Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Associate Professor (Teaching), Department of Pediatrics (2006 - Present)
  • Associate Professor (Teaching), Center for Policy, Outcomes and Prevention (2014 - Present)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member, Scientific Committee of the Annual World Conference on Women's Studies 2015, 2016 (2014 - Present)
  • Member, Board of Research in Political Sociology (2013 - Present)
  • Member, Health Section of the American Evaluation Association. Conference Submissions Reviewer (2012 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Postdoc, Harvard University, SOPH, Social Epidemiology (1992)
  • Dr.PH, U.C. Berkeley, Public Health (1991)
  • MPH, U.C. Berkeley, Behavioral Sciences, PH (1987)

Community and International Work

  • HealthyU and Environmental Conservation: A shared Journey, Redwood City

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Stanford Center for Clinical and Translational Research and Education

    Populations Served

    Minority children in underserved schools.


    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Putting Healthcare Back into Schools: Evaluation of a Five-year Nurse Demonstration Project, San Jose


    The role of School Nurses in Under-Served Schools

    Partnering Organization(s)

    San Jose Unified School District

    Populations Served

    Children in low-income/high-need schools, mostly of Hispanic origin



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Employment trajectories, social benefits and health in Germany and the US, US and Germany


    Unemployment, Employment Instability, social programs and health outcomes

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Institute for Social Research (WZB), Berlin, Germany

    Populations Served

    Unemployed and under-employed



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Current program of teaching and research has a focus on health disparities and social epidemiology, within the broader area of public health, and program evaluation, as a synthesis of theory and methods applied to the evaluation of health and social programs. See current research on school health issues at:

In Evaluation research my interest lies in the use and exploration of mixed methods, and in Social Epidemiology my interest lies in the study of the social programs and policies that may have an impact on health, well-being, and social reintegration. My focus is not on health care policies per se but on the social and economic programs and policies which may have an impact on health through their influence on social conditions and the psychological effects of social environments. My research has implications for work and unemployment policies, health care systems, and welfare reform.

My current teaching and research plans contribute to the mission of providing "interdisciplinary education and research opportunities for students, residents and health professionals and primary care for individuals and families with particular reference to the different health needs of diverse communities.”


  • Health Services in schools: From cost-effectiveness analysis to distributional justice. What can we learn from successful cases to improve nurses-to-student ratio in California’s public schools?, Stanford McCoy Family Center for Ethics in Society (1/6/2015)


    California, US

  • Stanford Diabetes Youth Coaching Project, Stanford University (2011 - 2015)




2023-24 Courses

All Publications

  • Assessing health behavior change and comparing remote, hybrid and in-person implementation of a school-based health promotion and coaching program for adolescents from low-income communities. Health education research Gefter, L., Morioka-Douglas, N., Srivastava, A., Jiang, C. A., Lewis, M., Sanders, L., Rodriguez, E. 2024


    To assess the impact of a school-based health intervention on adolescents' health knowledge, psychosocial assets and health behaviors, including comparisons of implementation mode: remote, hybrid or in-person. The Stanford Youth Diabetes Coaches Program, an 8-week, school-based health promotion and coaching skills program, was offered to adolescents (ages 14-18 years) from four low-income US communities. Mode of program implementation was remote, hybrid or in-person. Participants completed online pre- and postsurveys. Analysis included paired t-tests, linear regression and qualitative coding. From Fall 2020 to Fall 2021, 262 adolescents enrolled and 179 finished the program and completed pre- and postsurveys. Of the 179, 80% were female, with a mean age of 15.9 years; 22% were Asian; 8% were Black or African American; 25% were White; and 40% were Hispanic. About 115 participants were remote, 25 were hybrid and 39 were in-person. Across all participants, significant improvements (P < 0.01) were reported in health knowledge, psychosocial assets (self-esteem, self-efficacy and problem-solving) and health behaviors (physical activity, nutrition and stress reduction). After adjusting for sex and age, these improvements were roughly equivalent across the three modes of delivery. Participation was associated with significant improvements in adolescent health behaviors. Furthermore, remote mode of instruction was just as effective as in-person and hybrid modes.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/her/cyae015

    View details for PubMedID 38687641

  • Evaluating stealth health and environmental conservation education among diverse youth in California: moving towards narrowing disparities JOURNAL OF OUTDOOR AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Srivastava, A., Gaulocher, S., Dirzo, R., Rodriguez, E. 2024
  • Remote Implementation of a School-Based Health Promotion and Health Coaching Program in Low-Income Urban and Rural Sites: Program Impact during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International journal of environmental research and public health Gefter, L., Morioka-Douglas, N., Srivastava, A., Jiang, C. A., Patil, S. J., Rodriguez, E. 2023; 20 (2)


    Adapting existing health programs for synchronous remote implementation has the potential to support vulnerable youth during the COVID 19 pandemic and beyond.The Stanford Youth Diabetes Coaches Program (SYDCP), a school-based health promotion and coaching skills program, was adapted for remote implementation and offered to adolescents from low-income communities in the US: an urban site in San Jose, CA and rural sites in Lawrence County, MO, and Central Valley, CA. Participants completed online pre- and post- surveys. Analysis included paired T-tests, linear regression, and qualitative coding.Of 156 enrolled students, 100 completed pre- and post-surveys. Of those: 84% female; 40% Hispanic; 37% White; 28% Asian; 3% African American; 30% other race. With T-tests and regression models, the following measures showed statistically significant improvements after program participation: health knowledge, patient activation, health understanding and communication, consumption of fruits and vegetables, psychosocial assets of self-esteem, self-efficacy, problem-solving, and ability to reduce stress. Technology barriers were frequently reported at Lawrence County site. 96% participants reported making a lifestyle change after program participation.Remote implementation of health promotion programs for vulnerable youth in diverse settings has potential to support adoption of healthy behaviors, enhance patient activation levels, and improve psychosocial assets.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph20021044

    View details for PubMedID 36673800

  • Community Health Worker-led Implementation of the Stanford Youth Diabetes Coaching Program in Underserved Latinx Communities. Journal of primary care & community health Ponce-Gonzalez, I. M., Jimenez, N., Rodriguez, E., Srivastava, A., Parchman, M. L. 2023; 14: 21501319231158285


    BACKGROUND: The Stanford Youth Diabetes Coaching Program (SYDCP) is an evidence-based program led by health care professionals to teach healthy youth who then coach family members with diabetes or other chronic conditions. This purpose of this study is to evaluate a Community Health Worker (CHW)-led implementation of the SYDCP for low-income Latinx students from underserved agricultural communities.METHOD: CHWs were trained and virtually led 10 training sessions virtually during the COVID-19 for Latinx students who were recruited from high schools in agricultural regions of Washington state. Feasibility measures include recruitment, retention, class attendance, and successful coaching of a family member or friend. Acceptability was measured by responses on the post-training survey. Effectiveness was evaluated by pre-post changes in measures used in prior studies of the SYDCP such as level of activation and diabetes knowledge.RESULTS: Thirty-four students were recruited, 28 completed the training and 23 returned both pre- and post-surveys. Over 80% of students attended 7 or more classes. All met with a family or friend and 74% met with them weekly. Approximately 80% of the students rated the program's usefulness as "very good" or "excellent." Pre-post increases in diabetes knowledge, nutrition-related behaviors, resilience, and activation were significant and similar to those observed in prior published studies of the SYDCP.CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a CHW-led implementation of the SYDCP in underserved Latinx communities using a virtual remote model.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/21501319231158285

    View details for PubMedID 36905316

  • Effect of Stanford Youth Diabetes Coaches' Program on Youth and Adults in Diverse Communities. Family & community health Patil, S. J., Tallon, E., Wang, Y., Nayyar, M., Hodges, K., Phad, A., Rodriguez, E., Gefter, L. 2022


    The Stanford Youth Diabetes Coaches' Program (SYDCP) trains high school students to become diabetes coaches for friends and adult family members. The objective of this study was to assess effects of SYDCP participation on youth and adults from a rural and urban underserved high school community. We used a mixed-methods approach. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures for Pediatric Sense of Meaning and Purpose were measured in high school students. PROMIS Adult Global Health and Self-Efficacy was measured in coached adults. Paired t tests compared pre- and postintervention and 6-month follow-up scores. Thematic analysis was used to analyze focus group discussion of adults. Twenty-five students participated, 15 students coached adults with diabetes or prediabetes. Students' sense of meaning and purpose significantly improved postintervention compared to preintervention. Diet and physical activity behaviors improved. Adolescent-adult relationships mediated participation benefits. Our study showed SYDCP improved adolescents' sense of meaning and purpose. In addition, youth and adult relatedness led to improved health behaviors. These findings have important implications, as a sense of purpose and youth-adult connectedness are associated with health behaviors and psychological well-being. Further larger studies of health education programs that engage related youth-adult dyads and assess long-term behaviors and health outcomes are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/FCH.0000000000000323

    View details for PubMedID 35385435

  • Remote Implementation of a Health Promotion Program in an Underserved High School during COVID-19: Lessons Learned.” Journal of pediatrics and Child Health Care Gefter, L., Morioka-Douglas, N., Srivastava, A., Jiang, A., Rodriguez, E. 2021 ; 6 (2): 1045
  • Increasing patient activation scores of vulnerable youth by partnering medical residency programs with public high schools. Patient education and counseling Gefter, L. R., Morioka-Douglas, N. n., Srivastava, A. n., Rodriguez, E. n. 2020


    To assess whether participation in Stanford Youth Coaches Programs (SYCP) increases patient activation scores and patient activation levels for vulnerable youth from low income communities.From 2016 to 18, seven high schools and four residency programs in California, Alabama, Kansas and Missouri participated in SYCPs. Enrolled youth participants completed online pre and post-participation surveys including the Patient Activation Measure (PAM®10). We used paired T-tests, chi square tests, and linear multivariate models to compare pre-and post-scores and levels.143 participants completed pre- and post-participation surveys. The PAM®10 mean pre-test score was 64.5 and post-test was 69.37, with mean difference 4.89 (p=.002). Participants showed significant improvement in patient activation levels after participation. 60 % participants in lowest activation Level 1; 63 % in Level 2; and 32 % in Level 3 moved to a higher level of activation after participation; 46 % who started in Level 4 moved down to Level 3 after participation.Participation in SYCPs has potential to significantly increase patient activation for vulnerable youth which could lead to lifelong improvements in health outcomes and decrease in healthcare costs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pec.2020.08.035

    View details for PubMedID 32948399

  • Short-Term Medical Relief Trips to Help Vulnerable Populations in Latin America. Bringing Clarity to the Scene. International journal of environmental research and public health Cheng, M. Y., Rodriguez, E. 2019; 16 (5)


    Non-profit organizations provide international medical relief trips to low/middle-income countries (LMIC) in order to provide healthcare to medically underserved areas. Short-term medical relief trips (STMRT) take a large amount of time and resources, and arouse concerns about their actual effectiveness. Here we develop a novel tool for consistently assessing how U.S. organizations provide primary care to Latin America through short-term medical relief trips. First, in Part 1, we create a "Best Practice" (BP) framework focused on the efficacy, sustainability, and long-term impact of the organizations based on a review of the last 27 years of available literature published in peer-reviewed journals. Second, in Part 2, out of 581 total medical relief organizations in the US, we identify the 19 organizations currently providing short-term primary care services to Spanish-speaking countries in Latin America. We use the BP framework to analyze the website content and secondary sources of these 19 organizations. We find that only three of the 19 organizations met 80% or more of the criteria defining BP according to the framework and four out of the 19 did not perform well in any of the framework's three aspects of efficacy, sustainability, and long-term impact. Because there exists no current standardized way of assessing the methods implemented and services offered by STMRT, we provide suggestions about using this novel framework as a self-assessment tool for STMRT organizations.

    View details for PubMedID 30832251

  • Increasing Screening Follow-Up for Vulnerable Children: A Partnership with School Nurses. International journal of environmental research and public health Rodriguez, E., Srivastava, A., Landau, M. 2018; 15 (8)


    Approximately 20% of school-age children have a vision problem. Screening is an effective way to detect visual impairments, although only if adequate follow-up is available. Here, we evaluate the impact of hiring full-time nurses in four underserved schools on the likelihood of increasing follow-up for treatment after vision screening. First, we compared descriptive screening follow-up data from the intervention schools with that of five matched schools with part-time nurses in San Jose, California, from 2008 to 2012. The intervention schools had around 2800 low-income, minority children each year, and the five comparison schools had around 3445. Secondly, we conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended survey responses from 129 teachers in the nine participating schools. In the final year, 96% of the students screened and referred for possible vision problems in schools with full-time nurses were followed up and examined by a health care provider. Yet, only 67% of students screened in comparison schools were examined. Teachers in schools with full-time nurses reported that follow-up of vision problems and getting glasses for students was the most beneficial activity performed by the nurses. School nurses can effectively increase medical care coordination and follow-up of vision screening in low-income communities.

    View details for PubMedID 30044383

  • School Nursing Services and Why We Need an Integrated Approach beyond Task Forces Ommega J Pediatr Marques, N., Rodriguez, E. 2017; 1 (2): 1-3
  • Supporting At-Risk Youth and Their Families to Manage and Prevent Diabetes: Developing a National Partnership of Medical Residency Programs and High Schools PLOS ONE Gefter, L., Morioka-Douglas, N., Srivastava, A., Rodriguez, E. 2016; 11 (7)


    The Stanford Youth Diabetes Coaches Program (SYDCP) is a school based health program in which Family Medicine residents train healthy at-risk adolescents to become diabetes self-management coaches for family members with diabetes. This study evaluates the impact of the SYDCP when disseminated to remote sites. Additionally, this study aims to assess perceived benefit of enhanced curriculum.From 2012-2015, 10 high schools and one summer camp in the US and Canada and five residency programs were selected to participate. Physicians and other health providers implemented the SYDCP with racial/ethnic-minority students from low-income communities. Student coaches completed pre- and posttest surveys which included knowledge, health behavior, and psychosocial asset questions (i.e., worth and resilience), as well as open-ended feedback questions. T-test pre-post comparisons were used to determine differences in knowledge and psychosocial assets, and open and axial coding methods were used to analyze qualitative data.A total of 216 participating high school students completed both pre-and posttests, and 96 nonparticipating students also completed pre- and posttests. Student coaches improved from pre- to posttest significantly on knowledge (p<0.005 in 2012-13, 2014 camp, and 2014-15); worth (p<0.1 in 2014-15); problem solving (p<0.005 in 2014 camp and p<0.1 in 2014-15); and self-efficacy (p<0.05 in 2014 camp). Eighty-two percent of student coaches reported that they considered making a behavior change to improve their own health as a result of program participation. Qualitative feedback themes included acknowledgment of usefulness and relevance of the program, appreciation for physician instructors, knowledge gain, pride in helping family members, improved relationships and connectedness with family members, and lifestyle improvements.Overall, when disseminated, this program can increase health knowledge and some psychosocial assets of at-risk youth and holds promise to empower these youth with health literacy and encourage them to adopt healthy behaviors.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0158477

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379809400051

    View details for PubMedID 27383902

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4934855

  • Does breastfeeding duration decrease child obesity? An instrumental variables analysis PediatricObesity Modrek, S. 2016


    Many studies have documented that breastfeeding is associated with a significant reduction in child obesity risk. However, a persistent problem in this literature is that unobservable confounders may drive the correlations between breastfeeding behaviors and child weight outcomes.This study examines the effect of breastfeeding practices on child weight outcomes at age 2.This study relied on population-based data for all births in Oregon in 2009 followed for two years. We used instrumental variables methods to exploit variations in breastfeeding by mothers immediately after delivery and the degree to which hospitals encouraged mothers to breastfeed in order to isolate the effect of breastfeeding practices on child weight outcomes.We found that for every extra week that the child was breastfed, the likelihood of the child being obese at age 2 declined by 0.82% [95% CI -1.8% to 0.1%]. Likewise, for every extra week that the child was exclusively breastfed, the likelihood of being obese declined by 0.66% [95% CI -1.4 to 0.06%]. While the magnitudes of effects were modest and marginally significant, the results were robust in a variety of specifications.The results suggest that hospital practices that support breastfeeding may influence childhood weight outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ijpo.12143

  • Service-Based Learning for Residents: A Success for Communities and Medical Education. Family medicine Gefter, L., Merrell, S. B., Rosas, L. G., Morioka-Douglas, N., Rodriguez, E. 2015; 47 (10): 803-806


    Community-based service-learning opportunities could support residents' acquisition of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies, but this concept has not been tested, and such programs are difficult to find. The objective of this work was to assess the value and the ACGME competency relevance of a service-learning program for residents that could be easily replicated nationally.Forty-one family medicine residents from three training programs participated in the Stanford Youth Diabetes Coaches Program at six high schools in California and Georgia serving minority students of low socioeconomic status. Residents completed online surveys to provide qualitative feedback and assess the program's impact on their acquisition of residency program competencies and self-management support proficiencies, including prior use and planned use of action plans-a key self-management support strategy.Ninety-five percent of residents indicated that the program was a valuable experience that contributed to acquisition of residency program competencies, including interpersonal and communication skills and communication with teens. Compared with baseline, significantly more residents reported intention to use action plans with patients following participation. Themes from qualitative feedback included: valuing the overall experience, increasing opportunities to practice teaching, enhancing their ability to communicate with adolescents, contributing to the health of the community, recognizing the potential of action plans, and increasing intent to use action plans.This pilot demonstrated that a brief service-learning program can enhance standard residency curriculum by encouraging acquisition of ACGME competencies and promoting utilization of self-management support in clinical practice.

    View details for PubMedID 26545059

  • Teachers' Perceptions of Full- and Part-Time Nurses at School JOURNAL OF SCHOOL NURSING Biag, M., Srivastava, A., Landau, M., Rodriguez, E. 2015; 31 (3): 183-195


    Teachers and school nurses partner together to help ensure students stay healthy and engaged in school. The purpose of this study is to generate a deeper understanding of teachers' perceptions on the benefits and challenges of working with full- or part-time school nurses. We conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended survey responses from 129 teachers in nine low-income, ethnically diverse urban schools. These schools were part of a multiyear project that placed full-time nurses in four schools, while five schools with part-time nurses were used as a comparison group. Findings indicate that teachers had strong appreciation for the wide range of responsibilities undertaken by the school nurse. Teachers' level of satisfaction was linked to the number of hours the nurse is on-site, where teachers reported greater satisfaction with nurses who worked on campus full time. Results point to factors that may improve working relations between teachers and nurses.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1059840514561863

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353984700004

    View details for PubMedID 25519714

  • Building a Better World for Future Generations through Implementation of Global Gender Equality Enabling Gender Equality: Future Generations of the Global World, Wejnert, B., Rodriguez, E. Emeral Books. 2015: 241–252
  • Training at-risk youth to become diabetes self-management coaches for family members: partnering family medicine residents with underserved schools. Diabetes educator Gefter, L., Rosas, L. G., Rodriguez, E., Morioka-Douglas, N. 2014; 40 (6): 786-796


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a school-based health program in which family medicine residents trained healthy at-risk adolescents to become diabetes self-management coaches for family members with diabetes.A mixed methods study included 97 adolescents from 3 San Francisco Bay Area high schools serving primarily ethnic minority youth of low socioeconomic status. Physicians came to schools once a week for 8 weeks and trained 49 adolescents to become coaches. Student coaches and 48 nonparticipant students completed pre- and posttest intervention questionnaires, and 15 student coaches and 9 family members with diabetes gave in-depth interviews after participation. Linear regression was used to determine differences in knowledge and psychosocial assets on pre- and posttests between student coaches and nonparticipant students, and NVIVO was used to analyze interview transcripts.After controlling for initial score, sex, grade, and ethnicity, student coaches improved from pre- to posttest significantly compared to nonparticipants on knowledge, belonging, and worth scales. Student coaches reported high satisfaction with the program. Articulated program benefits included improvement in diet, increased physical activity, and improved relationship between student coach and family member.Overall, this program can increase diabetes knowledge and psychosocial assets of at-risk youth, and it holds promise to promote positive health behaviors among at-risk youth and their families.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0145721714549676

    View details for PubMedID 25208725

  • School nurses' role in asthma management, school absenteeism, and cost savings: a demonstration project. journal of school health Rodriguez, E., Rivera, D. A., Perlroth, D., Becker, E., Wang, N. E., Landau, M. 2013; 83 (12): 842-850


    With increasing budget cuts to education and social services, rigorous evaluation needs to document school nurses' impact on student health, academic outcomes, and district funding.Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated outcomes in 4 schools with added full-time nurses and 5 matched schools with part-time nurses in the San Jose Unified School District. Student data and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of illness-related absenteeism for 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. We calculated average daily attendance (ADA) funding and parent wages associated with an improvement in illness-related absenteeism. Utilizing parent surveys, we also estimated the cost of services for asthma-related visits to the emergency room (ER; N = 2489).Children with asthma were more likely to be absent due to illness; however, mean absenteeism due to illness decreased when full-time nurses were added to demonstration schools but increased in comparison schools during 2008-2009, resulting in a potential savings of $48,518.62 in ADA funding (N = 6081). Parents in demonstration schools reported fewer ER visits, and the estimated savings in ER services and parent wages were significant.Full-time school nurses play an important role in improving asthma management among students in underserved schools, which can impact school absenteeism and attendance-related economic costs.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/josh.12102

    View details for PubMedID 24261518

  • Chronic health conditions and school performance among children and youth ANNALS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Crump, C., Rivera, D., London, R., Landau, M., Erlendson, B., Rodriguez, E. 2013; 23 (4): 179-184


    Chronic health conditions are common and increasing among U.S. children and youth. We examined whether chronic health conditions are associated with low school performance.This retrospective cohort study of 22,730 children and youth (grades 2-11) in San Jose, California, was conducted from 2007 through 2010. Health conditions were defined as chronic if reported in each of the first 2 years, and school performance was measured using standardized English language arts (ELA) and math assessments.Chronic health conditions were independently associated with low ELA and math performance, irrespective of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or grade level. Adjusted odds ratios for the association between any chronic health condition and low ("basic or below") performance were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.36; P < .001) for ELA and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.18-1.38; P < .001) for math, relative to students without reported health conditions. Further adjustment for absenteeism had little effect on these results. The strongest associations were found for ADHD, autism, and seizure disorders, whereas a weak association was found for asthma before but not after adjusting for absenteeism, and no associations were found for cardiovascular disorders or diabetes.Chronic neurodevelopmental and seizure disorders, but not cardiovascular disorders or diabetes, were independently associated with low school performance among children and youth.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.01.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316976200004

    View details for PubMedID 23415278

  • Maternal unemployment and childhood overweight: is there a relationship? JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH Stewart, L., Liu, Y., Rodriguez, E. 2012; 66 (7): 641-646


    Previous studies have shown a positive association between maternal work hours and childhood overweight. However, it is unclear what role job instability plays in this relationship; therefore, this study examined whether children whose mothers experienced unemployment were more likely to have greater increases in body mass index (BMI) as compared with children whose mothers were stably employed. The effects of unemployment benefits, welfare and number of hours worked were also explored.A multiple regression analysis was used to analyse changes in BMI over a 4-year period using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In all, 4890 US children, aged 2-16 at baseline, were included in the analysis.As compared with children of mothers who were employed full-time and did not receive welfare, children of mothers who experienced unemployment and received unemployment benefits were not more likely to have significantly different changes in BMI. Yet children of mothers who experienced unemployment and did not receive unemployment benefits were significantly more likely to have greater increases in BMI. These results were also shown in models which controlled for height. This supports the conclusion that adiposity changes, and not simply growth-rate differences, account for the different BMI changes between groups.Aspects of maternal employment other than number of work hours are associated with child BMI, including unemployment events and what type of support a mother receives during the time of unemployment. This has implications for policies that relate to benefits for mothers who lose their jobs.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/jech.2010.110718

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304922600027

    View details for PubMedID 21422027

  • School Health: A Way to the Future?? Research in Political Sociology Rodriguez, E., Austria, D, Landau, M. 2011; 19: 27-42
  • The impact of education on care practices: an exploratory study of the influence of "action plans" on the behavior of health professionals INTERNATIONAL PSYCHOGERIATRICS Rodriguez, E., Marquett, R., Hinton, L., McBride, M., Gallagher-Thompson, D. 2010; 22 (6): 897-908


    There has been limited focus on evaluation of continuing education (CEU) and continuing medical education (CME) in the fields of gerontology and geriatrics. The increasing elderly population combined with the limited clinical workforce highlights the need for more effective methods of continuing education. Traditionally, outcomes of CEU and CME programs relied on self-report measures of satisfaction with the scope and quality of the training, but more recent efforts in this area have focused on outcomes indicating level of improved skills and attitudinal changes of medical and allied health professionals towards working with elderly patients in need of assistance.This study focused on the use of "Action Plans" as a tool to stimulate changes in clinical programs following training, along with attempting to determine typical barriers to change and how to deal with them. More than 600 action plans were obtained from participants attending various continuing education classes providing training on care of patients with dementia (PWD) and their families. Both qualitative and quantitative methods, including logistic regression models were used to analyze the data.Three months following training 366 participants reported whether they were successful in implementing their action plans and identified factors that either facilitated or hindered their goal to make changes outlined in their action plans. Despite the low response rate of program participants, the "action plan" (with follow up to determine degree of completion) appeared to stimulate effective behavioral changes in clinicians working with dementia patients and their family members. Seventy three percent of the respondents reported at least some level of success in implementing specific changes. Specific details about barriers to change and how to overcome them are discussed.Our results support that developing and writing action plans can be a useful tool to self- monitor behavioral change among trainees over time.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1041610210001031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282078000006

    View details for PubMedID 20594385

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2955438

  • Smoking, drinking and body weight after re-employment: does unemployment experience and compensation make a difference? BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Bolton, K. L., Rodriguez, E. 2009; 9


    The impact of unemployment on behaviours such as smoking, drinking and body weight has been extensively researched. However, little is known about the possible protective effects of social assistance programs on these behavioural changes. This study examines the impact of unemployment periods on smoking, drinking and body weight changes among re-employed individuals and investigates whether the receipt of unemployment benefits influences these behaviours.This study used panel data provided by the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Logistic regression models were used to analyze whether a period of unemployment in 2000 resulted in an increase in smoking and drinking or fluctuations in body weight among 2001 re-employed individuals in comparison with 1999 baseline levels. A total of 3,451 respondents who had been initially healthy and who had been continuously employed between 1998 and 1999 were included in the analysis.Compared to stably employed respondents, those who had experienced periods of unemployment in 2000 and did not receive unemployment benefits were more likely than continuously employed individuals to report an increase in alcohol consumption (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.1) and a decrease in body weight (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.8) when they were already re-employed in 2001.Our findings suggest that the receipt of unemployment benefits confers a protective effect on health behavioural changes following periods of unemployment. These findings underscore the need to monitor the impact of unemployment assistance programs on health, particularly in light of the rapidly changing structure of employment and unemployment benefits.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-9-77

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268084400001

    View details for PubMedID 19267893

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2678120

  • Provincial income inequality and self-reported health status in China during 1991-7 JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH Pei, X., Rodriguez, E. 2006; 60 (12): 1065-1069


    The relationship between income inequality and health has been widely explored. Today there is some evidence suggesting that good health is inversely related to income inequality. After the economic reforms initiated in the early 1980s, China experienced one of the fastest-growing income inequalities in the world. The state of China in the 1990s is focussed on and possible effects of provincial income inequality on individual health status are explored.A multilevel regression model is used to analyse the data collected in 1991, 1993 and 1997 from nine provinces included in the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The effects of provincial Gini coefficients on self-rated health in each year are evaluated by two logistic regressions estimating the odds ratios of reporting poor or fair health. The patterns of this effect are compared among the survey years and also among different demographic groups.The analyses show an independent effect of income inequality on self-reported health after adjusting for individual and household variables. Furthermore, the effect of income distribution is not attenuated when household income and provincial gross domestic product per capita are included in the model. The results show that there is an increased risk of about 10-15% on average for fair or poor health for people living in provinces with greater income inequalities compared with provinces with modest income inequalities.In China, societal income inequality appears to be an important determinant of population health during 1991-7.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/jech.2005.043539

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242048000012

    View details for PubMedID 17108303

  • Alcohol, employment status, and social benefits: One more piece of the puzzle AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE Rodriguez, E., Chandra, P. 2006; 32 (2): 237-259


    To examine the role of employment status and the receipt of social benefits in the prediction of alcohol use.Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data from the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) 1987-88 and 1991-92. A total of 7,599 respondents who were older than 16 years of age in 1987 and did not have a physical or mental condition were included in the analysis. The alcohol measures were (a) total number of drinks in the past 30 days; and (b) having 5 or more drinks in a day, 4 or more days in the past 30 days.Employed welfare recipient women have a greater likelihood of heavy drinking than other full-time employed. We do not find evidence of an association between not being employed (with or without benefits) and greater likelihood of engaging in heavy drinking behaviors. Alcohol drinking among other employment groups is not significantly different, with the exception of retired men who drink less.It is important to focus attention on women working while receiving welfare, and who may need help maintaining their jobs.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/00952990500479571

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237164400007

    View details for PubMedID 16595326

  • Types of provincial structure and population health SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE Young, F. W., Rodriguez, E. 2005; 60 (1): 87-95


    This paper explores the potential of using large administrative units for studies of population health within a country. The objective is to illustrate a new way of defining structural dimensions and to use them in examining variation in life expectancy rates. We use data from the 50 provinces of Spain as a case study. A factor analysis of organizational items such as schools, hotels and medical personnel is employed to define and generate "collective" measures for well-known provincial types, in this case: urban, commercial, industrial and tourist provinces. The scores derived from the factor analysis are then used in a regression model to predict life expectancy. The City-centered and Commercial provinces showed positive correlations with life expectancy while those for the Tourist provinces were negative. The industrial type was nonsignificant. Explanations of these correlations are proposed and the advantages and disadvantages of this exploratory technique are reviewed. The use of this technique for generating an overview of social organization and population health is discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.04.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224945300008

    View details for PubMedID 15482869

  • Marginal employment and health in Britain and Germany: does unstable employment predict health? SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE Rodriguez, E. 2002; 55 (6): 963-979


    This study examines the possible health impact of marginal employment, including both temporary and part-time employment schemes. It addresses three research questions: (1) Are employed people with a fixed-term contract or no contract more likely to report poor health than those who hold jobs with permanent contracts? (2) Are part-time employed respondents (even when they hold jobs with permanent contracts) more likely to report poor health than full-time workers? (3) Does change in employment stability (i.e., from employment with permanent contract to fixed-term or no contract employment and vice-versa) have an impact on health status? Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data from Britain and Germany (1991-1993), available in the Household Panel Comparability Project data base. We included 10,104 respondents from Germany and 7988 from Britain. A single measure of perceived health status was used as the dependent variable. Controlling for background characteristics, the health status of part-time workers with permanent contracts is not significantly different from those who are employed full-time. In contrast, fulltime employed people with fixed-term contracts in Germany are about 42 per cent more likely to report poor health than those who have permanent work contracts. In Britain, only part-time work with no contract is associated with poor health, but the difference is not statistically significant. We conclude that monitoring the possible health effects of the increasing number of marginal employment arrangements should be given priority on the social welfare research agenda.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177577500007

    View details for PubMedID 12220097

  • Keeping the unemployed healthy: The effect of means-tested and entitlement benefits in Britain, Germany, and the United States AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Rodriguez, E. 2001; 91 (9): 1403-1411


    Although considerable evidence about the health effects of unemployment exists, little is known about the possible protective effects of various social interventions. This study examined the role that means-tested and entitlement programs could have in ameliorating the health impact of unemployment in Britain, Germany, and the United States.Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data from Britain (1991-1993), Germany (1991-1993), and the United States (1985-1987) available in the Household Panel Comparability Project database. The analysis included 8,726 respondents from Britain, 11,086 from Germany, and 11,668 from the United States. The health-dependent variable used was a single measure of perceived health status.Evidence was found of differences in perceived health status between groups of unemployed people characterized by the types of benefits they receive. When socioeconomic characteristics and previous health and employment status are controlled for, means-tested benefits do not seem sufficient to reduce the impact of unemployment on health.Monitoring the possible health effects of changes in public assistance benefits should be given priority in the research and political agenda.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170650400026

    View details for PubMedID 11527771

  • The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States (Reprinted) WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Rodriguez, E., Lasch, K. E., Chandra, P., Lee, J. 2001; 174 (5): 317-323


    To examine the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4,780 married or cohabiting persons reinterviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.Unemployed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence than employed respondents, after alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors are controlled for; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after other factors are controlled for, increases the risk of family violence, and satisfaction with social support from family and friends is associated with its decrease.Alcohol misuse has an important effect on domestic violence, and the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence needs to be monitored.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168299500015

    View details for PubMedID 11342506

  • Family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States: what is the relation? JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH Rodriguez, E., Lasch, K. E., Chandra, P., Lee, J. 2001; 55 (3): 172-178


    This study examined the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual, and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.Logistic regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4780 married or cohabiting persons re-interviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.It was found that non-employed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence in comparison with employed respondents, after controlling for alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after controlling for other factors, increases the risk of family violence while satisfaction with social support from family and friends decreases it.These results underscore the important effect of alcohol misuse on domestic violence, and the need to monitor the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167000500009

    View details for PubMedID 11160171

  • Do social programmes contribute to mental well-being? The long-term impact of unemployment on depression in the United States INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Rodriguez, E., Frongillo, E. A., Chandra, P. 2001; 30 (1): 163-170


    Important evidence about the mental health effects of unemployment exist; however, little is known about the possible protective effects of various social interventions or about their long-term impact. This study examines the long-term consequences that different types of social programmes, i.e. entitlement and means-tested benefits, might have as regards ameliorating a negative mental health impact of unemployment among women and men.Multiple regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. In all 8029 individuals interviewed in both 1987 and 1992 were included in the analysis. A depression index was created from the responses to 15 items from the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale-D (CES-D) which were included in the survey.The receipt of government entitlement benefits by unemployed women is associated with a reduction of depression symptoms in the long term. Men and women not working and receiving means-tested or welfare benefits are more likely to report depression in both the short and long term.The study underscores the need for monitoring the impact of welfare reform on mental health.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167587300040

    View details for PubMedID 11171879

  • Evaluating Injury Prevention in Public Housing: Do Insurance Incentives Work? Housing and Society. Rodriguez, E., . RoMead J.PS., Laquatra J., Chandra PR. 2000; 25 (3): 23
  • Social Benefits and the Life-Cycle: Understanding the Predictors of Part-time versus Full-time Employment Research in the Sociology of Work Rodriguez, E. 2000; 8: 165
  • Unemployment, Depression, and Health: A Look at the African American Community Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Rodriguez, E., Allen JA, Frongillo EA, Jr., Chandra PR 1999; 53 (6): 335
  • New Developments and Challenges in Health Status Measurement Evaluation Rodriguez, E., Bowen, KS 1999; 4 (1): 25
  • Sharing Lessons with Newly Industrialized Countries: the Experience of the Spanish Health Care System Health Policy and Planning Rodriguez, E., Gallo, P., Jovell, A. 1999; 14 (2): 164
  • New Developments and Challenges in Health Status Measurement Evaluation Rodriguez, E., Bowen, K 1998; 4 (1): 25
  • A Theory-oriented Approach to the Evaluation of Community Based Primary Care Programs Evaluation and Program Planning Rodriguez, E., Mead, J 1997; 20 (2)
  • The Potential Role of Unemployment Benefits in Shaping the Mental Health Impact of Unemployment International Journal of Health Services Rodriguez, E., Lasch, Mead 1997; 27 (4): 217
  • Global Environmental Change: Preventive Measures to Reduce the Impact on Human Health Health Promotion International Rodriguez 1995; 10 (3): 239
  • Health Consequences of Unemployment in Barcelona European Journal of Public Health Rodriguez, E. 1994; 4: 245
  • Impact of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for Psychiatrists' Services". Advances Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research, Dorwart, R., Rodriguez E, Causino N 1993; 14: 139
  • Measuring the Determinants of Work for Psychiatrists' Services in the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale Study American Journal of Psychiatry Dorwart, R., Rodriguez, E., Dernburg, J., Braun, P 1992; 149 (12)
  • Results and Impacts of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scales Medical Care Hsiao W, Braun, Becker et al. 1992; 30 (11): Supplement