Clinical Focus

  • Infectious Disease

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Infectious Disease (2022)
  • Fellowship: University of Alabama at Birmingham Infectious Disease Program (2022) AL
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2020)
  • Residency: University of Alabama at Birminham Internal Medicine Program (2020) AL
  • Medical Education: Kasturba Medical College Mangalore (2016) India

All Publications

  • Diagnostic Stewardship: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Blood Collection Diversion Devices Used to Reduce Blood Culture Contamination and Improve the Accuracy of Diagnosis in Clinical Settings. Open forum infectious diseases Callado, G. Y., Lin, V., Thottacherry, E., Marins, T. A., Martino, M. D., Salinas, J. L., Marra, A. R. 2023; 10 (9): ofad433


    Blood culture contamination may lead to misdiagnosis, overutilization of antibiotics, and prolonged length of stay. Blood specimen diversion devices can reduce contamination rates during blood culture collection procedures. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis evaluating the influence of blood specimen diversion devices in blood culture contamination rates.We searched Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science, from database inception to 1 March 2023, for studies evaluating the impact of a diversion device on blood culture contamination. Blood culture contamination was a positive blood culture with microorganisms not representative of true bacteremia, but rather introduced during collection or processing the blood sample. Random-effects models were used to obtain pooled mean differences, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test.Of 1768 screened studies, 12 met inclusion criteria for this systematic literature review. Of them, 9 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Studies were substantially heterogeneous, but stratified analyses considering only high-quality studies revealed that venipuncture using a diversion device was associated with a significant reduction in blood culture contamination in comparison to the standard procedure of collection (pooled odds ratio [OR], 0.26 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .13-.54]; I2 = 19%). Furthermore, the stratified analysis showed that the adoption of a diversion device did not reduce the detection of true infection (pooled OR, 0.85 [95% CI, .65-1.11]; I2 = 0%).Blood culture diversion devices was associated with decreased contamination rates and could improve quality of care, reduce costs, and avoid unnecessary antibiotic use.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ofid/ofad433

    View details for PubMedID 37674630

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10478151