Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • When and How Information About Economic Inequality Affects Attitudes Towards Redistribution SOCIAL JUSTICE RESEARCH Sanchez-Rodriguez, A., Garcia-Sanchez, E., Montoya-Lozano, M., Velandia-Morales, A., Lobato, R. M. 2024
  • Development and validation of the Multidimensional Gender Inequality Perception Scale (MuGIPS) PLOS ONE Schwartz-Salazar, S., Garcia-Sanchez, E., Martinez, R., Rodriguez-Bailon, R. 2024; 19 (4): e0301755


    Perceptions of gender inequality may motivate people to take action against inequality given its negative impact on various domains of people's everyday lives. Thus, it is crucial to develop reliable measures that consider the multidimensional nature of gender inequalities. In this research, we propose and assess the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Gender Inequality Perception Scale (MuGIPS). This is a self-reported measure of perceived gender inequality in four domains: health, violence, household work and caregiving, and public sphere and power. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the validity and reliability of the MuGIPS with Spanish participants in three samples (N = 1733). The analyses revealed that the MuGIPS had a good internal consistency and showed four factors associated with gender inequality in the four specified domains. Moreover, scores in all the dimensions positively correlated with feminist identity and feminist ideology, as much as with some attitudinal variables. In contrast, results showed a negative correlation with system-justifying ideologies. The MuGIPS shows adequate reliability and validity for measuring the perception of gender inequality in the health, violence, household work and caregiving, and public sphere and power domains among Spanish university and general population samples.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0301755

    View details for Web of Science ID 001207320100187

    View details for PubMedID 38635855

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC11025890

  • Economic Threats, Political and National Identification Predict Affective Polarization: Longitudinal Evidence From Spain INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Garcia-Sanchez, E., Turner-Zwinkels, F., Kesberg, R., Marot, M., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., Willis, G. B., Kuppens, T. 2024; 37 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.5334/irsp.838

    View details for Web of Science ID 001222484900001

  • Perceived Economic Inequality Is Negatively Associated with Subjective Well-being through Status Anxiety and Social Trust SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH Garcia-Sanchez, E., Matamoros-Lima, J., Moreno-Bella, E., Melita, D., Sanchez-Rodriguez, A., Garcia-Castro, J., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., Willis, G. B. 2024
  • Economic Inequality and Unfairness Evaluations of Income Distribution Negatively Predict Political and Social Trust: Evidence From Latin America Over 23 Years SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE Garcia-Sanchez, E., Garcia-Castro, J., Willis, G. B., Rodriguez-Bailon, R. 2024
  • Gendered Self-Views Across 62 Countries: A Test of Competing Models SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., Bosson, J. K., Jurek, P., Besta, T., Olech, M., Vandello, J. A., Bender, M., Dandy, J., Hoorens, V., Jasinskaja-Lahti, I., Mankowski, E., Venalainen, S., Abuhamdeh, S., Agyemang, C., Akbas, G., Albayrak-Aydemir, N., Ammirati, S., Anderson, J., Anjum, G., Ariyanto, A., Aruta, J. R., Ashraf, M., Bakaityte, A., Becker, M., Bertolli, C., Berxulli, D., Best, D. L., Bi, C., Block, K., Boehnke, M., Bongiorno, R., Bosak, J., Casini, A., Chen, Q., Chi, P., Adoric, V., Daalmans, S., de Lemus, S., Dhakal, S., Dvorianchikov, N., Egami, S., Etchezahar, E., Esteves, C., Froehlich, L., Garcia-Sanchez, E., Gavreliuc, A., Gavreliuc, D., Gomez, A., Guizzo, F., Graf, S., Greijdanus, H., Grigoryan, A., Grzymala-Moszczynska, J., Guerch, K., Senden, M., Hale, M., Hamer, H., Hirai, M., Duc, L., Hrebickova, M., Hutchings, P. B., Jensen, D., Karabati, S., Kelmendi, K., Kengyel, G., Khachatryan, N., Ghazzawi, R., Kinahan, M., Kirby, T. A., Kovacs, M., Kozlowski, D., Krivoshchekov, V., Krys, K., Kulich, C., Kurosawa, T., Nhan Thi Lac An, Labarthe-Carrara, J., Lauri, M., Latu, I., Lawal, A., Li, J., Lindner, J., Lindqvist, A., Maitner, A. T., Makarova, E., Makashvili, A., Malayeri, S., Malik, S., Mancini, T., Manzi, C., Mari, S., Martiny, S. E., Mayer, C., Mihic, V., Dordevic, J., Moreno-Bella, E., Moscatelli, S., Moynihan, A., Muller, D., Narhetali, E., Neto, F., Noels, K. A., Nyul, B., O'Connor, E. C., Ochoa, D. P., Ohno, S., Adebayo, S., Osborne, R., Pacilli, M., Palacio, J., Patnaik, S., Pavlopoulos, V., de Leon, P., Piterova, I., Porto, J., Puzio, A., Pyrkosz-Pacyna, J., Perez, E., Renstrom, E., Rousseaux, T., Ryan, M. K., Safdar, S., Sainz, M., Salvati, M., Samekin, A., Schindler, S., Sevincer, A., Seydi, M., Shepherd, D., Sherbaji, S., Schmader, T., Simao, C., Sobhie, R., Sobiecki, J., De Souza, L., Sarter, E., Sulejmanovic, D., Sullivan, K. E., Tatsumi, M., Tavitian-Elmadjian, L., Thakur, S., Quang Thi Mong Chi, Torre, B., Torres, A., Torres, C., Turkoglu, B., Ungaretti, J., Valshtein, T., Van Laar, C., van der Noll, J., Vasiutynskyi, V., Vauclair, C., Vohra, N., Walentynowicz, M., Ward, C., Wlodarczyk, A., Yang, Y., Yzerbyt, V., Zanello, V., Zapata-Calvente, A., Zawisza, M., Zukauskiene, R., Zadkowska, M. 2023; 14 (7): 808-824
  • How Fair is Economic Inequality? Belief in a Just World and the Legitimation of Economic Disparities in 27 European Countries. Personality & social psychology bulletin García-Sánchez, E., Correia, I., Pereira, C. R., Willis, G. B., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., Vala, J. 2022; 48 (3): 382-395


    This article aims to examine the role of Belief in a Just World (BJW) in the legitimation of economic inequality. Using data from 27 European countries (N=47,086), we conducted multilevel analyses and found that BJW positively predicted the legitimation of economic inequality, measured by three indicators: the perceived fairness of the overall wealth inequality, and the fairness of the earnings made by the Top 10% and the Bottom 10% of society. These results persisted after controlling for individual- and country-level variables. Moreover, the BJW effect was stronger on the legitimation of the Bottom 10% incomes, compared to the legitimation of the Top 10%. We also found that economic inequality at the country-level reduced the BJW effect on legitimation of inequality. Finally, BJW displayed a negative indirect effect on support for redistribution, via the legitimation of economic inequalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/01461672211002366

    View details for PubMedID 33858260

  • Attitudes towards redistribution and the interplay between perceptions and beliefs about inequality BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Garcia-Sanchez, E., Osborne, D., Willis, G. B., Rodriguez-Bailon, R. 2020; 59 (1): 111-136


    Although economic inequality has increased over the last few decades, support for redistributive policies is not widely accepted by the public. In this paper, we examine whether attitudes towards redistribution are a product of both perceptions of, and beliefs about, inequality. Specifically, we argue that the association between perceived inequality and support for redistribution varies by beliefs that justify inequality. We investigated this hypothesis in a cross-cultural/country sample (N = 56,021 from 41 countries) using two different operationalizations of support for redistribution and two distinct beliefs that justify inequality. As hypothesized, the perceived size of the income gap correlated positively with believing that it is the government's responsibility to reduce inequality among those who rejected beliefs that justify inequality, whereas there was no association for those who endorsed these beliefs. Similarly, perceived economic inequality correlated positively with support for progressive taxation, but this association was weaker among those who endorsed meritocratic and equal opportunity beliefs. Together, these results demonstrate that ideologies influence the relationship between perceived inequality and attitudes towards redistribution, and that support for redistribution varies by how the policy is framed.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bjso.12326

    View details for Web of Science ID 000505262200008

    View details for PubMedID 30977153

  • The Vicious Cycle of Economic Inequality: The Role of Ideology in Shaping the Relationship Between "What Is" and "What Ought to Be" in 41 Countries SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE Garcia-Sanchez, E., Van der Toorn, J., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., Willis, G. B. 2019; 10 (8): 991-1001