- Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Clinical Professor, Cardiothoracic Surgery
Member, Cardiovascular Institute
Honors & Awards
Leo M. Davidoff Outstanding Cardiothoracic Resident Teaching Award, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center (1995)
Board Certification: American Board of Thoracic Surgery, Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (1996)
Board Certification: American Board of Thoracic Surgery, Congenital Cardiac Surgery (2015)
Fellowship: UCSF - Surgical Specialties (1998) CA
Residency: Montefiore Medical Center - Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1995) NY
Residency: Montefiore Medical Center - Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1993) NY
Internship: Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein COM (1989) NY
Medical Education: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (1988) IL
Fellowship, University of California, San Francisco, pediatric cardiac surgery (1998)
Residency, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center, general surgery and cardiothoracic surgery (1995)
MD, Northwestern University School of Medicine, Medicine (1988)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Dr. Petrossian has expertise in complex pediatric and congenital cardiovascular surgical repairs. He has published several journal articles and book chapters with an emphasis on the extracardiac conduit Fontan operation.
Surgical Repair of 115 Patients With Anomalous Aortic Origin of a Coronary Artery From a Single Institution.
World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery
2016; 7 (3): 353-359
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) has been associated with myocardial ischemia and sudden death. The past decade has provided important insights into the natural history and typical patterns of presentation. However, there are also a number of unresolved controversies regarding the indications for surgery and the efficacy of that surgery. The purpose of this study was to review our surgical experience with AAOCA in 115 patients at a single institution.One hundred and fifteen patients have undergone surgical repair of AAOCA at our institution. There were 82 males and 33 females, and the median age at surgery was 16 years. Fifty-nine patients had preoperative symptoms of myocardial ischemia, including 56 with exertional chest pain or syncope and 3 sudden death events. Twenty-four patients had associated congenital heart defects. Seven patients had an associated myocardial bridge.Surgical repair was accomplished by unroofing of an intramural coronary in 86, reimplantation in 9, and pulmonary artery translocation in 20. There has been no early or late mortality. Fifty-seven (97%) of the 59 symptomatic patients have been free of any cardiac symptoms postoperatively. Two patients had recurrent symptoms and underwent reoperation (one had revision of the initial repair and one had repair of a myocardial bridge).Surgical repair of AAOCA can be safely performed and is highly efficacious in relieving symptoms of myocardial ischemia. The two "surgical failures" in this series had an anatomic basis and underscore the need to reassess both the proximal and distal anatomy in these patients.
View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135116641892
View details for PubMedID 27142404
Anatomic Factors Associated With Truncal Valve Insufficiency and the Need for Truncal Valve Repair.
World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery
2016; 7 (1): 9-15
Truncus arteriosus is a complex and heterogeneous form of congenital heart defect. Many of the risk factors from several decades ago, including late repair and interrupted aortic arch, have been mitigated through better understanding of the entity and improved surgical techniques. However, truncal valve dysfunction remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomic factors associated with truncal valve dysfunction and the need for truncal valve surgery.This was a retrospective review of 72 infants who underwent repair of truncus arteriosus at our institution. The median age at surgery was nine days, and the median weight was 3.1 kg. Preoperative assessment of truncal valve insufficiency by echocardiography revealed no or trace insufficiency in 30, mild in 25, moderate in 10, and severe in 7. The need for truncal valve surgery was dictated by the severity of truncal valve insufficiency.Sixteen (22%) of the 72 patients undergoing truncus arteriosus repair had concomitant truncal valve surgery. Anatomic factors associated with the need for truncal valve surgery included an abnormal number of truncal valve cusps (P < .005), presence of valve dysplasia (P < .005), and the presence of an anomalous coronary artery pattern (P < .005). Fifteen (94%) of the sixteen patients who underwent concomitant surgery had two or all three of these anatomic factors (sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 85%).This study demonstrates that the presence of specific anatomic factors was closely associated with the presence of truncal valve insufficiency and the need for concomitant truncal valve surgery. Preoperative evaluation of these anatomic factors may provide a useful tool in determining who should undergo concomitant truncal valve surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135115608093
View details for PubMedID 26714988
Surgical repair of anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery†.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery
2014; 46 (1): 20-26
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is a rare congenital heart defect that has been associated with myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. There is an ongoing controversy over the indications for surgical intervention and the efficacy of that treatment compared with the natural history. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the medium-term results of surgical repair of AAOCA.Seventy-six patients underwent surgical repair of AAOCA at our institution from 1999 to 2013. There were 55 males and 21 females, and the median age at surgery was 15 years. Forty-seven (62%) of the 76 patients had an anomalous right coronary artery, 27 had an anomalous left coronary and 2 had an eccentric single coronary ostia. Forty-one patients had preoperative symptoms of myocardial ischaemia.Surgical repair was accomplished by unroofing of an intramural coronary in 55, reimplantation in 7 and pulmonary artery translocation in 14. There has been no early or late mortality, with a median duration of follow-up of 6 years. One patient presented with severe myocardial ischaemia and subsequently underwent heart transplantation a year following AAOCA surgery. The remaining patients have all remained free of cardiac symptoms.The results of this study demonstrate two major principles. First, surgical repair of AAOCA is quite safe in centres that take care of a significant number of patients with this entity. Secondly, the surgery is highly effective in eliminating symptoms of myocardial ischaemia. The growing amount of data on postoperative patients suggests that surgical repair can prevent the adverse events seen in the untreated 'natural' history. Based on these observations, it is our current recommendation that all teenagers identified with AAOCA should undergo surgical repair.
View details for DOI 10.1093/ejcts/ezt614
View details for PubMedID 24431169
Anomalous Aortic Origin of a Coronary Artery: Medium-Term Results After Surgical Repair in 50 Patients
ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY
2011; 92 (2): 691-697
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is a rare congenital heart defect that has been associated with myocardial ischemia and sudden death. Controversies exist regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and long-term recommendations for patients with AAOCA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the medium-term results of surgical repair for AAOCA.From January 1999 through August 2010, 50 patients underwent surgical repair of AAOCA. The median age at surgery was 14 years (range, 5 days to 47 years). Thirty-one patients had the right coronary originate from the left sinus of Valsalva, 17 had the left coronary originate from the right sinus, and 2 had an eccentric single coronary ostium. Twenty six of the 50 patients had symptoms of myocardial ischemia preoperatively, and 14 patients had associated congenital heart defects. Repair was accomplished by unroofing in 35, reimplantation in 6, and pulmonary artery translocation in 9.There was no operative mortality. The median time of follow-up has been 5.7 years. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and 1 patient required heart transplantation 1 year after AAOCA repair. In the remaining 47 postoperative patients, all have remained free of cardiac symptoms and no one has experienced a sudden death event.The surgical treatment of AAOCA is safe and appears to be highly effective in eliminating ischemic symptoms. These medium-term results are encouraging and suggest that many patients may be able to resume normal activities.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.03.127
View details for Web of Science ID 000293221000050
View details for PubMedID 21718962
Selective Right Ventricular Unloading and Novel Technical Concepts in Ebstein's Anomaly
45th Annual Meeting of the Society-of-Thoracic-Surgeons
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2009: 1975–81
Favorable outcomes in Ebstein's anomaly are predicated on tricuspid valve competence and right ventricular function. Successful valve repair should be aggressively pursued to avoid the morbidity of prosthetic tricuspid valve replacement. We report our experience with valve-sparing intracardiac repair, emphasizing novel concepts and techniques of valve repair supplemented by selective bidirectional Glenn (BDG).Between June 1993 and December 2008, 57 nonneonatal patients underwent Ebstein's anomaly repairs. The median age at operation was 8.1 years. All were symptomatic in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II (n = 38), III (n = 17), or IV (n = 1). Preoperatively, 26 had mild or moderate cyanosis at rest. We used a number of valve reconstructive techniques that differed substantially from those currently described. BDG was performed in 31 patients (55%) who met specific criteria.No early or late deaths occurred. At the initial repair, 3 patients received a prosthetic valve. Four patients required reoperation for severe tricuspid regurgitation. Repeat repairs were successful in 2 patients. At follow-up (range, 3 months to 6 years), all patients were acyanotic and in NYHA class I. Tricuspid regurgitation was mild or less in 49 (86%) and moderate in 6 (11%). Freedom from a prosthesis was 91% (52 of 57).Following a protocol using BDG for ventricular unloading in selected patients with Ebstein's anomaly can achieve a durable valve-sparing repair using the techniques described. Excellent functional midterm outcomes can be obtained with a selective one and a half ventricle approach to Ebstein's anomaly.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.07.019
View details for Web of Science ID 000272029100037
View details for PubMedID 19932271
The extracardiac conduit Fontan operation using minimal approach extracorporeal circulation: Early and midterm outcomes
85th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Thoracic-Surgery
MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2006: 1054–63
Our approach to the extracardiac conduit Fontan operation has evolved over time from full-pump, to partial-pump, to completely off-pump. This study is designed to report our overall experience with the extracardiac conduit Fontan operation and to evaluate the evolution in bypass technique on postoperative outcomes.From September 1992 to April 2005, 285 patients, median age 4.5 years (1.4-44 years), median weight 16 kg (9.4-94 kg), underwent a primary extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure. Early and late outcomes were analyzed for the entire cohort and for 2 patient groups depending on whether an oxygenator was used in the bypass circuit (166 patients; 58%) or not (119 patients; 42%).Early failure (including death and takedown) occurred in 7 patients (2.5%). Prevalence of new early postoperative sinus node dysfunction necessitating a permanent pacemaker was 0.4%, and that of new tachyarrhythmias necessitating discharge home on a regimen of antiarrhythmia medications was 2.5%. Ten-year actuarial freedom from Fontan failure, new sinus node dysfunction necessitating a permanent pacemaker, and reoperation for conduit thrombosis or stenosis was 90%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. Fenestration rate was lower (P = .001) in the no-oxygenator group (8%) than in the oxygenator group (25%). Patients in the no-oxygenator group had lower intraoperative Fontan pressure (12.0 +/- 2.3 vs 13.5 +/- 2.4 mm Hg, P < .001), common atrial pressure (4.6 +/- 1.8 vs 5.3 +/- 1.8 mm Hg, P = .003), and transpulmonary gradient (7.5 +/- 2.1 vs 8.3 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = .013) than did the oxygenator group.The extracardiac conduit Fontan operation coupled with minimal use of extracorporeal circulation is associated with favorable intraoperative hemodynamics, low fenestration rate, minimal risk of thrombosis or stenosis, and minimal early and late rhythm disturbance.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.05.066
View details for PubMedID 17059923
Unifocalization of major aortopulmonary collaterals in single-ventricle patients
42nd Annual Meeting of the Society-of-Thoracic-Surgeons
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: 934–39
Unifocalization of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and intracardiac repair has become the standard of care. However, there are no reports addressing unifocalization of MAPCAs in single-ventricle patients. It is unknown whether their pulmonary vascular bed can be reconstructed and low enough pulmonary vascular resistance achieved to allow for superior or total cavopulmonary connections.We reviewed data on all patients with functional single ventricles and unifocalization procedures of MAPCAs. From 1997 to 2005, 14 consecutive children with various single-ventricle anatomies were operated on.Patients had a median of three surgical procedures (range, 1 to 5). Two patients had absent, all others diminutive central pulmonary arteries, with an average of 3.5 +/- 1.2 MAPCAs. Seven patients (50%) had bidirectional Glenn procedures, and 3 of these had Fontan procedures. Median postoperative pulmonary artery pressures measured 12.5 mm Hg (Glenn) and 14 mm Hg (Fontan), respectively. Six patients are alive today (46%), with 1 patient lost to follow-up. Three patients died early and 3 late after initial unifocalization to shunts. One other patient survived unifocalization, but was not considered a candidate for a Glenn procedure and died after high-risk two-ventricle repair. Another patient with right-ventricle-dependent coronary circulation died of sepsis late after Glenn.In selected patients with functional single ventricles and MAPCAs, the pulmonary vascular bed can be reconstructed sufficiently to allow for cavopulmonary connections. Venous flow to the pulmonary vasculature decreases cardiac volume load and is likely to increase life expectancy and quality of life for these patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2006.03.063
View details for PubMedID 16928512
Homograft valved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit as a modification of the Norwood procedure
78th Annual Scientific Session of the American-Heart-Association
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2006: I594–I599
The use of a right ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit in the Norwood procedure has been proposed to increase postoperative hemodynamic stability. A valve within the conduit should further decrease RV volume load. We report our clinical experience with this modification.From February 2002 through August 2005, we performed 88 consecutive Norwood procedures using RV-PA conduits. We used composite valved conduits made from cryopreserved homograft and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in 66 cases (54 pulmonary, 12 aortic homografts), other valved conduits in 14, and unvalved PTFE in 8 cases. Hospital survival was 88.6% overall and increased to 93.1% after the initial year. Early interventions were required in 18 patients (16 for cyanosis). Prestage II cardiac catheterization was performed at a mean age of 126 days. Mean Qp/Qs was 1, with mean aortic saturation 71%, mean O2 extraction 24%, and mean right ventricular end-diastolic pressure 9 mm Hg. Patient weight, use of an aortic homograft valve in the conduit, stage I palliation within the first year of our experience, and low O2 extraction and high transpulmonary gradient prestage II were risk factors for overall death. Early interventions were more frequent in aortic valve conduits compared with all other conduits.The valved RV-PA conduit was associated with low early mortality after the Norwood procedure. The majority of these patients had normal cardiac output and well-maintained RV function. There may be a higher risk for early conduit interventions and death when aortic valve homografts are used in the RV-PA conduit.
View details for PubMedID 16820644