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  • CAR19 monitoring by peripheral blood immunophenotyping reveals histology-specific expansion and toxicity. Blood advances Hamilton, M. P., Craig, E., Gentille Sanchez, C., Mina, A., Tamaresis, J., Kirmani, N., Ehlinger, Z., Syal, S., Good, Z., Sworder, B., Schroers-Martin, J., Lu, Y., Muffly, L., Negrin, R. S., Arai, S., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E., Rezvani, A. R., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W. K., Shiraz, P., Sidana, S., Bharadwaj, S., Smith, M., Dahiya, S., Sahaf, B., Kurtz, D. M., Mackall, C. L., Tibshirani, R., Alizadeh, A. A., Frank, M. J., Miklos, D. B. 2024


    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed against CD19 (CAR19) are a revolutionary treatment for B-cell lymphomas. CAR19 cell expansion is necessary for CAR19 function but is also associated with toxicity. To define the impact of CAR19 expansion on patient outcomes, we prospectively followed a cohort of 236 patients treated with CAR19 (brexucabtagene autoleucel or axicabtagene ciloleucel) for mantle cell (MCL), follicular (FL), and large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) over the course of five years and obtained CAR19 expansion data using peripheral blood immunophenotyping for 188 of these patients. CAR19 expansion was higher in patients with MCL compared to other lymphoma histologic subtypes. Notably, patients with MCL had increased toxicity and required four-fold higher cumulative steroid doses than patients with LBCL. CAR19 expansion was associated with the development of cytokine release syndrome (CRS), immune effector cell associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), and the requirement for granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) after day 14 post-infusion. Younger patients and those with elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) had significantly higher CAR19 expansion. In general, no association between CAR19 expansion and LBCL treatment response was observed. However, when controlling for tumor burden, we found that lower CAR19 expansion in conjunction with low LDH was associated with improved outcomes in LBCL. In sum, this study finds CAR19 expansion principally associates with CAR-related toxicity. Additionally, CAR19 expansion as measured by peripheral blood immunophenotyping may be dispensable to favorable outcomes in LBCL.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2024012637

    View details for PubMedID 38498731