p=8.75e-14), and unsupervised clustering highlighted previously unrecognized GA-dependent immune dynamics, including decreasing basal MAP-kinase/NFκB signaling in antigen presenting cells; increasing responsiveness of cytotoxic lymphocytes to interferon-α; and decreasing frequency of regulatory and invariant T cells, including NKT-like cells and CD8+CD161+ T cells. Knowledge gained from the analysis of the neonatal immune landscape across GA provides a mechanistic framework to understand the unique susceptibility of preterm infants to both hyper-inflammatory diseases and infections.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2021.714090

    View details for PubMedID 34497610

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8420969

  • A pregnancy to remember: trained immunity of the uterine mucosae. Mucosal immunology Feyaerts, D., Joosten, I., van der Molen, R. G. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41385-020-00362-7

    View details for PubMedID 33299087

  • Clusters of Tolerogenic B Cells Feature in the Dynamic Immunological Landscape of the Pregnant Uterus CELL REPORTS Benner, M., Feyaerts, D., Garcia, C., Inci, N., Lopez, S., Fasse, E., Shadmanfar, W., van der Heijden, O. H., Gorris, M. J., Joosten, I., Ferwerda, G., van der Molen, R. G. 2020; 32 (13): 108204


    Well-timed interaction of correctly functioning maternal immune cells is essential to facilitate healthy placenta formation, because the uterine immune environment has to tolerate the semi-allogeneic fetus and allow adequate trophoblast invasion. Here, we assess the uterine immune signature before and during pregnancy. Extensive supervised and unsupervised flow cytometry clustering strategies not only show a general increase in immune memory throughout pregnancy but also reveal the continuous presence of B cells. Contrary to the belief that B cells are merely a consequence of uterine pathology, decidual B cells produce IL-10 and are found to be localized in clusters, together with Foxp3pos T cells. Our findings therefore suggest a role for B cells in healthy pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108204

    View details for Web of Science ID 000573722100014

    View details for PubMedID 32997982

  • VoPo leverages cellular heterogeneity for predictive modeling of single-cell data. Nature communications Stanley, N. n., Stelzer, I. A., Tsai, A. S., Fallahzadeh, R. n., Ganio, E. n., Becker, M. n., Phongpreecha, T. n., Nassar, H. n., Ghaemi, S. n., Maric, I. n., Culos, A. n., Chang, A. L., Xenochristou, M. n., Han, X. n., Espinosa, C. n., Rumer, K. n., Peterson, L. n., Verdonk, F. n., Gaudilliere, D. n., Tsai, E. n., Feyaerts, D. n., Einhaus, J. n., Ando, K. n., Wong, R. J., Obermoser, G. n., Shaw, G. M., Stevenson, D. K., Angst, M. S., Gaudilliere, B. n., Aghaeepour, N. n. 2020; 11 (1): 3738


    High-throughput single-cell analysis technologies produce an abundance of data that is critical for profiling the heterogeneity of cellular systems. We introduce VoPo (, a machine learning algorithm for predictive modeling and comprehensive visualization of the heterogeneity captured in large single-cell datasets. In three mass cytometry datasets, with the largest measuring hundreds of millions of cells over hundreds of samples, VoPo defines phenotypically and functionally homogeneous cell populations. VoPo further outperforms state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms in classification tasks, and identified immune-correlates of clinically-relevant parameters.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-020-17569-8

    View details for PubMedID 32719375

  • Selective expansion and CMV-dependency in pregnancy trained human endometrial NK cells. Cellular & molecular immunology Feyaerts, D., van der Meer, A., Joosten, I., van der Molen, R. G. 2019; 16 (4): 410-411

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41423-018-0193-x

    View details for PubMedID 30635647

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6462002

  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infects Primary Neonatal and Adult Natural Killer Cells and Affects Their Antiviral Effector Function. The Journal of infectious diseases van Erp, E. A., Feyaerts, D., Duijst, M., Mulder, H. L., Wicht, O., Luytjes, W., Ferwerda, G., van Kasteren, P. B. 2019; 219 (5): 723-733


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants. Natural killer (NK) cells are important antiviral effector cells that likely encounter RSV in the presence of virus-specific (maternal) antibodies. As NK cells potentially contribute to immunopathology, we investigated whether RSV affects their antiviral effector functions.We assessed the phenotype and functionality of primary neonatal and adult NK cells by flow cytometry after stimulation with RSV or RSV-antibody complexes.We demonstrate for the first time that RSV infects neonatal and adult NK cells in vitro. Preincubation of virus with subneutralizing concentrations of RSV-specific antibodies significantly increased the percentage of infected NK cells. Upon infection, NK cells were significantly more prone to produce interferon-γ, while secretion of the cytotoxicity molecule perforin was not enhanced.Our findings suggest that (antibody-enhanced) RSV infection of NK cells induces a proinflammatory rather than a cytotoxic response, which may contribute to immunopathology. Considering that most RSV vaccines currently being developed aim at inducing (maternal) antibodies, these results highlight the importance of understanding the interactions between innate effector cells and virus-specific antibodies.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/infdis/jiy566

    View details for PubMedID 30252097

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6376914

  • Placental disposition of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients and in ex vivo perfused placental tissue. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences Freriksen, J. J., Feyaerts, D., van den Broek, P. H., van der Heijden, O. W., van Drongelen, J., van Hamersvelt, H. W., Russel, F. G., van der Molen, R. G., Greupink, R. 2018; 119: 244-248


    Currently, tacrolimus is the most potent immunosuppressive agent for renal transplant recipients and is commonly prescribed during pregnancy. As data on placental exposure and transfer are limited, we studied tacrolimus placental handling in samples obtained from renal transplant recipients. We found transfer to venous umbilical cord blood, but particularly noted a strong placental accumulation. In patient samples, tissue concentrations in a range of 55-82 ng/g were found. More detailed ex vivo dual-side perfusions of term placentas from healthy women revealed a tissue-to-maternal perfusate concentration ratio of 113 ± 49 (mean ± SEM), underlining the placental accumulation found in vivo. During the 3 h ex vivo perfusion interval no placental transfer to the fetal circulation was observed. In addition, we found a non-homogeneous distribution of tacrolimus across the perfused cotyledons. In conclusion, we observed extensive accumulation of tacrolimus in placental tissue. This warrants further studies into potential effects on placental function and immune cells of the placenta.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejps.2018.04.017

    View details for PubMedID 29655601

  • Endometrial natural killer (NK) cells reveal a tissue-specific receptor repertoire. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) Feyaerts, D., Kuret, T., van Cranenbroek, B., van der Zeeuw-Hingrez, S., van der Heijden, O. W., van der Meer, A., Joosten, I., van der Molen, R. G. 2018; 33 (3): 441-451


    Is the natural killer (NK) cell receptor repertoire of endometrial NK (eNK) cells tissue-specific?The NK cell receptor (NKR) expression profile in pre-pregnancy endometrium appears to have a unique tissue-specific phenotype, different from that found in NK cells in peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are finely tuned towards the reception of an allogeneic fetus.NK cells are important for successful pregnancy. After implantation, NK cells encounter extravillous trophoblast cells and regulate trophoblast invasion. NK cell activity is amongst others regulated by C-type lectin heterodimer (CD94/NKG2) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors. KIR expression on decidual NK cells is affected by the presence of maternal HLA-C and biased towards KIR2D expression. However, little is known about NKR expression on eNK cells prior to pregnancy.In this study, matched peripheral and menstrual blood (a source of endometrial cells) was obtained from 25 healthy females with regular menstrual cycles. Menstrual blood was collected during the first 36 h of menstruation using a menstrual cup, a non-invasive technique to obtain endometrial cells.KIR and NKG2 receptor expression on eNK cells was characterized by 10-color flow cytometry, and compared to matched pbNK cells of the same female. KIR and HLA-C genotypes were determined by PCR-SSOP techniques. Anti-CMV IgG antibodies in plasma were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay.KIR expression patterns of eNK cells collected from the same female do not differ over consecutive menstrual cycles. The percentage of NK cells expressing KIR2DL2/L3/S2, KIR2DL3, KIR2DL1, LILRB1 and/or NKG2A was significantly higher in eNK cells compared to pbNK cells, while no significant difference was observed for NKG2C, KIR2DL1/S1, and KIR3DL1. The NKR repertoire of eNK cells was clearly different from pbNK cells, with eNK cells co-expressing more than three NKR simultaneously. In addition, outlier analysis revealed 8 and 15 NKR subpopulation expansions in eNK and pbNK cells, respectively. In contrast to the pbNK cell population, the expansions present in the eNK cell population were independent of CMV status and HLA-C genotype. Moreover, the typical NKG2C imprint induced by CMV infection on pbNK cells was not observed on eNK cells from the same female, suggesting a rapid local turnover of eNK cells and/or a distinct licensing process.Based on our previous work and the parameters studied here, menstrual blood-derived eNK cells closely resemble biopsy-derived eNK cells. However, sampling is not done at the exact same time during the menstrual cycle, and therefore we cannot exclude some, as yet undetected, differences.Our data reveals that NK cells in the pre-implantation endometrium appear to have a dedicated tissue-specific phenotype, different from NK cells in peripheral blood. This may indicate that eNK cells are finely tuned to receive an allogeneic fetus. Studying the endometrial NKR repertoire of women with pregnancy related problems could provide clues to understand the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications.No external funding was obtained for the present study. None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.NA.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/dey001

    View details for PubMedID 29447367

  • Human uterine lymphocytes acquire a more experienced and tolerogenic phenotype during pregnancy. Scientific reports Feyaerts, D., Benner, M., van Cranenbroek, B., van der Heijden, O. W., Joosten, I., van der Molen, R. G. 2017; 7 (1): 2884


    Pregnancy requires a delicate immune balance that nurtures the allogeneic fetus, while maintaining reactivity against pathogens. Despite increasing knowledge, data is lacking on the transition of pre-pregnancy endometrial lymphocytes to a pregnancy state. Here, we immunophenotyped lymphocytes from endometrium (MMC), term decidua parietalis (DPMC), and PBMC for direct comparison. We found that the immune cell composition of MMC and DPMC clearly differ from each other, with less NK-cells, and more NKT-cells and T-cells in DPMC. An increased percentage of central memory and effector memory T-cells, and less naive T-cells in DPMC indicates that decidual T-cells are more experienced than endometrial T-cells. The increased percentage of CD4+CD25highCD127- Treg in DPMC, including differentiated Treg, is indicative of a more experienced and tolerogenic environment during pregnancy. The Th cell composition of both MMC and DPMC was different from PBMC, with a preference for Th1 over Th2 in the uterine environment. Between MMC and DPMC, percentages of Th cell subsets did not differ significantly. Our results suggest that already before pregnancy a tightly controlled Th1/Th2/Th17 balance is present. These findings create opportunities to further investigate the underlying immune mechanism of pregnancy complications using menstrual blood as a source for endometrial lymphocytes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-03191-0

    View details for PubMedID 28588205

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5460245

  • 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analog TX527 promote a stable regulatory T cell phenotype in T cells from type 1 diabetes patients. PloS one Van Belle, T. L., Vanherwegen, A. S., Feyaerts, D., De Clercq, P., Verstuyf, A., Korf, H., Gysemans, C., Mathieu, C. 2014; 9 (10): e109194


    The emergence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) as central mediators of peripheral tolerance in the immune system has led to an important area of clinical investigation to target these cells for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. We have demonstrated earlier that in vitro treatment of T cells from healthy individuals with TX527, a low-calcemic analog of bioactive vitamin D, can promote a CD4+ CD25high CD127low regulatory profile and imprint a migratory signature specific for homing to sites of inflammation. Towards clinical application of vitamin D-induced Tregs in autologous adoptive immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes, we show here that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and TX527 similarly imprint T cells from type 1 diabetes patients with a CD4+ CD25high CD127low regulatory profile, modulate surface expression of skin- and inflammation-homing receptors, and increase expression of CTLA-4 and OX-40. Also, 1,25(OH)2D3 and TX527 treatment inhibit the production of effector cytokines IFN-γ, IL-9, and IL-17. Importantly, 1,25(OH)2D3 and TX527 promote the induction of IL-10-producing CD4+ CD25high CD127low T cells with a stable phenotype and the functional capacity to suppress proliferation of autologous responder T cells in vitro. These findings warrant additional validation of vitamin D-induced Tregs in view of future autologous adoptive immunotherapy in type 1 diabetes.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0109194

    View details for PubMedID 25279717

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4184870