Dr. Fahim Abbasi specializes in diagnosis and treatment of prediabetes and insulin resistance. Dr. Abbasi has a special interest in prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease through lifestyle modifications.
- Prediabetes and insulin resistance
- Internal Medicine
Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Cardiovascular Medicine
Honors & Awards
Dean's Fellowship, Stanford University School of Medicine (1996 - 1997)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Member Advisory Committee, Clinical and Translational Research Unit, Stanford University School of Medicine (2000 - Present)
Member, American Physiological Society (2012 - Present)
Fellowship:Stanford University Medical Center (2002) CA
Fellowship:Stanford University Medical Center (1999) CA
Fellowship:Stanford University Medical Center (1998) CA
Residency:University of Connecticut-School of Medicine (1995) CT
Internship:University of Connecticut-School of Medicine (1993) CT
Medical Education:King Edward Medical University (1988) Pakistan
Relationship Between Insulin Resistance and Statin Induced Type 2 Diabetes, and Integrative Personal Omics Profiling
There is general agreement that statin-treatment of patients with high cholesterol can increase the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in some individuals. This research proposal will study what metabolic characteristics and variables (for example high cholesterol or high triglycerides or both) will identify those people at highest risk of statin-induced T2DM. The investigators will evaluate how the medication atorvastatin (trade name Lipitor) works in regards to its effect on insulin action and insulin sensitivity to help further understand the possible cause of the increased occurrences of T2DM in people who are at risk for T2DM. Under Dr. Snyder, a Co-director of the study, samples will be collected for integrated Personal Omics Profiling (iPOP), a monitoring approach developed by Dr. Snyder and his research colleagues. The investigators propose to analyze iPOP of individuals who participate in this study during and after taking the statin. In this pilot study, analysis will be done on previously-known drug effectiveness but also untargeted drug's effectiveness, (other unknown benefits this medication may have) and drug effects such as those seen in some participants when given a statin. The hope then is to obtain a better understanding of how to perform a personal omics profile when taking drugs, which would lead to develop better use of drugs.
Hypertriglyceridemia: A simple approach to identify insulin resistance and enhanced cardio-metabolic risk in patients with prediabetes.
Diabetes research and clinical practice
2016; 120: 156-161
Prediabetes (PreDM) is a metabolically heterogeneous condition, differing in degree of insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease (CHD). This study was initiated to evaluate the hypothesis that a fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration ⩾1.7mmol/L can aid in identifying the subset of individuals with PreDM who are most insulin resistant and at greatest risk to develop CHD as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus.In this cross-sectional study, measurements were made of: (1) steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test to ascertain degree of insulin resistance and (2) conventional CHD risk factors in 587 apparently healthy individuals with normal fasting plasma glucose (NFG, n=370) or PreDM (n=217).Subjects with PreDM were significantly (P<0.001) more insulin resistant (higher SSPG concentrations) and had a more adverse CHD risk profile than those with NFG. A TG concentration ⩾1.7mmol/L identified a subset of individuals with PreDM (38%) who had a higher mean SSPG concentration (11.3±3.5mmol/L vs. 9.3±3.9mmol/L, P<0.001), were more likely to be insulin resistant (66% vs. 39%, P<0.001), and had a more adverse CHD risk factor profile.Measurement of fasting TG concentration in individuals with PreDM may provide a simple clinical approach to identify those who are insulin resistant, at enhanced risk of CHD, and more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.diabres.2016.07.024
View details for PubMedID 27565692
Does enhanced insulin sensitivity improve sleep measures in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.
2016; 22: 57-60
High fasting insulin levels have been reported to predict development of observed apneas, suggesting that insulin resistance may contribute to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to determine whether enhancing insulin sensitivity in individuals with OSA would improve sleep measures.Insulin-resistant, nondiabetic individuals with untreated OSA were randomized (2:1) to pioglitazone (45 mg/day) or placebo for eight weeks in this single-blind study. All individuals had repeat measurements pertaining to sleep (overnight polysomnography and functional outcomes of sleep questionnaire) and insulin action (insulin suppression test).A total of 45 overweight/obese men and women with moderate/severe OSA were randomized to pioglitazone (n = 30) or placebo (n = 15). Although insulin sensitivity increased 31% among pioglitazone-treated compared with no change among individuals receiving placebo (p <0.001 for between-group difference), no improvement in quantitative or qualitative sleep measurements was observed.Pioglitazone administration increased insulin sensitivity in otherwise untreated individuals with OSA, without any change in polysomnographic sleep measures over an eight-week period. These findings do not support a causal role for insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of OSA.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.sleep.2016.06.005
View details for PubMedID 27544837
Cardiometabolic Risk in South Asian Inhabitants of California: Hypertriglyceridemic Waist vs Hypertriglyceridemic Body Mass Index.
Ethnicity & disease
2016; 26 (2): 191-196
Hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTG-waist), an increased waist circumference (WC) with an elevated triglyceride (TG) concentration, can identify increased cardiometabolic risk in apparently healthy individuals. Since WC and BMI are highly correlated, we examined whether an HTG-BMI would be as effective as an HTG-waist in identifying cardiometabolic risk in apparently healthy South Asians.In this cross-sectional study, we classified South Asian women (n=1156) and men (n=1842) without diabetes mellitus as having an HTG-waist (TG ≥150 mg/dL and a WC ≥80 cm in women or ≥ 90 cm in men) and an HTG-BMI (TG ≥150 mg/dL and a BMI ≥23 kg/m²).We measured cardiometabolic risk factors, including blood pressure and fasting lipid profile, glucose, insulin, fibrinogen, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.An HTG-waist was present in 670 individuals, of whom 648 (97%) had an HTG-BMI. The cardiometabolic profile was significantly more adverse in those in whom an HTG-waist was present vs absent; and the same was true when individuals with an HTG-BMI were compared with those without.Essentially every individual with an HTG-waist also had an HTG-BMI. An HTG-BMI identified cardiometabolic risk as effectively as an HTG-waist in a population composed entirely of South Asians.
View details for DOI 10.18865/ed.26.2.191
View details for PubMedID 27103769
- Identification and validation of N-acetyltransferase 2 as an insulin sensitivity gene. journal of clinical investigation 2016; 126 (1): 403-?
Circulating microRNA-320a and microRNA-486 predict thiazolidinedione response: Moving towards precision health for diabetes prevention.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental
2015; 64 (9): 1051-1059
The aims of this study were to compare microRNA (miR) expression between individuals with and without insulin resistance and to determine whether miRs predict response to thiazolidinedione treatment.In a sample of 93 healthy adults, insulin resistance was defined as steady state plasma glucose (SSPG)≥180mg/dL and insulin sensitive as <120mg/dL. Response to thiazolidinedione therapy was defined as ≥10% decrease in SSPG. We selected a panel of microRNAs based on prior evidence for a role in insulin or glucose metabolism. Fold change and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were calculated for the 25 miRs measured.At baseline, 81% (n=75) of participants were insulin resistant. Five miRs were differentially expressed between the insulin resistant and sensitive groups: miR-193b (1.45 fold change (FC)), miR-22-3p (1.15 FC), miR-320a (1.36 FC), miR-375 (0.59 FC), and miR-486 (1.21 FC) (all p<0.05). In the subset who were insulin resistant at baseline and received thiazolidinediones (n=47), 77% (n=36) showed improved insulin sensitivity. Six miRs were differentially expressed between responders compared to non-responders: miR-20b-5p (1.20 FC), miR-21-5p, (0.92 FC), miR-214-3p (1.13 FC), miR-22-3p (1.14 FC), miR-320a (0.98 FC), and miR-486-5p (1.25 FC) (all p<0.05).This study is the first to report miRs associated with response to a pharmacologic intervention for insulin resistance. MiR-320a and miR-486-5p identified responders to thiazolidinedione therapy among the insulin resistant group.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2015.05.013
View details for PubMedID 26031505
Salsalate-induced changes in lipid, lipoprotein, and apoprotein concentrations in overweight or obese, insulin-resistant, nondiabetic individuals.
Journal of clinical lipidology
2015; 9 (5): 658-663
Although salsalate administration consistently lowers plasma triglyceride concentrations in patients with type II diabetes, prediabetes, and/or insulin resistance, changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations have been inconsistent; varying from no change to a significant increase. To evaluate the clinical relevance of this discordance in more detail, we directly measured LDL-C and obtained a comprehensive assessment of changes in lipid, lipoprotein, and apoprotein concentrations associated with salsalate use in insulin-resistant individuals, overweight or obese, but without diabetes, using vertical auto profile method.A single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed in volunteers who were overweight or obese, without diabetes, and insulin resistant on the basis of their steady-state plasma glucose concentration during an insulin suppression test. Participants were randomized 2:1 to receive salsalate 3.5 g/d (n = 27) or placebo (n = 14) for 4 weeks. Comprehensive lipid, lipoprotein, and apoprotein analysis by vertical auto profile was obtained after an overnight fast, before and after study intervention.There was no change in directly measured LDL-C concentration in salsalate-treated individuals. However, salsalate administration was associated with various changes considered to decrease atherogenicity; including decreases in triglyceride and total very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) concentrations, a shift from small denser LDL lipoproteins toward larger, more buoyant LDL particles, decreases in VLDL1+2-C and LDL4-C, and nonsignificant decreases in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B. No significant changes occurred in the placebo-treated group.Atherogenicity of the lipid, lipoprotein, and apoprotein profile of insulin-resistant individuals who were overweight or obese improved significantly in association with salsalate treatment. The clinical importance of this finding awaits further study.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacl.2015.06.009
View details for PubMedID 26350812
Usefulness of Fetuin-A to Predict Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Among Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
American journal of cardiology
2015; 116 (2): 219-224
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Fetuin-A, a novel hepatokine, has been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, all of which are highly prevalent in patients with OSA and associated with increased CVD risk. The goal of this study was to determine whether fetuin-A could be involved in the pathogenesis of CVD risk in patients with OSA, through relations of fetuin-A with MetS components and/or insulin resistance. Overweight or obese, nondiabetic volunteers (n = 120) were diagnosed with OSA by in-laboratory nocturnal polysomnography. Steady-state plasma glucose concentrations derived during the insulin suppression test were used to quantify insulin-mediated glucose uptake; higher steady-state plasma glucose concentrations indicated greater insulin resistance. Fasting plasma fetuin-A and lipoprotein concentrations were measured. Whereas neither the prevalence of MetS nor the number of MetS components was associated with tertiles of fetuin-A concentrations, the lipoprotein components of MetS, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased (p <0.01) and decreased (p <0.05), respectively, across fetuin-A tertiles. Additionally, comprehensive lipoprotein analysis revealed that very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles and VLDL subfractions (VLDL1+2 and VLDL3) were increased across fetuin-A tertiles. In contrast, neither insulin resistance nor sleep measurements related to OSA were found to be modified by fetuin-A concentrations. In conclusion, abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism, but not MetS or insulin resistance per se, may represent a mechanism by which fetuin-A contributes to increased CVD risk in patients with OSA.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.04.014
View details for PubMedID 25960379
Relationship between insulin resistance and amino acids in women and men.
2015; 3 (5)
Insulin resistance has been associated with higher plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, but majority of studies have used indirect measures of insulin resistance. Our main objective was to define the relationship between plasma AA concentrations and a direct measure of insulin resistance in women and men. This was a cross-sectional study of 182 nondiabetic individuals (118 women and 64 men) who had measurement of 24 AAs and steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration (insulin resistance) using the insulin suppression test. Fourteen out of 24 AA concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in men than women; only glycine was lower in men. Majority of these AAs were positively associated with SSPG; only glycine concentration was negatively associated. Glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, and tyrosine concentrations had the strongest correlation with SSPG (r ≥ 0.4, P < 0.001). The degree of association was similar in women and men, independent of obesity, and similar to traditional markers of insulin resistance (e.g., glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Compared with women, men tended to have a more unfavorable AA profile with higher concentration of AAs associated with insulin resistance and less glycine. However, the strength of association between a direct measurement of insulin resistance and AA concentrations were similar between sexes and equivalent to several traditional markers of insulin resistance.
View details for DOI 10.14814/phy2.12392
View details for PubMedID 25952934
- Abnormalities of Lipoprotein Concentrations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Are Related to Insulin Resistance SLEEP 2015; 38 (5): 793-?
Abnormalities of lipoprotein concentrations in obstructive sleep apnea are related to insulin resistance.
2015; 38 (5): 793-799
Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), possibly related to dyslipidemia in these individuals. Insulin resistance is also common in OSA, but its contribution to dyslipidemia of OSA is unclear. The studys aim was to define the relationships among abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism, clinical measures of OSA, and insulin resistance.Cross-sectional study. OSA severity was defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during polysomnography. Hypoxia measures were expressed as minimum and mean oxygen saturation, and the oxygen desaturation index. Insulin resistance was quantified by determining steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test. Fasting plasma lipid/ lipoprotein evaluation was performed by vertical auto profile methodology.Academic medical center.107 nondiabetic, overweight/ obese adults.Lipoprotein particles did not correlate with AHI or any hypoxia measures, nor were there differences noted by categories of OSA severity. By contrast, even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, SSPG was positively correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, P < 0.01), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and its subclasses (VLDL1+2) (r = 0.21-0.23, P < 0.05), and low density lipoprotein subclass 4 (LDL4) (r = 0.30, P < 0.01). SSPG was negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = -0.38, P < 0.001) and its subclasses (HDL2 and HDL3) (r = -0.32, -0.43, P < 0.01), and apolipoprotein A1 (r = -0.33, P < 0.01). Linear trends of these lipoprotein concentrations across SSPG tertiles were also significant.Pro-atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities in OSA are related to insulin resistance, but not to OSA severity or degree of hypoxia. Insulin resistance may represent the link between OSA-related dyslipidemia and increased CVD risk.
View details for DOI 10.5665/sleep.4678
View details for PubMedID 25348129
Low Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Defects in Insulin Action and Insulin Secretion in Persons with Prediabetes
JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
2015; 145 (4): 714-719
Individuals with prediabetes mellitus (PreDM) and low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).We aimed to determine whether low 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with defects in insulin action and insulin secretion in persons with PreDM.In this cross-sectional study, we stratified 488 nondiabetic subjects as having PreDM or normal fasting glucose (NFG) and a 25(OH)D concentration ≤20 ng/mL (deficient) or >20 ng/mL (sufficient). We determined insulin resistance by steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion by homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β). We compared insulin resistance and secretion measures in PreDM and NFG groups; 25(OH)D-deficient and 25(OH)D-sufficient groups; and PreDM-deficient, PreDM-sufficient, NFG-deficient, and NFG-sufficient subgroups, adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, multivitamin use, and season.In the PreDM group, mean SSPG concentration and HOMA-IR were higher and mean HOMA-β was lower than in the NFG group (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). In the 25(OH)D-deficient group, mean SSPG concentration was higher (P < 0.001), but neither mean HOMA-IR nor HOMA-β was significantly different from that in the 25(OH)D-sufficient group. In the PreDM-deficient subgroup, mean (95% CI) SSPG concentration was higher (P < 0.01) than in the PreDM-sufficient, NFG-deficient, and NFG-sufficient subgroups [192 (177-207) mg/dL vs. 166 (155-177) mg/dL, 148 (138-159) mg/dL, and 136 (127-144) mg/dL, respectively]. Despite greater insulin resistance, mean HOMA-β was not significantly higher in the PreDM-deficient subgroup than in the PreDM-sufficient, NFG-deficient, and NFG-sufficient subgroups [98 (85-112) vs. 91 (82-101), 123 (112-136), and 115 (106-124), respectively].Subjects with PreDM and low circulating 25(OH)D concentrations are the subgroup of nondiabetic individuals who are the most insulin resistant and have impaired β-cell function, attributes that put them at enhanced risk of T2DM.
View details for DOI 10.3945/jn.114.209171
View details for Web of Science ID 000352180500007
View details for PubMedID 25740907
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4381771
Identification and validation of N-acetyltransferase 2 as an insulin sensitivity gene
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
2015; 125 (4): 1739-1751
Decreased insulin sensitivity, also referred to as insulin resistance (IR), is a fundamental abnormality in patients with type 2 diabetes and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While IR predisposition is heritable, the genetic basis remains largely unknown. The GENEticS of Insulin Sensitivity consortium conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for direct measures of insulin sensitivity, such as euglycemic clamp or insulin suppression test, in 2,764 European individuals, with replication in an additional 2,860 individuals. The presence of a nonsynonymous variant of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) [rs1208 (803A>G, K268R)] was strongly associated with decreased insulin sensitivity that was independent of BMI. The rs1208 "A" allele was nominally associated with IR-related traits, including increased fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C, total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and coronary artery disease. NAT2 acetylates arylamine and hydrazine drugs and carcinogens, but predicted acetylator NAT2 phenotypes were not associated with insulin sensitivity. In a murine adipocyte cell line, silencing of NAT2 ortholog Nat1 decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake, increased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis, and decreased adipocyte differentiation, while Nat1 overexpression produced opposite effects. Nat1-deficient mice had elevations in fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides and decreased insulin sensitivity, as measured by glucose and insulin tolerance tests, with intermediate effects in Nat1 heterozygote mice. Our results support a role for NAT2 in insulin sensitivity.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI74592
View details for Web of Science ID 000352248600037
View details for PubMedID 25798622
Relationship among 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations, insulin action, and cardiovascular disease risk in patients with essential hypertension.
American journal of hypertension
2015; 28 (2): 266-272
Although low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations have been shown to predict risk of hypertension and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD), vitamin D repletion has not consistently lowered blood pressure or decreased CVD. One possibility for this discrepancy is the presence of considerable metabolic heterogeneity in patients with hypertension. To evaluate this possibility, we quantified relationships among insulin resistance, 25(OH)D concentration, and CVD risk factor profile in patients with essential hypertension.Measurements were made of 25(OH)D concentrations, multiple CVD risk factors, and insulin resistance by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration during the insulin suppression test in 140 otherwise healthy patients with essential hypertension.As a group, the patients were overweight/obese and insulin resistant and had low 25(OH)D concentrations. The more insulin resistant the patients were, the worse the CVD risk profile was. In addition, the most insulin-resistant quartile had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations than the most insulin-sensitive quartile (20.3±1.4 vs. 25.8±1.4ng/ml; P = 0.005). In the entire group, 25(OH)D concentration significantly correlated with magnitude of insulin resistance (steady-state plasma glucose concentration; r = -0.20; P = 0.02).There was considerable metabolic heterogeneity and substantial difference in magnitude of conventional CVD risk factors in patients with similar degrees of blood pressure elevation. The most insulin-resistant quartile of subjects had the lowest 25(OH)D concentration and the most adverse CVD risk profile, and they may be the subset of patients with essential hypertension most likely to benefit from vitamin D repletion.
View details for DOI 10.1093/ajh/hpu136
View details for PubMedID 25138785
Effect of liraglutide administration and a calorie-restricted diet on lipoprotein profile in overweight/obese persons with prediabetes.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD
2014; 24 (12): 1317-1322
To evaluate the effects of 14 weeks of liraglutide plus modest caloric restriction on lipid/lipoprotein metabolism in overweight/obese persons with prediabetes.Volunteers with prediabetes followed a calorie-restricted diet (-500 Kcal/day) plus liraglutide (n = 23) or placebo (n = 27) for 14 weeks. The groups were similar in age (58 ± 7 vs. 58 ± 8 years) and body mass index (31.9 ± 2.8 vs. 31.9 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)). A comprehensive lipid/lipoprotein profile was obtained before and after intervention using vertical auto profile (VAP). Weight loss was greater in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group (6.9 vs. 3.3 kg, p < 0.001), as was the fall in fasting plasma glucose concentration (9.9 mg/dL vs. 0.3 mg/dL, p < 0.001). VAP analysis revealed multiple improvements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism in liraglutide-treated compared with placebo-treated volunteers, including decreases in concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and several of its subclasses, triglyceride, and non-high-density cholesterol. The liraglutide-treated group also had a significant shift away from small, dense low-density lipoprotein-particles, as well as decreases in apolipoprotein B concentration and ratio of apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1. There were no significant changes in the lipoprotein profile in the placebo-treated group.Treatment with liraglutide plus modest calorie restriction led to enhanced weight loss, a decrease in fasting plasma glucose concentration, and improvement in multiple aspects of lipid/lipoprotein metabolism associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The significant clinical benefit associated with liraglutide-assisted weight loss in a group at high risk for CVD - obese/overweight individuals with prediabetes - as seen in our pilot study, suggests that this approach deserves further study.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.numecd.2014.06.010
View details for PubMedID 25280957
- Effect of Salsalate on Insulin Action, Secretion, and Clearance in Nondiabetic, Insulin-Resistant Individuals: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study DIABETES CARE 2014; 37 (7): 1944-1950
Effect of salsalate on insulin action, secretion, and clearance in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.
2014; 37 (7): 1944-1950
Salsalate treatment has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of salsalate treatment on insulin action, secretion, and clearance rate in nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance.This was a randomized (2:1), single-blind, placebo-controlled study of salsalate (3.5 g daily for 4 weeks) in nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance. All individuals had measurement of glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test), steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG; insulin suppression test), and insulin secretion and clearance rate (graded-glucose infusion test) before and after treatment.Forty-one individuals were randomized to salsalate (n = 27) and placebo (n = 14). One individual from each group discontinued the study. Salsalate improved fasting (% mean change -7% [95% CI -10 to -14] vs. 1% [-3 to 5], P = 0.005) but not postprandial glucose concentration compared with placebo. Salsalate also lowered fasting triglyceride concentration (-25% [-34 to -15] vs. -6% [-26 to 14], P = 0.04). Salsalate had no effect on SSPG concentration or insulin secretion rate but significantly decreased insulin clearance rate compared with placebo (-23% [-30 to -16] vs. 3% [-10 to 15], P < 0.001). Salsalate was well tolerated, but four individuals needed a dose reduction due to symptoms.Salsalate treatment in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals improved fasting, but not postprandial, glucose and triglyceride concentration. These improvements were associated with a decrease in insulin clearance rate without change in insulin action or insulin secretion.
View details for DOI 10.2337/dc13-2977
View details for PubMedID 24963111
Impact of type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on quantitative glycemic traits reveals mechanistic heterogeneity.
2014; 63 (6): 2158-2171
Patients with established type 2 diabetes display both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To define fundamental processes leading to the diabetic state, we examined the relationship between type 2 diabetes risk variants at 37 established susceptibility loci and indices of proinsulin processing, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. We included data from up to 58,614 non-diabetic subjects with basal measures, and 17,327 with dynamic measures. We employed additive genetic models with adjustment for sex, age and BMI, followed by fixed-effects inverse variance meta-analyses. Cluster analyses grouped risk loci into five major categories based on their relationship to these continuous glycemic phenotypes. The first cluster (PPARG, KLF14, IRS1, GCKR) was characterized by primary effects on insulin sensitivity. The second (MTNR1B, GCK) featured risk alleles associated with reduced insulin secretion and fasting hyperglycemia. ARAP1 constituted a third cluster characterized by defects in insulin processing. A fourth cluster (including TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX/IDE, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B) was defined by loci influencing insulin processing and secretion without detectable change in fasting glucose. The final group contained twenty risk loci with no clear-cut associations to continuous glycemic traits. By assembling extensive data on continuous glycemic traits, we have exposed the diverse mechanisms whereby type 2 diabetes risk variants impact disease predisposition.
View details for DOI 10.2337/db13-0949
View details for PubMedID 24296717
Evaluation of fasting plasma insulin concentration as an estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic individuals: comparison with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
2014; 51 (2): 193-197
Insulin-mediated glucose disposal varies severalfold in apparently healthy individuals, and approximately one-third of the most insulin resistant of these individuals is at increased risk to develop various adverse clinical syndromes. Since direct measurements of insulin sensitivity are not practical in a clinical setting, several surrogate estimates of insulin action have been proposed, including fasting plasma insulin (FPI) concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculated by a formula employing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and FPI concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare FPI as an estimate of insulin-mediated glucose disposal with values generated by HOMA-IR in 758 apparently healthy nondiabetic individuals. Measurements were made of FPG, FPI, triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test. FPI and HOMA-IR were highly correlated (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). The SSPG concentration also correlated to a similar degree (P < 0.001) with FPI (r = 0.60) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.64). Furthermore, the relationship between FPI and TG (r = 0.35) and HDL-C (r = -0.40) was comparable to that between HOMA-IR and TG (r = 0.39) and HDL-C (r = -0.41). In conclusion, FPI and HOMA-IR are highly correlated in nondiabetic individuals, with each estimate accounting for ~40 % of the variability (variance) in a direct measure of insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Calculation of HOMA-IR does not provide a better surrogate estimate of insulin action, or of its associated dyslipidemia, than measurement of FPI.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00592-013-0461-2
View details for PubMedID 23420066
Pancreatic beta cell function following liraglutide-augmented weight loss in individuals with prediabetes: analysis of a randomised, placebo-controlled study.
2014; 57 (3): 455-462
Liraglutide can modulate insulin secretion by directly stimulating beta cells or indirectly through weight loss and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Recently, we showed that liraglutide treatment in overweight individuals with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) led to greater weight loss (-7.7% vs -3.9%) and improvement in insulin resistance compared with placebo. The current study evaluates the effects on beta cell function of weight loss augmented by liraglutide compared with weight loss alone.This was a parallel, randomised study conducted in a single academic centre. Both participants and study administrators were blinded to treatment assignment. Individuals who were 40-70 years old, overweight (BMI 27-40 kg/m(2)) and with prediabetes were randomised (via a computerised system) to receive liraglutide (n = 35) or matching placebo (n = 33), and 49 participants were analysed. All were instructed to follow an energy-restricted diet. Primary outcome was insulin secretory function, which was evaluated in response to graded infusions of glucose and day-long mixed meals.Liraglutide treatment (n = 24) significantly (p ≤ 0.03) increased the insulin secretion rate (% mean change [95% CI]; 21% [12, 31] vs -4% [-11, 3]) and pancreatic beta cell sensitivity to intravenous glucose (229% [161, 276] vs -0.5% (-15, 14]), and decreased insulin clearance rate (-3.5% [-11, 4] vs 8.2 [0.2, 16]) as compared with placebo (n = 25). The liraglutide-treated group also had significantly (p ≤ 0.03) lower day-long glucose (-8.2% [-11, -6] vs -0.1 [-3, 2]) and NEFA concentrations (-14 [-20, -8] vs -2.1 [-10, 6]) following mixed meals, whereas day-long insulin concentrations did not significantly differ as compared with placebo. In a multivariate regression analysis, weight loss was associated with a decrease in insulin secretion rate and day-long glucose and insulin concentrations in the placebo group (p ≤ 0.05), but there was no association with weight loss in the liraglutide group. The most common side effect of liraglutide was nausea.A direct stimulatory effect on beta cell function was the predominant change in liraglutide-augmented weight loss. These changes appear to be independent of weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784965 FUNDING: The study was funded by the ADA.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00125-013-3134-3
View details for PubMedID 24326527
- Reply to DN Polesel et al. American journal of clinical nutrition 2013; 98 (6): 1593-?
Benefits of liraglutide treatment in overweight and obese older individuals with prediabetes.
2013; 36 (10): 3276-3282
OBJECTIVEThe aim was to evaluate the ability of liraglutide to augment weight loss and improve insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and inflammation in a high-risk population for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and CVD.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe randomized 68 older individuals (mean age, 58 ± 8 years) with overweight/obesity and prediabetes to this double-blind study of liraglutide 1.8 mg versus placebo for 14 weeks. All subjects were advised to decrease calorie intake by 500 kcal/day. Peripheral insulin resistance was quantified by measuring the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test. Traditional CVD risk factors and inflammatory markers also were assessed.RESULTSEleven out of 35 individuals (31%) assigned to liraglutide discontinued the study compared with 6 out of 33 (18%) assigned to placebo (P = 0.26). Subjects who continued to use liraglutide (n = 24) lost twice as much weight as those using placebo (n = 27; 6.8 vs. 3.3 kg; P < 0.001). Liraglutide-treated subjects also had a significant improvement in SSPG concentration (-3.2 vs. 0.2 mmol/L; P < 0.001) and significantly (P ≤ 0.04) greater lowering of systolic blood pressure (-8.1 vs. -2.6 mmHg), fasting glucose (-0.5 vs. 0 mmol/L), and triglyceride (-0.4 vs. -0.1 mmol/L) concentration. Inflammatory markers did not differ between the two groups, but pulse increased after liraglutide treatment (6.4 vs. -0.9 bpm; P = 0.001).CONCLUSIONSThe addition of liraglutide to calorie restriction significantly augmented weight loss and improved insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, glucose, and triglyceride concentration in this population at high risk for development of T2DM and CVD.
View details for DOI 10.2337/dc13-0354
View details for PubMedID 23835684
Beyond fasting plasma glucose: The association between coronary heart disease risk and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin and insulin resistance in healthy, nondiabetic adults.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental
2013; 62 (9): 1223-1226
Prediabetes is defined by elevations of plasma glucose concentration, and is aimed at identifying individuals at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, since these individuals are also insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic, we evaluated the association between several facets of carbohydrate metabolism and CHD risk profile in apparently healthy, nondiabetic individuals.Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and at hourly intervals for eight hours after two test meals in 281 nondiabetic individuals. Insulin action was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test. CHD risk was assessed by measurements of blood pressure and fasting lipoprotein profile.For purposes of analysis, the population was divided into tertiles, and the results demonstrated that the greater the 1) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration, 2) incremental plasma insulin response to meals, and 3) SSPG concentration, the more adverse the CHD risk profile (p<0.05). In contrast, the CHD risk profile did not significantly worsen with increases in the incremental plasma glucose response to meals.In nondiabetic individuals, higher FPG concentrations, accentuated daylong incremental insulin responses to meals, and greater degrees of insulin resistance are each associated with worse CHD risk profile (higher blood pressures, higher triglycerides, and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations). Interventional efforts aimed at decreasing CHD in such individuals should take these abnormalities into consideration.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2013.04.012
View details for PubMedID 23809477
Cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity: does it matter whether BMI or waist circumference is the index of obesity?
American journal of clinical nutrition
2013; 98 (3): 637-640
It has been suggested that the cardiometabolic risk associated with excess adiposity is particularly related to central obesity.The objective was to compare the associations between cardiometabolic risk of apparently healthy individuals and measures of central obesity [waist circumference (WC)] and overall obesity [body mass index (BMI)].In this cross-sectional, observational study, 492 subjects (306 women and 303 non-Hispanic whites) were classified by BMI (in kg/m(2)) as normal weight (BMI <25) or overweight/obese (BMI = 25.0-34.9) and as having an abnormal WC (≥80 cm in women and ≥94 cm in men) or a normal WC (<80 cm in women and <94 cm in men). Measurements were also made of the cardiometabolic risk factors: age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. Associations among cardiometabolic risk factors and BMI and WC were evaluated with Pearson correlations.There was a considerable overlap in the normal and abnormal categories of BMI and WC, and ∼81% of the subjects had both an abnormal BMI and WC. In women, BMI and WC correlated with SBP (r = 0.30 and 0.19, respectively), FPG (r = 0.25 and 0.22, respectively), triglycerides (r = 0.17 and 0.20, respectively), and HDL cholesterol (r = -0.23 and -0.20, respectively) (P < 0.01 for all). In men, BMI and WC also correlated with SBP (r = 0.22 and 0.22, respectively), FPG (r = 0.22 and 0.25, respectively), triglycerides (r = 0.21 and 0.18, respectively), and HDL cholesterol (r = -0.20 and -0.13, respectively) [P < 0.05 for all, except for the association of WC with HDL cholesterol (P = 0.08)].Most individuals with an abnormal BMI also have an abnormal WC. Both indexes of excess adiposity are positively associated with SBP, FPG, and triglycerides and inversely associated with HDL cholesterol.
View details for DOI 10.3945/ajcn.112.047506
View details for PubMedID 23885045
Genetic variants associated with glycine metabolism and their role in insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes.
2013; 62 (6): 2141-2150
Circulating metabolites associated with insulin sensitivity may represent useful biomarkers, but their causal role in insulin sensitivity and diabetes is less certain. We previously identified novel metabolites correlated with insulin sensitivity measured by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. The top-ranking metabolites were in the glutathione and glycine biosynthesis pathways. We aimed to identify common genetic variants associated with metabolites in these pathways and test their role in insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes. With 1,004 nondiabetic individuals from the RISC study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 14 insulin sensitivity-related metabolites and one metabolite ratio. We replicated our results in the Botnia study (n = 342). We assessed the association of these variants with diabetes-related traits in GWAS meta-analyses (GENESIS [including RISC, EUGENE2, and Stanford], MAGIC, and DIAGRAM). We identified four associations with three metabolites-glycine (rs715 at CPS1), serine (rs478093 at PHGDH), and betaine (rs499368 at SLC6A12; rs17823642 at BHMT)-and one association signal with glycine-to-serine ratio (rs1107366 at ALDH1L1). There was no robust evidence for association between these variants and insulin resistance or diabetes. Genetic variants associated with genes in the glycine biosynthesis pathways do not provide consistent evidence for a role of glycine in diabetes-related traits.
View details for DOI 10.2337/db12-0876
View details for PubMedID 23378610
Measurement of insulin-mediated glucose uptake: direct comparison of the modified insulin suppression test and the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp.
2013; 62 (4): 548-553
Two direct measurements of peripheral insulin sensitivity are the M value derived from the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp (EC) and the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration derived from the insulin suppression test (IST). Prior work suggests that these measures are highly correlated, but the agreement between them is unknown. To determine the agreement between SSPG and M and to develop transformation equations to convert SSPG to M and vice versa, we directly compared these two measurements in the same individuals.A total of 15 nondiabetic subjects (9 women and 6 men) underwent both an EC and a modified version of the IST within a median interval of 5days. We performed standard correlation metrics of the two measures and developed transformation regression equations for the two measures.The mean±SD age of the subjects was 57±7years and body mass index, 27.7±3.9kg/m(2). The median (interquartile range) SSPG concentration was 6.7 (5.1, 9.8) mmol/L and M value, 49.6 (28.9, 64.2) μmol/min/kg-LBM. There was a highly significant correlation between SSPG and M (r=-0.87, P <0.001). The relationship was best fit by regression models with exponential/logarithmic functions (R(2)=0.85). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated an excellent agreement between these measures of insulin action.The SSPG and M are highly related measures of insulin sensitivity and the results provide the means to directly compare the two measurements.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2012.10.002
View details for PubMedID 23151437
Body mass index and waist circumference associate to a comparable degree with insulin resistance and related metabolic abnormalities in South Asian women and men
DIABETES & VASCULAR DISEASE RESEARCH
2012; 9 (4): 296-300
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) associate to a comparable degree with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in South Asians.We measured blood pressure and fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and fibrinogen and calculated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a community-based sample of 923 nondiabetic South Asians.BMI and WC were highly correlated in both genders (r = 0.82 and 0.87). The relationship between BMI and values of blood pressure, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, HDL-C, hs-CRP, and fibrinogen was comparable to that between WC and these variables. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR correlated most strongly with BMI (r = 0.49 to 0.56) and WC (r = 0.52 to 0.59).These results show that BMI and WC associate to a comparable degree with estimates of insulin resistance and related metabolic abnormalities in South Asians.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1479164111433578
View details for Web of Science ID 000309799300007
View details for PubMedID 22278736
A LARGE-SCALE MULTI ETHNIC STUDY OF A DIRECT MEASURE OF INSULIN SENSITIVITY DEMONSTRATES THAT SOUTH ASIANS ARE THE MOST INSULIN RESISTANT ETHNIC GROUP IN THE US
61st Annual Scientific Session and Expo of the American-College-of-Cardiology (ACC)/Conference on ACC-i2 with TCT
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: E1792–E1792
View details for Web of Science ID 000302326702003
Comparison of two methods using plasma triglyceride concentration as a surrogate estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic subjects: triglycerides x glucose versus triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2011; 60 (12): 1673-1676
The objective was to compare relationships between insulin-mediated glucose uptake and surrogate estimates of insulin action, particularly those using fasting triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test in 455 nondiabetic subjects. Fasting TG, HDL-C, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured; and calculations were made of the following: (1) plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C, (2) TG × fasting glucose (TyG index), (3) homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and (4) insulin area under the curve (insulin-AUC) during a glucose tolerance test. Insulin-AUC correlated most closely with SSPG (r ∼ 0.75, P < .001), with lesser but comparable correlations between SSPG and TG/HDL-C ratio, TyG index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and fasting TG and insulin (r ∼ 0.60, P < .001). Calculations of TG/HDL-C ratio and TyG index correlated with SSPG concentration to a similar degree, and the relationships were comparable to estimates using fasting insulin. The strongest relationship was between SSPG and insulin-AUC.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2011.04.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000297528400005
View details for PubMedID 21632070
Preferential Fat Deposition in Subcutaneous Versus Visceral Depots Is Associated with Insulin Sensitivity
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
2011; 96 (11): E1756-E1760
Studies on the relationship between regional fat and insulin resistance yield mixed results. Our objective was to determine whether regional fat distribution, independent of obesity, is associated with insulin resistance.Subjects included 115 healthy, overweight/moderately obese adults with body mass index (BMI) 25-36.9 kg/m(2) who met predetermined criteria for being insulin resistant (IR) or insulin sensitive (IS) based on the modified insulin suppression test. Computerized tomography was used to quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and thigh adipose tissue. Fat mass in each depot was compared according to IR/IS group, adjusting for BMI and sex.Despite nearly identical mean BMI in the IR vs. IS groups, VAT and %VAT were significantly higher in the IR group, whereas SAT, %SAT, and thigh sc fat were significantly lower. In logistic regression analysis, each sd increase in VAT increased the odds of being IR by 80%, whereas each increase in SAT decreased the odds by 48%; each increase in thigh fat decreased the odds by 59% and retained significance after adjusting for other depots. When grouped by VAT tertile, IS vs. IR individuals had significantly more SAT. There was no statistically significant interaction between sex and these relationships.These data demonstrate that after adjustment for BMI and VAT mass, sc abdominal and thigh fat are protective for insulin resistance, whereas VAT, after adjustment for SAT and BMI, has the opposite effect. Whether causal in nature or a marker of underlying pathology, these results clarify that regional distribution of fat-favoring sc depots is associated with lower risk for insulin resistance.
View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2011-0615
View details for Web of Science ID 000296750600005
View details for PubMedID 21865361
Plasma glucose and insulin responses to mixed meals: Impaired fasting glucose re-visited
DIABETES & VASCULAR DISEASE RESEARCH
2011; 8 (4): 271-275
In individuals with varying glucose tolerance, glucose and insulin comparisons are usually made based on response to oral glucose challenge. However, an oral glucose tolerance test may not reflect daylong glucose and insulin excursions in response to meals. To better understand individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), we compared insulin action as well as plasma glucose and insulin responses to mixed meals in individuals with normal fasting glucose (NFG; n = 141) and IFG (n = 148) concentrations.Insulin action was quantified by determining steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and hourly after two mixed meals.SSPG concentrations were significantly higher in the IFG group (11.8 ± 3.6 vs. 9.1 ± 3.8 mmol/l). Mean hourly daylong glucose (6.4 ± 0.07 vs. 5.5 ± 0.04 mmol/l) and insulin (390 ± 20 vs. 279 ± 15 pmol/l) concentrations were also higher in those with IFG (p < 0.001). Daylong incremental meal-stimulated glucose response, however, was comparable (p = 0.77) in the two groups, whereas the incremental insulin response was 44% higher in the IFG group.Although individuals are currently defined as having IFG based on fasting plasma glucose concentration, our data show that these individuals with IFG also are insulin resistant and have higher daylong insulin concentrations.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1479164111421036
View details for Web of Science ID 000296976700004
View details for PubMedID 21933842
Adiposity indices in the prediction of metabolic abnormalities associated with cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic adults
NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
2011; 21 (8): 553-560
The prevalence of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases with degree of obesity. Whether measurements of generalized and abdominal obesity differ in the ability to predict changes associated with increased CVD risk is widely debated. We compared the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in 275 women and 204 men stratified by categories of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and assessed the ability of these adiposity indices in combination with metabolic risk variables to predict insulin resistance.Healthy, non-diabetic volunteers underwent measurements of BMI, WC, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipoprotein concentrations, and direct quantification of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Insulin resistance was defined as the top tertile of steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations. BMI and WC were highly correlated (P < 0.001) in both women and men. Abnormal SSPG and triglyceride concentrations were associated with increasing adiposity by either index in both genders. Among women, abnormal FPG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were associated with increasing BMI and WC. In men, abnormal HDL-C was associated with increasing BMI only. Elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) was associated with increasing BMI in both genders. The odds of insulin resistance were greatest in women with elevated FPG and triglycerides (4.5-fold). In men, the best predictors were BMI and SBP, and WC and HDL-C (3-fold).BMI is at least comparable to WC in stratifying individuals for prevalence of metabolic abnormalities associated with increased CVD risk and predicting insulin resistance.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.numecd.2009.12.009
View details for Web of Science ID 000293596800003
View details for PubMedID 20304617
Estimates of Insulin Secretory Function in Apparently Healthy Volunteers Vary as a Function of How the Relevant Variables Are Quantified
2011; 57 (4): 627-632
Several surrogate estimates have been used to define relationships between insulin action and pancreatic β-cell function in healthy individuals. Because it is unclear how conclusions about insulin secretory function depend on specific estimates used, we evaluated the effect of different approaches to measurement of insulin action and secretion on observations of pancreatic β-cell function in individuals whose fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was <7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL).We determined 2 indices of insulin secretion [homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) and daylong insulin response to mixed meals], insulin action [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test], and degree of glycemia [fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and daylong glucose response to mixed meals] in 285 individuals with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. We compared the relationship between the 2 measures of insulin secretion as a function of the measures of insulin action and degree of glycemia.Assessment of insulin secretion varied dramatically as a function of which of the 2 methods was used and which measure of insulin resistance or glycemia served as the independent variable. For example, the correlation between insulin secretion (HOMA-β) and insulin resistance varied from an r value of 0.74 (when HOMA-IR was used) to 0.22 (when SSPG concentration was used).Conclusions about β-cell function in nondiabetic individuals depend on the measurements used to assess insulin action and insulin secretion. Viewing estimates of insulin secretion in relationship to measures of insulin resistance and/or degree of glycemia does not mean that an unequivocal measure of pancreatic β-cell function has been obtained.
View details for DOI 10.1373/clinchem.2010.152744
View details for Web of Science ID 000288854000017
View details for PubMedID 21296973
Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk factors in subjects with prehypertension
DIABETES & VASCULAR DISEASE RESEARCH
2011; 8 (1): 43-46
Prehypertension is considered to be associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), and some data suggest that insulin resistance is common in this group. The goal of this study was to quantify insulin action by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test in apparently healthy individuals with prehypertension (n=126) and to elucidate the relationship between insulin action and CVD risk.We found a marked heterogeneity in insulin sensitivity in the prehypertension group, and when we divided the population into insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant and intermediate groups, there were significant (p<0.01) increases in plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations and decreases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations with progressive degrees of insulin resistance. These data show that at least one-third of patients with prehypertension are insulin resistant, display the accompanying metabolic abnormalities, and merit enhanced surveillance and intensive efforts at therapeutic intervention to prevent CVD.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1479164110396919
View details for Web of Science ID 000287469500006
View details for PubMedID 21262870
What is the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on insulin secretory function in insulin-resistant individuals? It depends on how you measure It
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2011; 60 (1): 57-62
The goal of this study was to compare methods used to quantify the effect of rosiglitazone (RSG) on insulin secretory function, particularly estimates based on changes in fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentration vs daylong insulin responses to meals. To do this, we compared these measures of insulin secretion before and 3 months after RSG treatment in insulin-resistant individuals, subdivided into nondiabetic subjects (n = 29) and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) (n = 22). Insulin resistance was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose concentration during the insulin suppression test and insulin secretory function by homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) and the total integrated daylong plasma insulin responses to mixed meals (insulin area under the curve). Baseline fasting and daylong plasma glucose concentrations were higher (P < .001) in patients with 2DM, associated with lower HOMA-β values (P < .001). However, neither fasting nor daylong insulin concentrations after mixed meals differed in the 2 groups. Insulin sensitivity improved (P < .001) after RSG administration, with decreases of 31% ± 23% and 21% ± 14% in steady-state plasma glucose concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic subjects, respectively. Although fasting and daylong plasma glucose and insulin concentrations fell (P < .001) in both groups of RSG-treated individuals, HOMA-β decreased in nondiabetic subjects and did not change in those with 2DM. In conclusion, RSG administration improved insulin sensitivity in both groups, associated with lower fasting and daylong glucose concentrations. Fasting and daylong insulin concentrations were also lower in both groups of RSG-treated subjects, but the values of HOMA-β indicated either a decrease (nondiabetics) or no change (diabetics) in insulin secretory function. These results suggest that measurements of HOMA-β may not provide a complete view of insulin secretory function, either when comparing diabetic with nondiabetic individuals or when assessing the response to RSG treatment in insulin-resistant individuals.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2010.02.015
View details for Web of Science ID 000285441300006
View details for PubMedID 20356610
Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Gastric Bypass Patients with Hypoglycemic Syndrome: No Evidence for Inappropriate Pancreatic beta-cell Function
2010; 20 (8): 1110-1116
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) has been associated with a hypoglycemic syndrome characterized by postprandial hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The syndrome is believed to occur due to insulin hypersecretion from either pancreatic beta-cell hyperplasia or hyperfunction.Eight RYGB patients with hypoglycemic syndrome had insulin secretion rates determined during a 240-min graded intravenous glucose infusion. They were compared to 34 nondiabetic, nonsurgical individuals who were divided based on their insulin sensitivity status as measured by the insulin suppression test: insulin-sensitive (n = 8), insulin intermediate (n = 7), and insulin-resistant (n = 19).RYGB patients had insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR similar to the insulin-sensitive reference group. In addition, integrated insulin secretion rates were comparable to the insulin-sensitive group and significantly lower than the insulin intermediate (p
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11695-010-0183-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000280746100304
View details for PubMedID 20665189
Comparison of Surrogate and Direct Measurement of Insulin Resistance in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Impact of Obesity and Ethnicity
2010; 52 (1): 38-46
Studies using surrogate estimates show high prevalence of insulin resistance in hepatitis C infection. This study prospectively evaluated the correlation between surrogate and directly measured estimates of insulin resistance and the impact of obesity and ethnicity on this relationship. Eighty-six nondiabetic, noncirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (age = 48 +/- 7 years, 74% male, 44% white, 22% African American, 26% Latino, 70% genotype 1) were categorized into normal-weight (body mass index [BMI] < 25, n = 30), overweight (BMI = 25-29.9, n = 38), and obese (BMI > or = 30, n = 18). Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was measured by steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during a 240-minute insulin suppression test. Surrogate estimates included: fasting glucose and insulin, glucose/insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), insulin (I-AUC) and glucose (G-AUC) area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test, and the Belfiore and Stumvoll indexes. All surrogate estimates correlated with SSPG, but the magnitude of correlation varied (r = 0.30-0.64). The correlation coefficients were highest in the obese. I-AUC had the highest correlation among all ethnic and weight groups (r = 0.57-0.77). HOMA-IR accounted for only 15% of variability in SSPG in the normal weight group. The common HOMA-IR cutoff of < or =3 to define insulin resistance had high misclassification rates especially in the overweight group independent of ethnicity. HOMA-IR > 4 had the lowest misclassification rate (75% sensitivity, 88% specificity). Repeat HOMA-IR measurements had higher within-person variation in the obese (standard deviation = 0.77 higher than normal-weight, 95% confidence interval = 0.25-1.30, P = 0.005).Because of limitations of surrogate estimates, caution should be used in interpreting data evaluating insulin resistance especially in nonobese, nondiabetic patients with HCV.
View details for DOI 10.1002/hep.23670
View details for Web of Science ID 000279409200007
View details for PubMedID 20578127
Relationship between body mass index and insulin resistance in patients treated with second generation antipsychotic agents
JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH
2010; 44 (8): 493-498
Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) can increase weight gain and weight-induced insulin resistance. Recent studies have suggested weight-independent effects of certain SGAs on insulin resistance; however the magnitude of these effects and the relationship between BMI and insulin resistance in patients on SGAs are not established. To evaluate, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance in 54 patients being stably treated with olanzapine (n=19), risperidone (n=16), or aripiprazole (n=19) was compared with data from a large reference population (n=201) not on SGAs. Insulin resistance was directly quantified by measuring the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test. The relationship between BMI and SSPG was similar between the SGA (r=0.58) and the reference population (r=0.50). When SSPG was standardized based on expected values for the reference population, patients on olanzapine had a higher degree of insulin resistance (mean z-score+/-SD, 0.68+/-0.9) than expected for level of BMI compared with those on aripiprazole (-0.25+/-1) and risperidone (-0.3+/-0.9), F(2,51)=6.28 (p=0.004). Thus, olanzapine group was 0.76 SD above the reference population or in the 78 percentile for insulin resistance. SSPG was correlated with fasting plasma insulin concentration (0.78 (0.64-0.87), p<0.001) but not fasting glucose concentration (0.15 (-0.13-0.40), p=0.29). In conclusion, BMI contributes a quarter to a third of the variance in insulin resistance in the SGA population similar to the reference population. Olanzapine also appears to have an independent effect on insulin resistance that is above and beyond obesity.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.11.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000278653500002
View details for PubMedID 19962157
Pioglitazone Increases the Proportion of Small Cells in Human Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue
2010; 18 (5): 926-931
Rodent and in vitro studies suggest that thiazolidinediones promote adipogenesis but there are few studies in humans to corroborate these findings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pioglitazone stimulates adipogenesis in vivo and whether this process relates to improved insulin sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, 12 overweight/obese nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals underwent biopsy of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue at baseline and after 12 weeks of pioglitazone treatment. Cell size distribution was determined via the Multisizer technique. Insulin sensitivity was quantified at baseline and postpioglitazone by the modified insulin suppression test. Regional fat depots were quantified by computed tomography (CT). Insulin resistance (steady-state plasma insulin and glucose (SSPG)) decreased following pioglitazone (P < 0.001). There was an increase in the ratio of small-to-large cells (1.16 +/- 0.44 vs. 1.52 +/- 0.66, P = 0.03), as well as a 25% increase in the absolute number of small cells (P = 0.03). The distribution of large cell diameters widened (P = 0.009), but diameter did not increase in the case of small cells. The increase in proportion of small cells was associated with the degree to which insulin resistance improved (r = -0.72, P = 0.012). Visceral abdominal fat decreased (P = 0.04), and subcutaneous abdominal (P = 0.03) and femoral fat (P = 0.004) increased significantly. Changes in fat volume were not associated with SSPG change. These findings demonstrate a clear effect of pioglitazone on human subcutaneous adipose cells, suggestive of adipogenesis in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, as well as redistribution of fat from visceral to subcutaneous depots, highlighting a potential mechanism of action for thiazolidinediones. These findings support the hypothesis that defects in subcutaneous fat storage may underlie obesity-associated insulin resistance.
View details for DOI 10.1038/oby.2009.380
View details for Web of Science ID 000277234800013
View details for PubMedID 19910937
Detailed Physiologic Characterization Reveals Diverse Mechanisms for Novel Genetic Loci Regulating Glucose and Insulin Metabolism in Humans
59th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Human-Genetics
AMER DIABETES ASSOC. 2010: 1266–75
OBJECTIVE Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed loci associated with glucose and insulin-related traits. We aimed to characterize 19 such loci using detailed measures of insulin processing, secretion, and sensitivity to help elucidate their role in regulation of glucose control, insulin secretion and/or action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated associations of loci identified by the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) with circulating proinsulin, measures of insulin secretion and sensitivity from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), euglycemic clamps, insulin suppression tests, or frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests in nondiabetic humans (n = 29,084). RESULTS The glucose-raising allele in MADD was associated with abnormal insulin processing (a dramatic effect on higher proinsulin levels, but no association with insulinogenic index) at extremely persuasive levels of statistical significance (P = 2.1 x 10(-71)). Defects in insulin processing and insulin secretion were seen in glucose-raising allele carriers at TCF7L2, SCL30A8, GIPR, and C2CD4B. Abnormalities in early insulin secretion were suggested in glucose-raising allele carriers at MTNR1B, GCK, FADS1, DGKB, and PROX1 (lower insulinogenic index; no association with proinsulin or insulin sensitivity). Two loci previously associated with fasting insulin (GCKR and IGF1) were associated with OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity indices in a consistent direction. CONCLUSIONS Genetic loci identified through their effect on hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in associations with measures of insulin processing, secretion, and sensitivity. Our findings emphasize the importance of detailed physiological characterization of such loci for improved understanding of pathways associated with alterations in glucose homeostasis and eventually type 2 diabetes.
View details for DOI 10.2337/DB09-1568
View details for Web of Science ID 000277554700019
View details for PubMedID 20185807
Fasting urine pH is independent of insulin sensitivity
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
2010; 91 (3): 586-588
It has recently been suggested that a low urine pH be added to the abnormalities linked to insulin resistance. This conclusion is based on the finding of a low urine pH in individuals with clinical syndromes associated with insulin resistance and not on studies in which a direct measure of insulin sensitivity was shown to be significantly related to differences in urine pH.To address this issue, we quantified insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) by using the insulin suppression test in 96 apparently healthy, nondiabetic individuals and defined its relation to fasting urine pH.Urine samples were collected and analyzed from a cohort of healthy subjects within a narrow body mass index range who were recruited to determine insulin sensitivity.There was an approximate 6-fold variation in values for IMGU in this population, with no relation to urine pH (r = 0.02). Furthermore, there was no relation between body mass index, as a surrogate estimate of insulin resistance, and urine pH (r = 0.06).On the basis of these findings, we question the view that a low urine pH be added to the abnormalities linked to insulin resistance in low-risk populations.
View details for DOI 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28830
View details for Web of Science ID 000274706500013
View details for PubMedID 20032494
Plasma Glucose and Insulin Regulation Is Abnormal Following Gastric Bypass Surgery with or Without Neuroglycopenia
2009; 19 (11): 1550-1556
Enhanced insulin sensitivity is commonly seen following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) whereas symptomatic hypoglycemia post-RYGB seems to occur infrequently. It is unclear how different plasma glucose and insulin responses are in patients with symptomatic hypoglycemia (SX-RYGB) versus those who remain asymptomatic (ASX-RYGB), nor when compared with non-surgical controls with varying degrees of insulin sensitivity.Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined following a 75-g oral glucose challenge in five groups: symptomatic and asymptomatic patients following RYGB (n = 9 each) and overweight/obese controls, divided into three subgroups (n = 30 each) on the basis of degree of insulin sensitivity measured by the insulin suppression test.SX-RYGB group had higher 30-min glucose after oral glucose compared with the ASX-RYGB group (p = 0.04). The two groups did not differ in peak glucose and insulin concentrations, nadir glucose concentration, or insulin-to-glucose ratio 30 min after oral glucose. These values were significantly different from the three control groups, and peak insulin concentrations post-RYGB were increased at every degree of insulin sensitivity as compared with the control groups.Plasma glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose in patients with symptomatic hypoglycemia post-RYGB are minimally different when compared to individuals who remain asymptomatic, and both groups demonstrate hyperinsulinemia out of proportion to their degree of insulin sensitivity.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11695-009-9893-8
View details for Web of Science ID 000271282900014
View details for PubMedID 19557485
Differential Intra-abdominal Adipose Tissue Profiling in Obese, Insulin-resistant Women
2009; 19 (11): 1564-1573
We recently identified differences in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from insulin-resistant (IR) as compared to obesity-matched insulin sensitive individuals, including accumulation of small adipose cells, decreased expression of cell differentiation markers, and increased inflammatory activity. This study was initiated to see if these changes in SAT of IR individuals were present in omental visceral adipose tissue (VAT); in this instance, individuals were chosen to be IR but varied in degree of adiposity. We compared cell size distribution and genetic markers in SAT and VAT of IR individuals undergoing bariatric surgery.Eleven obese/morbidly obese women were IR by the insulin suppression test. Adipose tissue surgical samples were fixed in osmium tetroxide for cell size analysis via Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for genes related to adipocyte differentiation and inflammation was performed.While proportion of small cells and expression of adipocyte differentiation genes did not differ between depots, inflammatory genes were upregulated in VAT. Diameter of SAT large cells correlated highly with increasing proportion of small cells in both SAT and VAT (r = 0.85, p = 0.001; r = 0.72, p = 0.01, respectively). No associations were observed between VAT large cells and cell size variables in either depot. The effect of body mass index (BMI) on any variables in both depots was negligible.The major differential property of VAT of IR women is increased inflammatory activity, independent of BMI. The association of SAT adipocyte hypertrophy with hyperplasia in both depots suggests a primary role SAT may have in regulating regional fat storage.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11695-009-9949-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000271282900016
View details for PubMedID 19711137
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3181138
Pioglitazone decreases postprandial accumulation of remnant lipoproteins in insulin-resistant smokers
DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM
2009; 11 (8): 779-785
Fasting hypertriglyceridaemia has been reported to occur commonly in cigarette smokers and is thought to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in these individuals. More recently, it has been suggested that an increase in non-fasting triglycerides, rather than fasting hypertriglyceridaemia, is an independent CVD risk factor.In this study, we divided 24 smokers into insulin-resistant (IR) and insulin-sensitive (IS) groups by determining their steady-state plasma glucose concentrations during the insulin suppression test and compared fasting and daylong postprandial accumulation of total triglycerides and remnant lipoprotein (RLP) concentrations, before and after 3 months of pioglitazone (PIO) administration.The two groups were similar in age, body mass index, race and gender distribution, but differed dramatically in insulin sensitivity. Baseline fasting and postprandial triglyceride, RLP cholesterol and RLP triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the IR smokers (p=0.01 to <0.01). Insulin resistance [corrected] and both fasting and postprandial triglyceride and RLP triglyceride levels decreased significantly (p=0.05 to 0.01) [corrected] in PIO-treated IR smokers, without any significant increase in weight instead of insulin sensitivity and both fasting and postprandial triglyceride and RLP triglyceride levels decreased significantly (p = 0.05 to, 0.01) in PIO-treated IR smokers, without any significant increase in weight. [corrected]The postprandial accumulation of RLP particles is increased in the IR subset of smokers and is likely to contribute to the increased CVD risk in these individuals. Furthermore, PIO administration provides a possible therapeutic approach to decreasing postprandial lipaemia and CVD risk in IR smokers who are unwilling or unable to stop smoking.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2009.01041.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000267426100005
View details for PubMedID 19476476
Effect of moderate alcoholic beverage consumption on insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic individuals
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2009; 58 (3): 387-392
Although moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a decrease in plasma insulin concentrations, relatively few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of alcohol on insulin sensitivity, particularly in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals. Because enhanced insulin sensitivity could contribute to the reported association between moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of heart disease and diabetes, we believed it is important to address this issue. Consequently, we evaluated the ability of moderate alcohol consumption to improve insulin sensitivity, as measured by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test, in 20 nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals. Measurements were made of SSPG, glucose, insulin, and lipoprotein concentrations before and after consuming 30 g of alcohol for 8 weeks, either as vodka (n = 9) or red wine (n = 11). The SSPG concentrations (insulin resistance) decreased by approximately 8% in the total group (P = .08), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration increased by a mean of 0.09 mmol/L (P = .02). Trends were similar in individuals who consumed vodka or red wine. Men tended to have greater decline in SSPG and increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with women. There were no other metabolic changes in fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations. These data demonstrate that 8 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption had minimal impact on enhancing insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals, raising questions as to the role, if any, of improved insulin sensitivity in the purported clinical benefits associated with moderate alcohol consumption.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2008.10.013
View details for Web of Science ID 000263882400019
View details for PubMedID 19217456
Relationship between changes in insulin sensitivity and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors in thiazolidinedione-treated, insulin-resistant, nondiabetic individuals: pioglitazone versus rosiglitazone
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2009; 58 (3): 373-378
This study compared the effects of administering rosiglitazone (RSG) vs pioglitazone (PIO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic individuals with no apparent disease. Twenty-two nondiabetic, apparently healthy individuals, classified as being insulin resistant on the basis of a steady-state plasma glucose concentration of at least 10 mmol/L during the insulin suppression test, were treated with either RSG or PIO for 3 months. Measurements were made before and after drug treatment of weight; blood pressure; fasting and daylong glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA) levels; and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Insulin sensitivity (steady-state plasma glucose concentration) significantly improved in both treatment groups, associated with significant decreases in daylong plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and FFA. Diastolic blood pressure fell somewhat in both groups, and this change reached significance in those receiving PIO. Improvement in lipid metabolism was confined to the PIO-treated group, signified by a significant decrease in plasma triglyceride concentration, whereas triglyceride concentration did not decline in the RSG-treated group, and these individuals also had increases in total (P = .047) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .07). In conclusion, RSG and PIO appear to have comparable abilities to improve insulin sensitivity and lower daylong glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals. However, despite these similarities, their effects on lipoprotein metabolism seem to be quite different, with beneficial effects confined to PIO-treated individuals.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2008.10.011
View details for Web of Science ID 000263882400017
View details for PubMedID 19217454
Prevalence of Insulin Resistance and Related Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Essential Hypertension
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
2009; 22 (1): 106-111
There is evidence that the subgroup of patients with essential hypertension who are also insulin resistant is at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We are unaware of the frequency of insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension as well as the CVD risk in this subgroup of patients. This analysis was aimed at providing the prevalence of insulin resistance and associated CVD risk factors in treated and untreated patients with essential hypertension.The study population consisted of 126 patients with hypertension: 56 untreated and 70 in a stable treatment program. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, plasma glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge, lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test were measured. Insulin resistance was defined operationally as a SSPG concentration >180 mg/dl.Demographic characteristics and metabolic CVD risk factors were comparable in both groups, with 30-50% of both treated and untreated patients having abnormalities of all risk factors measured. Approximately 50% of patients met the criteria for insulin resistance in both groups, and the prevalence of abnormal CVD risk factors in this group was increased two to threefold as compared to the other half of the subjects.Approximately 50% of patients with essential hypertension, both treated and untreated, appear to be insulin resistant, and CVD risk factors are greatly accentuated in this subset of patients.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ajh.2008.263
View details for Web of Science ID 000261939700021
View details for PubMedID 18772854
Persistence of improvement in insulin sensitivity following a dietary weight loss programme
DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM
2008; 10 (12): 1186-1194
Short-term dietary weight loss can improve insulin resistance but long-term studies are lacking. We sought to quantify the degree to which maintenance of weight loss after a short-term dietary intervention was associated with persistent metabolic benefits.Fifty-seven insulin-resistant obese subjects had insulin-mediated glucose disposal quantified through the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) test, and associated metabolic risk markers quantified at baseline, after a 16-week dietary weight loss intervention, and in 25 subjects, at follow-up of 28.8 +/- 13 months. Changes in metabolic variables over time were analysed and correlation with weight loss ascertained. Those with greatest vs. least long-term SSPG response (responders vs. non-responders) were compared. Multivariate analysis was performed for predictors of persistent SSPG response.At follow-up, the 25 subjects who returned for metabolic testing had, on average, maintained their weight loss. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal remained significantly improved vs. baseline, as did plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and improvement correlated with total amount of weight lost. Comparison of SSPG responders to non-responders showed no difference in amount of weight lost and SSPG change during the 16-week dietary intervention; however, SSPG non-responders regained 2.6% of weight lost, whereas responders lost an additional 1.5% at follow-up (p < 0.05 vs. non-responders). Non-responders had baseline characteristics consistent with more severe insulin resistance, including higher fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.03). Long-term SSPG change was independently predicted by both total weight loss (p = 0.005) and baseline fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.007).Improvement in insulin sensitivity is maintained for 2-3 years following dietary weight loss if weight is not regained. Triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations also remain improved over time, consistent with improvement in insulin sensitivity. Fasting glucose and weight regain predict less long-term response in insulin sensitivity. These results highlight the potential long-term benefits of weight loss and importance of preventing weight regain among high-risk individuals.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.00877.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000260528300005
View details for PubMedID 18476986
Insulin resistance is associated with a modest increase in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of moderately obese women
2008; 51 (12): 2303-2308
We have previously described differences in adipose cell size distribution and expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation in subcutaneous abdominal fat obtained from insulin-sensitive (IS) and -resistant (IR) persons, matched for degree of moderate obesity. To determine whether other biological properties also differ between IR and IS obese individuals, we quantified markers of inflammatory activity in adipose tissue from overweight IR and IS individuals.Subcutaneous abdominal tissue was obtained from moderately obese women, divided into IR (n = 14) and IS (n = 19) subgroups by determining their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test. Inflammatory activity was assessed by comparing expression of nine relevant genes and by immunohistochemical quantification of CD45- and CD68-containing cells.SSPG concentrations were approximately threefold higher in IR than in IS individuals. Expression levels of CD68, EMR1, IL8, IL6 and MCP/CCL2 mRNAs were modestly but significantly increased (p < 0.05) in IR compared with IS participants. Results of immunohistochemical staining were consistent with gene expression data, demonstrating modest differences between IR and IS individuals. Crown-like structures, in which macrophages surround single adipocytes, were rarely seen in tissue from either subgroup.A modest increase in inflammatory activity was seen in subcutaneous adipose tissue from IR compared with equally obese IS individuals. Together with previous evidence of impaired adipose cell differentiation in IR vs equally obese individuals, it appears that at least two biological processes in subcutaneous adipose tissue characterize the insulin-resistant state independent of obesity per se.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00125-008-1148-z
View details for Web of Science ID 000260686000019
View details for PubMedID 18825363
Pioglitazone administration decreases cardiovascular disease risk factors in insulin-resistant smokers
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2008; 57 (8): 1108-1114
Insulin sensitivity varies in cigarette smokers, and there is evidence that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is greatest in those smokers who are also insulin resistant. To extend these observations, we sought to (1) compare CVD risk factors in smokers who do not plan to stop smoking, divided into insulin-resistant (IR) and insulin-sensitive (IS) subgroups, and (2) evaluate the ability of drug-induced changes in insulin sensitivity to decrease CVD risk. Thirty-six cigarette smokers were divided into IR (n = 19) and IS (n = 17) subgroups by determining their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test (the higher the SSPG, the more insulin resistant the individual). In addition, baseline measurements were made of fasting lipid and lipoprotein concentrations; inflammatory markers; and daylong glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid responses to test meals. All subjects were treated with pioglitazone for 12 weeks, after which all baseline measurements were repeated. Baseline triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly different in IR as compared with IS smokers (P < .05) both before and after adjustment for differences in sex and body mass index. After pioglitazone treatment, SSPG concentration significantly fell in the IR smokers (P < .001), associated with a significant improvement in the atherogenic lipoprotein profile seen at baseline (P < or = .03) and a decrease in soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and C-reactive protein concentrations (P = .01 and .02, respectively), whereas the IS smokers only had a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .004) and a decrease in soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (P = .02) and CRP (P = .07) levels. In conclusion, cigarette smokers have profound differences in CVD risk factors related to their degree of insulin sensitivity. It is suggested that, in addition to smoking cessation efforts, attention should be given to identifying the subgroup of smokers most at risk for CVD, but unwilling or unable to stop smoking, and to initiating appropriate therapeutic interventions to decrease CVD in this high-risk group.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2008.03.016
View details for Web of Science ID 000258196300014
View details for PubMedID 18640389
- The therapeutic efficacy of rosiglitazone is enhanced in sulphonylurea-treated patients with type 2 diabetes DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM 2008; 10 (8): 685-687
Comparison of waist circumference versus body mass index in diagnosing metabolic syndrome and identifying apparently healthy subjects at increased risk of cardiovascular disease
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2008; 102 (1): 40-46
The goal of this study was to compare the impact of differences in waist circumference (WC) defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and body mass index (BMI) on cardiovascular disease risk factors in 402 apparently healthy volunteers of European ancestry. Consequently, measurements were made of the WC, BMI, blood pressure, glucose, and lipid components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Subjects were divided according to WC (IDF and ATP III criteria) and by normal weight, overweight, or obesity using BMI, and comparisons were made of the effect of these different indexes of adiposity on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The results indicated that WC and BMI significantly correlated (p <0.001) and were associated with differences in insulin-mediated glucose uptake to a similar degree in men (r = 0.57 and r = 0.59) and women (r = 0.53 and r = 0.52). Prevalences of MS were essentially identical irrespective of the measure of WC used (ATP III vs IDF), as were metabolic characteristics of those classified using IDF or ATP III criteria. Cardiovascular disease risk factor status did not vary substantially when subjects were divided on the basis of WC or BMI. In conclusion, prevalences of MS or cardiovascular disease risk factors did not vary as a function of differences in IDF and ATP III criteria for WC. BMI identified individuals at increased cardiovascular disease risk as effectively as determination of WC.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.096
View details for Web of Science ID 000257300100007
View details for PubMedID 18572033
Comparison of three treatment approaches to decreasing cardiovascular disease risk in nondiabetic insulin-resistant dyslipidemic subjects
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2008; 102 (1): 64-69
The efficacy of fenofibrate (FEN), rosiglitazone (RSG), or a calorie-restricted diet (CRD) to reduce cardiovascular disease risk was compared in 37 overweight/obese insulin-resistant nondiabetic subjects. Insulin sensitivity, fasting lipids and lipoproteins, and postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, and triglycerides were measured before and after 3 months of treatment with FEN, RSG, or CRD. Weight decreased in the CRD group, but did not change significantly after treatment with either drug. Insulin sensitivity improved significantly in the CRD- and RSG-treated groups, but to a greater extent in those administered RSG, without a significant difference comparing FEN treatment with the CRD. Total cholesterol was significantly lower after FEN and CRD treatment. Fasting plasma triglycerides decreased significantly in the FEN- and CRD-treated groups, but postprandial concentrations decreased in only FEN-treated subjects. Significant decreases in postprandial glucose and insulin were seen in only the RSG- and CRD-treated groups. FEN administration improved dyslipidemia in these subjects without changing insulin sensitivity, whereas insulin sensitivity was enhanced in RSG-treated patients without improvement in dyslipidemia. Weight loss in the CRD group led to improvements in both insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia, but the change in the former was less than in RSG-treated patients, and improvement in lipid metabolism not as great as with FEN. In conclusion, there did not appear to be 1 therapeutic intervention that effectively treated all metabolic abnormalities present in these patients at greatly increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.097
View details for Web of Science ID 000257300100011
View details for PubMedID 18572037
Clinical experience with a relatively low carbohydrate, calorie-restricted diet improves insulin sensitivity and associated metabolic abnormalities in overweight, insulin resistant South Asian Indian women
ASIA PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
2008; 17 (4): 669-671
South Asian Indians are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with insulin resistance and a dyslipidemia characterized by high triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of a calorie-restricted, relatively low carbohydrate diet on weight loss, insulin sensitivity, and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight, insulin resistant, but apparently healthy, South Asian Indian women. Twenty-three, overweight, insulin resistant, apparently healthy, South Asian Indian women were advised on a calorie-restricted diet containing 40 percent carbohydrate for 3 months. Change in weight, insulin sensitivity (quantified by the steady state plasma glucose concentration during the insulin suppression test), and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured. Weight fell from 75.5 to 70.5 kg (p<0.001), associated with significant decreases in diastolic blood pressure, plasma concentrations (mg/dL) of steady state plasma glucose (217 to 176, p<0.001), triglycerides (137 to 101, p = 0.003), and glucose (98 to 92, p = 0.005). A calorie-restricted diet, moderately lower in carbohydrate, can lead to weight loss, decreased insulin resistance, and reduction in several cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight, insulin resistant, apparently healthy, South Asian Indian women.
View details for Web of Science ID 000262520400020
View details for PubMedID 19114407
Metabolic impact of switching antipsychotic therapy to aripiprazole after weight gain - A pilot study
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
2007; 27 (4): 365-368
Switching antipsychotic regimen to agents with low weight gain potential has been suggested in patients who gain excessive weight on their antipsychotic therapy. In an open-label pilot study, we evaluated the metabolic and psychiatric efficacy of switching to aripiprazole in 15 (9 men, 6 women) outpatients with schizophrenia who had gained at least 10 kg on their previous antipsychotic regimen. Individuals had evaluation of glucose tolerance, insulin resistance (insulin suppression test), lipid concentrations, and psychiatric status before and after switching to aripiprazole for 4 months. A third of the individuals could not psychiatrically tolerate switching to aripiprazole. In the remaining individuals, psychiatric symptoms significantly improved with decline in Clinical Global Impression Scale (by 26%, P = 0.015) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (by 22%, P = 0.023). Switching to aripiprazole did not alter weight or metabolic outcomes (fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and lipid concentrations) in the patients of whom 73% were insulin resistant and 47% had impaired or diabetic glucose tolerance at baseline. In conclusion, switching to aripiprazole alone does not ameliorate the highly prevalent metabolic abnormalities in the schizophrenia population who have gained weight on other second generation antipsychotic medications.
View details for DOI 10.1097/JCP.0b013e3180a9076c
View details for Web of Science ID 000248062400007
View details for PubMedID 17632220
Lipoprotein abnormalities are associated with insulin resistance in South Asian Indian women
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2007; 56 (7): 899-904
South Asian Indians are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), possibly related to dyslipidemia characterized by high triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. The importance of differences in insulin resistance as compared to abdominal obesity in the development of this atherogenic lipoprotein profile is not clear, and the current cross-sectional study was initiated to examine this issue. Consequently, we defined the relationship between differences in insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU), abdominal obesity, and various measures of lipoprotein metabolism known to increase CHD risk in 52 apparently healthy women of South Asian Indian ancestry. IMGU was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test and abdominal obesity was assessed by measurement of waist circumference (WC), and the population was divided into tertiles on the basis of their SSPG results. Results indicated that although there were significant differences in SSPG, TG, and HDL-C values, there were no differences in age, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, or WC between the highest and lowest tertiles. SSPG concentrations were significantly correlated with both log TG (r = 0.44, P = .001) and HDL-C (r = -0.44, P < .001) concentration, whereas TG and HDL-C concentrations were not significantly related to WC. Furthermore, the relationships between SSPG concentration and TG and HDL-C remained significant when adjusted for age and WC. Finally, a more extensive lipoprotein analysis indicated that the most insulin resistant tertile had higher TG concentrations, lower concentrations of HDL-C and HDL-C subclasses, and smaller and denser low-density lipoprotein particles than the most insulin sensitive tertile, despite the 2 groups not being different in age, BMI, or WC. These results indicate that a highly atherogenic lipoprotein profile seen in South Asian Indian women is significantly associated with insulin resistance independent of differences in WC.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2007.01.020
View details for Web of Science ID 000247542300007
View details for PubMedID 17570249
- Clinical efficacy of two hypocaloric diets that vary in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes - Comparison of moderate fat versus carbohydrate reductions DIABETES CARE 2007; 30 (7): 1877-1879
Serum alanine aminotransferase levels decrease further with carbohydrate than fat restriction in insulin-resistant adults
2007; 30 (5): 1075-1080
Although weight loss interventions have been shown to reduce steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the impact of dietary macronutrient composition is unknown. We assessed the effect on serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations of two hypocaloric diets varying in amounts of carbohydrate and fat in obese insulin-resistant individuals, a population at high risk for NAFLD.Post hoc analysis of ALT concentrations was performed in 52 obese subjects with normal baseline values and insulin resistance, as quantified by the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) test, who were randomized to hypocaloric diets containing either 60% carbohydrate/25% fat or 40% carbohydrate/45% fat (15% protein) for 16 weeks. The primary end point was change in ALT, which was evaluated according to diet, weight loss, SSPG, and daylong insulin concentrations.Although both diets resulted in significant decreases in weight and SSPG, daylong insulin, and serum ALT concentrations, the 40% carbohydrate diet resulted in greater decreases in SSPG (P < 0.04), circulating insulin (P < 0.01), and ALT (9.5 +/- 9.4 vs. 4.2 +/- 8.3 units/l; P < 0.04) concentrations. ALT changes correlated with improvement in insulin sensitivity (P = 0.04) and daylong insulin (P < 0.01). Individuals with ALT concentrations above the proposed upper limits experienced significant declines in ALT, unlike those with lower ALT levels.In a population at high risk for NAFLD, a hypocaloric diet moderately lower in carbohydrate decreased serum ALT concentrations to a greater degree than a higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diet, despite equal weight loss. This may result from a relatively greater decline in daylong insulin concentrations. Further research with histological end points is needed to further explore this finding.
View details for DOI 10.2337/dc06-2169
View details for Web of Science ID 000246291400007
View details for PubMedID 17351275
Heterogeneity in the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese individuals - Effect of differences in insulin sensitivity
ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
2007; 167 (7): 642-648
The possibility that substantial heterogeneity in metabolic abnormalities exists in moderately obese individuals has not been emphasized in studies of the effect of obesity on morbidity and mortality. We tested the hypothesis that risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease vary dramatically in moderately obese individuals as a function of differences in a specific measure of insulin sensitivity.Participants included 211 apparently healthy, obese (body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 30.0-34.9) volunteers for weight loss studies. Main outcome measures included insulin-mediated glucose uptake as quantified by the insulin suppression test and metabolic variables known to increase the risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.Insulin sensitivity varied 6-fold. When compared with the most insulin-sensitive third, the most insulin-resistant third of the population had significantly higher (P<.001) systolic and diastolic blood pressure (139 +/- 20 vs 123 +/- 18 mm Hg, and 83 +/- 3 vs 75 +/- 10 mm Hg, respectively), higher fasting and 2-hour oral glucose load concentrations (103 +/- 11 vs 95 +/- 11 mg/dL [5.7 +/- 0.6 vs 5.3 +/- 0.6 mmol/L], and 139 +/- 30 vs 104 +/- 19 mg/dL [7.7 +/- 1.7 vs 5.8 +/- 1.1 mmol/L], respectively), higher plasma triglyceride concentrations (198 +/- 105 vs 114 +/- 51 mg/dL [2.2 +/- 1.2 vs 1.3 +/- 0.6 mmol/L]), lower plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (41 +/- 9 vs 50 +/- 13 mg/dL [1.1 +/- 0.2 vs 1.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/L]), and more prevalent impaired glucose tolerance (47% vs 2%).The magnitude of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease varies markedly in moderately obese individuals as a function of differences in degree of insulin sensitivity. Because not all moderately obese individuals are at similar risk for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, intensive therapeutic interventions should be addressed to the insulin-resistant subset of this population.
View details for Web of Science ID 000245628700003
View details for PubMedID 17420421
The relationship between insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia in cigarette smokers
DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM
2007; 9 (1): 65-69
Considerable evidence shows that cigarette smokers tend to have the dyslipidemic pattern of high plasma triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, a highly atherogenic lipoprotein profile also typical of the insulin-resistant state even in the absence of cigarette smoking. However, because cigarette smokers are frequently insulin resistant, it is unclear if this dyslipidaemia is secondary to smoking, per se, or simply to the fact that smokers tend to be insulin resistant. The present study was initiated to determine whether this dyslipidaemia prevalent in cigarette smokers and characteristic of insulin-resistant individuals is a function of cigarette smoking or of insulin resistance.As measured using vertical auto profile-II methodology, the lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were compared in 34 cigarette smokers divided into insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant subgroups. The two groups were similar in age and body mass index, differing only in their insulin-mediated glucose uptake as quantified by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration determined during the insulin suppression test.While levels of TG and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were significantly elevated in insulin-resistant cigarette smokers, total cholesterol (C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), narrow-density (ND) LDL-C, intermediate-density lipoprotein-C (IDL-C), HDL-C and non-HDL-C were not different in the two groups. The insulin-resistant smokers also had a preponderance of small, dense LDL particles, while the reverse was true of the insulin-sensitive cigarette smokers.These data suggest that the dyslipidaemia previously attributed to smoking occurs primarily in those smokers who are also insulin resistant.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2006.00574.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000242781700008
View details for PubMedID 17199720
The relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin resistance is altered in smokers
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
2006; 91 (12): 5002-5007
Low plasma adiponectin concentrations in smokers may contribute to the adverse consequences that occur in these individuals.The objective of the study was to define the relationship among smoking, plasma adiponectin concentrations, insulin resistance, and inflammation.This was a cross-sectional, observational study with a 2 x 2 factorial design and a prospective longitudinal arm.The study was conducted at a general clinical research center.Apparently healthy smokers (n = 30) and nonsmokers (n = 30), subdivided into insulin resistant (IR) (n = 15) and insulin sensitive (IS) (n = 15) subgroups participated in the study.Intervention included pioglitazone administration for 3 months to 12 IR smokers and eight IS smokers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUres: Measures included fasting plasma adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and changes in adiponectin after pioglitazone treatment in IR and IS smokers.Being either a smoker or having insulin resistance was independently associated with lower adiponectin concentrations (P = 0.046 and 0.001, respectively). The difference in mean adiponectin concentration between smokers and nonsmokers did not depend on the insulin resistance status of the subjects. No difference was detected in average CRP concentrations between smokers and nonsmokers (P = 0.18) and between IR and IS subjects (P = 0.13). CRP concentrations were unrelated to adiponectin in smokers (r = -0.05, P = 0.78) and nonsmokers (r = 0.03, P = 0.86). Finally, pioglitazone treatment increased adiponectin concentrations in both IR (P < 0.001) and IS smokers (P = 0.001).Plasma adiponectin concentrations are lower in smokers and IR subjects and are unrelated to CRP concentrations. These findings suggest that low levels of adiponectin in smokers may be independent of both insulin resistance and a generalized inflammatory response.
View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2006-0419
View details for Web of Science ID 000242581300045
View details for PubMedID 17003098
Comparison of body mass index versus waist circumference with the metabolic changes that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in insulin-resistant individuals
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2006; 98 (8): 1053-1056
This study compared the abilities of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) to identify resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake and related metabolic abnormalities in 261 apparently healthy patients. Insulin resistance and associated metabolic abnormalities occur more commonly in the overweight/obese, and these changes increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Determining either their BMI or WC can identify patients more likely to experience the adverse effects of excess adiposity on CVD risk, and the relative clinical utility of these measurements is not clear. Therefore, insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified in 261 apparently healthy adults by determining the steady-state plasma glucose concentrations during the insulin suppression test; the higher the concentration, the greater the defect in insulin action. The fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were also measured, and the associations between these variables and the measurements of BMI and WC were determined. The greater the degree of adiposity, the higher the steady-state plasma glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and triglyceride concentrations, irrespective of the index of adiposity used. However, increases in the total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreases in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were only seen in those with higher BMI values. In conclusion, because BMI performed at least as well as WC in identifying differences in insulin sensitivity and multiple CVD risk factors, either estimate can be used to identify patients at increased CVD risk.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.05.025
View details for Web of Science ID 000241427400013
View details for PubMedID 17027570
Effects of moderate variations in macronutrient composition on weight loss and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant adults
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
2006; 84 (4): 813-821
Obese, insulin-resistant persons are at risk of cardiovascular disease. How best to achieve both weight loss and clinical benefit in these persons is controversial, and recent reports questioned the superiority of low-fat diets.We aimed to ascertain the effects of moderate variations in the carbohydrate and fat content of calorie-restricted diets on weight loss and cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant persons.Fifty-seven randomly assigned, insulin-resistant, obese persons completed a 16-wk calorie-restricted diet with 15% of energy as protein and either 60% and 25% or 40% and 45% of energy as carbohydrate and fat, respectively. Baseline and postweight-loss insulin resistance; daylong glucose, insulin, and triacylglycerol concentrations; fasting lipid and lipoprotein concentrations; and markers of endothelial function were quantified.Weight loss with 60% or 40% of energy as carbohydrate (5.7 +/- 0.7 or 6.9 +/- 0.7 kg, respectively) did not differ significantly, and improvement in insulin sensitivity correlated with the amount of weight lost (r = 0.50, P < 0.001). Subjects following the diet with 40% of energy as carbohydrate had greater reductions in daylong insulin and triacylglycerol (P < 0.05) and fasting triacylglycerol (0.53 mmol/L; P = 0.04) concentrations, greater increases in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (0.12 mmol/L; P < 0.01) and LDL particle size (1.82 s; P < 0.05), and a greater decrease in plasma E-selectin (5.6 ng/L; P = 0.02) than did subjects following the diet with 60% of energy as carbohydrate.In obese, insulin-resistant persons, a calorie-restricted diet, moderately lower in carbohydrate and higher in unsaturated fat, is as efficacious as the traditional low-fat diet in producing weight loss and may be more beneficial in reducing markers for cardiovascular disease risk.
View details for Web of Science ID 000241140700019
View details for PubMedID 17023708
Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations are elevated in obese insulin-resistant women and fall with weight loss
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
2006; 91 (5): 1896-1900
Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations are higher in apparently healthy, insulin-resistant (IR) individuals and decrease in response to thiazolidenedione treatment.The objective of the study was to determine whether ADMA concentrations would also fall when insulin sensitivity is enhanced with weight loss in obese individuals. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS/INTERVENTION: Twenty obese women classified as IR or insulin sensitive (IS) on the basis of their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test underwent 12 wk of dietary weight loss.Plasma glucose, insulin, and ADMA were measured at baseline and after weight loss; change in insulin resistance was quantified by repeating the SSPG after the dietary intervention.Although weight loss was similar in the two groups, significant improvements in SSPG, glucose, and insulin concentrations were confined to the IR group. Baseline plasma ADMA concentrations (mean +/- sd) were higher in IR subjects (1.69 +/- 0.44 vs. 1.18 +/- 0.45 micromol/liter, P = 0.02) and decreased to 1.20 +/- 0.22 micromol/liter (P < 0.001) with weight loss. In contrast, ADMA levels did not change with a similar extent of weight loss in the IS group.Plasma ADMA levels are higher in obese, IR women than in equally obese, IS women and decrease in response to weight loss when associated with enhancement of insulin sensitivity.
View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2005-1441
View details for Web of Science ID 000237330000043
View details for PubMedID 16507636
Improvements in insulin resistance with weight loss, in contrast to rosiglitazone, are not associated with changes in plasma adiponectin or adiponectin multimeric complexes
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY
2006; 290 (1): R139-R144
It has been suggested that changes in adiponectin levels may contribute to improved insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant individuals both after weight loss and after treatment with thiazolidinedione compounds. If this is correct, then changes in total circulating adiponectin and/or distribution of its multimeric complexes should coincide with improvements in insulin sensitivity after both interventions. To address this issue, fasting adiponectin concentrations and distribution of adiponectin complexes were measured in plasma samples in 24 insulin-resistant, nondiabetic subjects before and after 3-4 mo of treatment with either rosiglitazone or caloric restriction. The degree of insulin resistance in each group of 12 subjects was equal at baseline and improved to a similar extent ( approximately 30%) after each therapy. Whereas total adiponectin levels increased by nearly threefold and the relative amount of several higher molecular weight adiponectin complexes increased significantly in the rosiglitazone treatment group, there were no discernible changes in adiponectin levels or in the distribution between high or low molecular weight complexes in the weight loss group. These data indicate that, although changes in total adiponectin and several specific adiponectin complexes paralleled improvements in insulin resistance in thiazolidinedione-treated subjects, neither circulating adiponectin concentrations nor multimeric complexes changed in association with enhanced insulin sensitivity after moderate weight loss in 12 insulin-resistant, obese individuals.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpregu.00287.2005
View details for Web of Science ID 000233930900020
View details for PubMedID 16352858
Body mass index and waist circumference both contribute to differences in insulin-mediated glucose disposal in nondiabetic adults
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
2006; 83 (1): 47-51
Overweight and obese individuals are more likely to be insulin resistant and at increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes. Questions remain as to whether waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) most effectively identifies insulin-resistant individuals.This study quantified insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) in 330 apparently healthy volunteers and compared the relation between this value and measurements of WC and BMI.IMGU was quantified via determination of the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin-suppression test. Differences in SSPG concentrations due to variations in WC within a given BMI category, as well as those due to differences in BMI within a given WC classification, were then compared.BMI and WC correlated with each other (r = 0.78, P < 0.001) and equally with SSPG concentrations (r = 0.58 and 0.57, respectively; P < 0.001). When stratified by BMI, abdominally obese subjects within the overweight BMI category had higher SSPG concentrations than did those with a normal WC (P < 0.05). When classified by WC, subjects in the overweight BMI category had greater SSPG concentrations than did subjects in the normal BMI category within the normal WC category (P < 0.01), as did subjects in the obese BMI category in comparison with subjects in the overweight BMI category within the obese WC category (P < 0.01).The more overweight or obese a person, the greater the degree of insulin resistance; differences in adiposity accounted for approximately one-third of the variation in IMGU, irrespective of the index used. Furthermore, there was no difference in the relation between the degree of insulin resistance and either index of adiposity.
View details for Web of Science ID 000234779100009
View details for PubMedID 16400048
Metabolic and ovarian effects of rosiglitazone treatment for 12 weeks in insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome
2006; 21 (1): 109-120
Insulin sensitizers have favourable metabolic and ovarian effects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study examined rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, in PCOS.In a prospective, open-label study, the effects of rosiglitazone on metabolism and ovarian function were examined in 42 non-diabetic women with PCOS classified according to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development criteria and insulin resistance (IR) by steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) > or =10 mmol/l on octreotide-modified insulin suppression testing. Participants were randomized to rosiglitazone 2, 4 or 8 mg daily for 12 weeks. Endpoints included ovulation and menstrual pattern; serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and LH; and changes in IR and glucose-insulin responses on 8 h mixed-meal profile.After rosiglitazone 8 mg daily for 12 weeks, SSPG declined and insulinaemia fell by 46%; lower doses gave lesser effects. Serum LH, total and free testosterone were unchanged; SHBG increased. With rosiglitazone, ovulation occurred in 23/42 women (55%), without significant dose dependence. Both before and during treatment, ovulators on rosiglitazone had lower circulating insulin and free testosterone and higher SHBG than non-ovulators. Testosterone declined only in a subgroup of ovulators with early vaginal bleeding after starting rosiglitazone.Rosiglitazone in insulin-resistant PCOS promoted ovulation and dose-dependently decreased IR and insulinaemia; ovulators had lower circulating insulin and testosterone.
View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/dei289
View details for Web of Science ID 000233846700014
View details for PubMedID 16155076
Body mass index and waist circumference correlate to the same degree with insulin-mediated glucose uptake
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2005; 54 (10): 1323-1328
To compare the relationship between insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) and excess adiposity as determined by measurement of either body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC), IMGU was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration with the insulin suppression test and the relationship between the SSPG concentration and BMI or WC evaluated in a study of 208 healthy individuals (128 women/80 men). The results indicated that BMI and WC were correlated (P < .001) to a similar degree in both men (r = 0.90) and women (r = 0.86). Steady-state plasma glucose and both indices of excess adiposity were also significantly correlated (P < .001) to an essentially identical extent in men (r values of 0.71 vs 0.70) and women (r values of 0.54 vs 0.53). When the population was divided into tertiles on the basis of SSPG concentrations, 96% of those in the most insulin-resistant tertile were identified as being overweight/obese by BMI criteria and 84% as abdominally obese by WC criteria. However, a substantial number of those in the most insulin-sensitive tertile also demonstrated excess adiposity as defined by either BMI (45%) or WC (33%). To summarize, (1) BMI and WC correlate closely within an individual and equally well with IMGU, and (2) BMI is as effective as WC in identifying insulin-resistant individuals.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2005.04.021
View details for Web of Science ID 000232255600009
View details for PubMedID 16154431
Rosiglitazone reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rate and increases insulin clearance in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals
2005; 54 (8): 2447-2452
Compensatory hyperinsulinemia permitting insulin-resistant individuals to maintain normal glucose tolerance is associated with a left shift in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rate (GS-ISR) dose-response curve and decrease in the insulin metabolic clearance rate (I-MCR). To see whether these changes would reverse with improvement in insulin sensitivity, 14 nondiabetic insulin-resistant subjects received rosiglitazone for 12 weeks (4 mg daily for 4 weeks and then 8 mg daily for 8 weeks). Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by measuring the steady-state plasma glucose concentration during the insulin suppression test. GS-ISR and I-MCR were determined during a 240-min graded intravenous glucose infusion. I-MCR was also calculated during the insulin suppression test. After rosiglitazone treatment, insulin sensitivity improved with significant fall in steady-state plasma glucose (means +/- SE from 13.5 +/- 0.62 to 9.8 +/- 1.02 mmol/l, P < 0.001). In response, the integrated GS-ISR decreased by 21% (P < 0.001), with a right shift in the dose-response curve. Calculated I-MCR increased by 34% (P = 0.008) during the insulin suppression test and by 21% (P = 0.03) during the graded glucose infusion. In conclusion, enhanced insulin sensitivity in rosiglitazone-treated nondiabetic insulin-resistant individuals was associated with a shift to the right in the GS-ISR dose-response curve and an increase in I-MCR.
View details for Web of Science ID 000230869500023
View details for PubMedID 16046313
Is there a simple way to identify insulin-resistant individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease?
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2005; 96 (3): 399-404
The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of various routine measures of lipoprotein metabolism to identify patients who were insulin resistant and dyslipidemic, and therefore, at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. For this purpose, insulin resistance was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose concentration during the insulin suppression test in 449 apparently healthy patients. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle diameter and subclass phenotype were measured by gradient gel electrophoresis in 1,135 patients. Pearson's correlation coefficients and receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate measures of lipoprotein metabolism as potential markers of insulin resistance and LDL phenotype. The results indicated that the ratio of the plasma concentrations of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the best predictor of insulin resistance and LDL particle diameter. The optimal triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for predicting insulin resistance and LDL phenotype was 3.5 mg/dl; a value that identified insulin-resistant patients with a sensitivity and specificity comparable to the criteria currently proposed to diagnose the metabolic syndrome. The sensitivity and specificity were even greater for identification of patients with small, dense, LDL particles. In conclusion, a plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration ratio > or =3.5 provides a simple means of identifying insulin-resistant, dyslipidemic patients who are likely to be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.03.085
View details for Web of Science ID 000231057000017
View details for PubMedID 16054467
Prevalence of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome with alternative definitions of impaired fasting glucose
2005; 181 (1): 143-148
We sought to evaluate the effect of the new definition of impaired fasting glucose (IFG = fasting glucose concentration 100-125 mg/dL among people without diabetes) on the ability to identify insulin resistance, as well as the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy individuals. From the Stanford General Clinical Research Center data-base, we used data from 230 men and 260 women aged 19-79 years who had had an insulin suppression test to measure insulin resistance. From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), we used data from 8814 participants aged > or =20 years to estimate the impact of adopting the new IFG criteria on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Among the 490 participants, the prevalence of IFG increased from 5.5% under the old definition of IFG to 20.4% under the new definition. Using the old definition of IFG, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of IFG of identifying an individual as being insulin resistant were 10%, 97%, and 63%, respectively. Using the new definition, these parameters were 33%, 88%, and 61%, respectively. If the new IFG criteria were adopted, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome would increase from 21.8% to 26.3%. The new definition of IFG expands the population with insulin resistance by almost four-fold and could expand the population with the metabolic syndrome by about 20%. The clinical and public health implications of the new IFG definition remain to be elucidated.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.01.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000230215300019
View details for PubMedID 15939066
Effect of rosiglitazone treatment on circulating vascular and inflammatory markers in insulin-resistant subjects.
Diabetes & vascular disease research
2005; 2 (1): 37-41
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) compounds enhance insulin sensitivity and attenuate inflammation. The effect of the TZD compound, rosiglitazone (RSG) on both actions was evaluated in two groups of insulin-resistant subjects with minimal elevations of fasting plasma glucose (PG) concentration: group A (n=15, PG < 7.0 mmol/L) and group B (n=14, PG 7.0-8.3 mmol/L). Insulin action, quantified by the insulin suppression test, improved after three months of treatment in both groups, and concentrations of C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and Eselectin all fell. Significant decreases in L-selectin and P-selectin were confined to group B, and concentrations of interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 did not fall in either group. Significant relationships were not discerned between enhanced insulin sensitivity and related variables and decreases in inflammatory/vascular markers, suggesting that RSG-induced changes in the latter variables in insulin-resistant individuals might be at least partly independent of the effects of the drug on insulin action.
View details for PubMedID 16305071
Comparative effects of rosuvastatin and gomfibrozil on glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism in insulin m resistant, nondiabetic patients with combined dyslipidemia
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2005; 95 (2): 189-193
To evaluate the pharmacologic intervention most likely to decrease cardiovascular disease risk in insulin-resistant patients with combined dyslipidemia, 39 patients with this abnormality were assessed before and after 3 months of treatment with gemfibrozil (1,200 mg/day) or rosuvastatin (40 mg/day) with regard to: (1) steady-state plasma glucose concentration at the end of a 180-minute infusion of octreotide, insulin, and glucose; (2) fasting lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations; and (3) daylong glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in response to breakfast and lunch. The 2 groups were similar at baseline in age, gender, body mass index and in measurements of carbohydrate and lipoprotein metabolism. Neither gemfibrozil nor rosuvastatin enhanced insulin sensitivity or lowered daylong glucose and insulin concentrations in insulin-resistant patients with combined dyslipidemia, but both drugs significantly decreased fasting triglyceride concentrations. However, only rosuvastatin treatment significantly (p <0.05 to <0.001) reduced fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B-100, apolipoprotein C-III, apolipoprotein C-III:B particles, the apolipoprotein B-100:apolipoprotein A-I ratio, and increased apolipoprotein A-I (p <0.05). The degree of improvement in fasting and postprandial remnant lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations was significantly greater (p <0.05) in rosuvastatin-treated patients, and this difference in the relative effectiveness of the drugs was also true of the decrease in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.09.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000226461000006
View details for PubMedID 15642550
Relative effects of insulin resistance and protease inhibitor treatment on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in HIV-infected patients
HIV CLINICAL TRIALS
2004; 5 (6): 383-391
The relationship between insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, HIV infection, and antiretroviral therapy remains unclear, and the atherogenic nature of lipid and lipoprotein profiles in HIV-infected patients has not been fully characterized.We measured plasma lipid and lipoprotein subfractions using Vertical Auto Profile-II methodology and directly measured insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 45 protease inhibitor (PI)-treated and non-PI-treated HIV-infected patients.PI-treated patients had higher total, LDL, and narrow-density LDL cholesterol (p <.05) and a trend toward higher triglycerides, whereas HDL cholesterol and LDL particle characteristics were unrelated to PI use or history of lipodystrophy. Insulin sensitivity did not differ on the basis of PI therapy, but decreased insulin sensitivity was associated with lower HDL and HDL-3 cholesterol (p <.01); elevated triglyceride (p <.01), VLDL 1+2, and VLDL 3a+3b lipoproteins (p <.01); and smaller, denser (more atherogenic) LDL particle characteristics (p <.01). Thus, the lipoprotein abnormality associated with PI use was increased LDL cholesterol, whereas changes in TG and HDL metabolism were associated with insulin resistance, independent of PI use.The variables of PI-treatment, dyslipidemia, lipodsytrophy, and insulin resistance do not always cluster together in HIV-infected patients, which suggests that the metabolic phenotype emerging in treated patients results from a complex interplay of drug effects, immune restoration, and baseline insulin sensitivity.
View details for Web of Science ID 000226800000003
View details for PubMedID 15682351
Impact of degree of obesity on surrogate estimates of insulin resistance
2004; 27 (8): 1998-2002
To evaluate the role of adiposity in the relationship between specific and surrogate estimates of insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) in a large nondiabetic population.Healthy volunteers were classified by BMI into normal weight (<25.0 kg/m(2), n = 208), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2), n = 168), and obese (>or=30.0 kg/m(2), n = 109) groups. We then assessed how differences in BMI affect the correlation between steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration at the end of a 180-min infusion of octreotide, glucose, and insulin (a specific measure of IMGU) and five surrogate estimates: fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and area under the curve for insulin in response to oral glucose (I-AUC).Correlation coefficients (r values) between SSPG and surrogate measures of IMGU were all significant (P < 0.05), but the magnitude varied between BMI groups: normal weight: fasting plasma glucose 0.20, fasting plasma insulin 0.33, HOMA-IR 0.36, QUICKI -0.33, and I-AUC 0.69; overweight: fasting plasma glucose 0.19, fasting plasma insulin 0.55, HOMA-IR 0.55, QUICKI -0.54, and I-AUC 0.72; and obese: fasting plasma glucose 0.40, fasting plasma insulin 0.56, HOMA-IR 0.60, QUICKI -0.61, and I-AUC 0.69.The relationship between direct and surrogate estimates of IMGU varies with BMI, with the weakest correlations seen in the normal-weight group and the strongest in the obese group. In general, I-AUC is the most useful surrogate estimate of IMGU in all weight groups. Fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI provide comparable information about IMGU. Surrogate estimates of IMGU based on fasting insulin and glucose account for no more than 13% of the variability in insulin action in the normal-weight group, 30% in the overweight group, and 37% in the obese group.
View details for Web of Science ID 000223026200023
View details for PubMedID 15277430
Relationship to insulin resistance of the Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria for identification of the metabolic syndrome
2004; 53 (5): 1195-1200
The Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) has published criteria for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of closely related abnormalities related to insulin resistance that increase cardiovascular disease risk. The present analysis was performed to evaluate the ability of these criteria to identify insulin-resistant individuals. The population consisted of 443 healthy volunteers, with measurements of BMI, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol concentrations, and steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration. Insulin resistance was defined as being in the top tertile of SSPG concentrations. Of the population, 20% satisfied ATP III criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Although insulin resistance and the presence of the metabolic syndrome were significantly associated (P < 0.001), the sensitivity and positive predictive value equaled 46% (69 of 149) and 76% (69 of 91), respectively. Being overweight, with high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, or elevated blood pressure, most often resulted in a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, the ATP III criteria do not provide a sensitive approach to identifying insulin-resistant individuals. The individual components vary both in terms of their utility in making a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome and their relationship to insulin resistance, with the obesity and lipid criteria being most useful.
View details for Web of Science ID 000221157300003
View details for PubMedID 15111486
Prevalence of insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors among normal weight, overweight, and obese individuals
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2004; 53 (4): 495-499
Obese individuals tend to be both insulin resistant and at increased risk to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the increased prevalence of obesity in the US population, we thought it important to define the relationship between degree of obesity and insulin-mediated glucose disposal in the population at large, as well as the relationship between obesity, insulin resistance, and CVD risk in these individuals. To do this we quantified insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 465 healthy volunteers by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations at the end of a 180-minute infusion of somatostatin, insulin, and glucose. Adiposity was estimated by body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between BMI and SSPG defined. In addition, a series of CVD risk factors were measured, including blood pressure, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations, before and after 75 g of oral glucose, and fasting plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. The results indicated that SSPG concentration and BMI were significantly correlated (r = 0.54, P >.001), and 36% of individuals in the most insulin-resistant tertile were obese (BMI >/= 30.0 kg/m(2)). However, 16% of those in the most insulin-resistant tertile were of normal weight (BMI < 25.0 kg/m(2)). Although CVD risk factors were accentuated in general with progressive increases in either BMI or SSPG concentration, important differences were noted. Thus, the higher the SSPG concentration, the more the increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, whereas the greater the BMI, the higher the low-density lipoprotein concentration. Furthermore, while CVD risk factors increased significantly with each tertile of insulin resistance, significant differences in CVD risk were only apparent when the lowest BMI tertile was compared with the other 2, with the values in the middle and upper BMI differing from each other. These results show that while BMI and insulin resistance are related, they are not synonymous, and that they make independent and different contributions to increasing CVD risk.
View details for Web of Science ID 000220581500016
View details for PubMedID 15045698
Plasma ghrelin concentrations are decreased in insulin-resistant obese adults relative to equally obese insulin-sensitive controls
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
2004; 89 (4): 1630-1635
Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone that may play a role in body weight regulation, is reduced in states of obesity. Because obesity is associated with insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia, we determined whether these metabolic characteristics were independently associated with suppressed ghrelin concentrations. To investigate this hypothesis, using steady-state plasma glucose concentrations, we identified 20 insulin-resistant (IR) and 20 insulin-sensitive (IS) individuals who were equally obese. The mean body mass indexes were 32.5 +/- 0.4 and 32.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2) for the IR and IS groups, respectively. Fasting insulin concentrations were 19.5 and 7.4 micro U/ml (P < 0.001), respectively. Ghrelin concentrations were suppressed in the IR group (252 +/- 19 pg/ml) relative to the IS group (412 +/- 35 pg/ml; P < 0.001). Ghrelin correlated inversely with both insulin resistance (r = -0.64; P < 0.001) and fasting insulin concentration (r = -0.58; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that both insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia independently predicted low ghrelin concentrations. Our results demonstrate that in obese individuals, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are inversely associated with ghrelin concentrations. Thus, insulin resistance or related metabolic abnormalities may constitute part of a feedback mechanism by which body weight is regulated in humans.
View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2003-031572
View details for Web of Science ID 000220714500018
View details for PubMedID 15070922
Rosuvastatin is efficacious as monotherapy in patients with combined dyslipidemia
53rd Annual Scientific Session of the American-College-of-Cardiology
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2004: 480A–480A
View details for Web of Science ID 000189388502033
Discrimination between obesity and insulin resistance in the relationship with adiponectin
2004; 53 (3): 585-590
Insulin resistance and obesity are both associated with lower plasma adiponectin concentrations. Since insulin resistance and obesity are related, the extent to which the association of adiponectin with insulin resistance is dependent on its relationship with obesity is unclear. To address this issue, fasting plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured in 60 nondiabetic subjects, stratified into four equal groups on the basis of both their degree of adiposity and insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration in response to an infusion of octreotide, glucose, and insulin, and degree of adiposity was assessed by BMI. Subjects were defined as obese (BMI >/=30.0 kg/m(2)) or nonobese (<27.0 kg/m(2)) and as either insulin sensitive (SSPG <100 mg/dl) or insulin resistant (>190 mg/dl). Insulin-resistant subjects had significantly (P<0.001) lower (mean +/- SD) adiponectin concentrations, whether they were obese (17.1 +/- 5.9 micro g/ml) or nonobese (16.3 +/- 7.5 micro g/ml) as compared with either obese, insulin-sensitive (34.3 +/- 13.1 micro g/ml) or nonobese, insulin-sensitive (29.8 +/- 15.3 micro g/ml) subjects. Finally, adiponectin levels in insulin-sensitive subjects varied to a significantly greater degree than in insulin-resistant subjects. These results suggest that adiponectin concentrations are more closely related to differences in insulin-mediated glucose disposal than obesity.
View details for Web of Science ID 000189307500010
View details for PubMedID 14988241
Plasma adiponectin concentrations do not increase in association with moderate weight loss in insulin-resistant, obese women
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2004; 53 (3): 280-283
Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after moderate weight loss in 20 obese women, divided at baseline into insulin-resistant (IR) and insulin-sensitive (IS) subgroups on the basis of their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration at the end of a 180-minute infusion of octreotide, glucose, and insulin. The groups were similar in age and body weight and lost comparable amounts of weight (8 to 9 kg) during the weight loss period. Fasting plasma insulin and SSPG concentrations were significantly higher (P <.001) and adiponectin concentrations somewhat lower (P =.10) in the IR group (P <.001) at baseline. Both SSPG and plasma insulin concentrations decreased in IR subjects (P <.001), but did not change in IS individuals. Adiponectin concentrations did not change with weight loss in either group. Thus, neither weight loss, per se, nor enhanced insulin sensitivity resulted in a change in plasma adiponectin concentrations.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2003.10.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000220333600004
View details for PubMedID 15015137
Effect of metformin treatment on multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2004; 53 (2): 159-164
In light of the conflicting results of the recent United Kingdom Prospective Study (UKPDS), where diabetic patients on metformin monotherapy had lower all-cause mortality and the addition of metformin in sulfonylurea-treated patients was associated with an increased risk of diabetes-related death, we sought to compare the effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of metformin monotherapy with metformin treatment when added to a sulfonylurea compound in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one volunteers with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 16 on dietary therapy and 15 on sulfonylurea monotherapy (SU), were treated with metformin for 12 weeks. Measurements were made of (1) fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), lipid, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) levels, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size; (2) daylong plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid (FFA), triglyceride (TG), and RLP-C concentrations; and (3) fasting levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin). Fasting plasma glucose concentrations decreased to a similar degree after treatment with metformin in both the metformin monotherapy group (12.45 +/- 0.48 v 9.46 +/- 0.47 mmol/L, P <.001) and the combined SU and metformin therapy group (14.09 +/- 0.51 v 10.57 +/- 0.85 mmol/L, P =.001). Fasting plasma lipid concentrations and LDL particle size did not significantly change in either treatment group, whereas fasting RLP-C concentrations were significantly lower in the metformin monotherapy group (0.43 +/- 0.09 v 0.34 +/- 0.07 mmol/L, P =.02). Daylong concentrations of plasma glucose, FFA, TG, and RLP-C were lower to a similar degree in both treatment groups, whereas daylong plasma insulin concentrations were unchanged. Fasting plasma sVCAM-1 levels were significantly lower in both the metformin monotherapy group (484 +/- 19 v 446 +/- 18 ng/mL, P =.02) and the combined SU and metformin therapy group (496 +/- 29 v 456 +/- 31 ng/mL, P =.05), whereas fasting plasma sICAM-1 and sE-selectin levels were essentially unchanged. Administration of metformin, either as monotherapy or in combination with a sulfonylurea drug, improved glycemic control and led to a decrease in several CVD risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.metabol.2003.07.020
View details for Web of Science ID 000188797400007
View details for PubMedID 14767866
Obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease
RECENT PROGRESS IN HORMONE RESEARCH, VOL 59
2004; 59: 207-223
The ability of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal varies more than six-fold in apparently healthy individuals. The one third of the population that is most insulin resistant is at greatly increased risk to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary disease, and certain forms of cancer. Between 25-35% of the variability in insulin action is related to being overweight. The importance of the adverse effects of excess adiposity is apparent in light of the evidence that more than half of the adult population in the United States is classified as being overweight/obese, as defined by a body mass index greater than 25.0 kg/m(2). The current epidemic of overweight/obesity is most-likely related to a combination of increased caloric intake and decreased energy expenditure. In either instance, the fact that CVD risk is increased as individuals gain weight emphasizes the gravity of the health care dilemma posed by the explosive increase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity in the population at large. Given the enormity of the problem, it is necessary to differentiate between the CVD risk related to obesity per se, as distinct from the fact that the prevalence of insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are increased in overweight/obese individuals. Although the majority of individuals in the general population that can be considered insulin resistant are also overweight/obese, not all overweight/obese persons are insulin resistant. Furthermore, the cluster of abnormalities associated with insulin resistance - namely, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated plasma C-reactive protein concentrations -- is limited to the subset of overweight/obese individuals that are also insulin resistant. Of greater clinical relevance is the fact that significant improvement in these metabolic abnormalities following weight loss is seen only in the subset of overweight/obese individuals that are also insulin resistant. In view of the large number of overweight/obese subjects at potential risk to be insulin resistant/hyperinsulinemic (and at increased CVD risk), and the difficulty in achieving weight loss, it seems essential to identify those overweight/obese individuals who are also insulin resistant and will benefit the most from weight loss, then target this population for the most-intensive efforts to bring about weight loss.
View details for Web of Science ID 000189490300010
View details for PubMedID 14749503
Use of metabolic markers to identify overweight individuals who are insulin resistant
ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
2003; 139 (10): 802-809
Insulin resistance is more common in overweight individuals and is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Given the current epidemic of obesity and the fact that lifestyle interventions, such as weight loss and exercise, decrease insulin resistance, a relatively simple means to identify overweight individuals who are insulin resistant would be clinically useful.To evaluate the ability of metabolic markers associated with insulin resistance and increased risk for cardiovascular disease to identify the subset of overweight individuals who are insulin resistant.Cross-sectional study.General clinical research center.258 nondiabetic, overweight volunteers.Body mass index; fasting glucose, insulin, lipid and lipoprotein concentrations; and insulin-mediated glucose disposal as quantified by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration during the insulin suppression test. Overweight was defined as body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or greater, and insulin resistance was defined as being in the top tertile of steady-state plasma glucose concentrations. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the best markers of insulin resistance; optimal cut-points were identified and analyzed for predictive power.Plasma triglyceride concentration, ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and insulin concentration were the most useful metabolic markers in identifying insulin-resistant individuals. The optimal cut-points were 1.47 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) for triglyceride, 1.8 in SI units (3.0 in traditional units) for the triglyceride-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and 109 pmol/L for insulin. Respective sensitivity and specificity for these cut-points were 67%, 64%, and 57% and 71%, 68%, and 85%. Their ability to identify insulin-resistant individuals was similar to the ability of the criteria proposed by the Adult Treatment Panel III to diagnose the metabolic syndrome (sensitivity, 52%, and specificity, 85%).Three relatively simple metabolic markers can help identify overweight individuals who are sufficiently insulin resistant to be at increased risk for various adverse outcomes. In the absence of a standardized insulin assay, we suggest that the most practical approach to identify overweight individuals who are insulin resistant is to use the cut-points for either triglyceride concentration or the triglyceride-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration ratio.
View details for Web of Science ID 000186663500002
View details for PubMedID 14623617
Lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral antihyperglycaemic agents
DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM
2003; 5 (5): 333-337
To compare lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) treated with a sulphonylurea (SU) compound only, metformin (MET) only, or combined SU + MET.The study population consisted of 62 patients with type 2 DM, whose antihyperglycaemic treatment program had been stable for at least 3 months, divided into three groups: 26 patients in the SU group, 17 patients in the MET group and 19 patients in the SU + MET group. None of the patients were taking lipid-lowering drugs. Fasting venous blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and remnant lipoprotein-cholesterol (RLP-C) as well as for determination of LDL particle diameter.The three groups were similar in terms of age, gender, body mass index and fasting plasma glucose concentrations. Total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 for trend) in those treated with SU + MET as compared with the other two groups. However, there were no significant differences between the three groups in their plasma concentrations of TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or RLP-C; furthermore, the proportion of individuals within each treatment group with small LDL particle diameter was also not different.The lipoprotein profile of patients with type 2 DM, matched for level of fasting hyperglycaemia, was similar irrespective of treatment with SU alone, MET alone or SU + MET. Thus, we could not identify any changes in lipoprotein metabolism that could account for differences in risk of CVD as a function of treatment.
View details for Web of Science ID 000185112800010
View details for PubMedID 12940871
Usefulness of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in identifying patients with insulin resistance
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2003; 92 (5): 606-610
In this study, a specific measurement of insulin-mediated glucose disposal was used in 490 healthy volunteers to classify subjects as being insulin resistant. We then made standard measurements of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations to see how useful they would be as surrogate markers of insulin resistance.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S0002-9149(03)00735-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000185060700024
View details for PubMedID 12943888
Methods for quantifying insulin resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2003; 52 (7): 858-861
Various indirect indices have been used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals to assess insulin resistance, but the validity of these measures has not been rigorously assessed by comparison with physiologic methods of quantifying insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). We directly measured IMGU in 50 nondiabetic HIV-positive subjects by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration in response to a 3-hour continuous infusion of insulin, glucose, and somatostatin. Because steady-state plasma insulin concentrations were similar (approximately 60 microU/mL) in all subjects, the SSPG concentrations provided direct assessments of insulin action. Relationships between SSPG levels and various surrogate measures of IMGU derived from the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were determined. The indirect measure of IMGU most closely related to SSPG concentrations was the total integrated insulin response to a 75-g glucose load (r=0.78, P<.01), accounting for approximately two thirds of the variability in SSPG (r2=0.61). Other indirect measures of IMGU, including the homeostasis assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were also significantly related to SSPG values, but had lower magnitudes of correlation (r=0.43 to 0.61), thereby possessing limited ability to predict SSPG variability (r2=0.18 to 0.37). In conclusion, indirect measures of IMGU need to be applied with caution when evaluating insulin action in HIV-infected patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S0026-0495(03)00056-8
View details for Web of Science ID 000184197500010
View details for PubMedID 12870161
- Multiple lipoprotein abnormalities associated with insulin resistance in healthy volunteers are identified by the vertical auto profile-II methodology CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 2003; 49 (6): 1014-1017
Rosiglitazone in insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effects on ovarianfunction and metabolism
OXFORD UNIV PRESS. 2003: 43–43
View details for Web of Science ID 000208316000118
Differentiation between obesity and insulin resistance in the association with C-reactive protein
2002; 106 (23): 2908-2912
Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are increased in obese and/or hyperinsulinemic individuals. The goal of this study was to determine if the relation between insulin resistance and CRP was independent of obesity.Plasma CRP concentrations were measured before and after 3 months of calorie restriction in 38 healthy, obese women. Steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during a 180-minute infusion of octreotide, glucose, and insulin was used to stratify participants into insulin-resistant (IR, n=20) or insulin-sensitive (n=18) groups, similar in terms of mean age (46+/-2 versus 44+/-2 years), body mass index (32.0+/-0.4 versus 31.4+/-0.3 kg/m2), and waist circumference (96+/-2 versus 95+/-2 cm). Mean CRP (0.39+/-0.08 versus 0.12+/-0.03 mg/dL, P=0.003) concentrations were higher in the IR group, as were day-long plasma glucose and insulin responses (P<0.001). There was a significant correlation at baseline between CRP and day-long plasma integrated insulin response (r=0.47, P=0.001) but not between CRP and body mass index (r=0.14) or waist circumference (r=0.10). Weight loss was similar in the two groups (8.7+/-0.9 versus 8.4+/-0.8 kg) but was associated with significant (P<0.001) decreases in SSPG and CRP concentrations in the IR group only. Regression analysis showed that SSPG and day-long plasma insulin response were the only significant predictors of CRP concentration.CRP concentrations are elevated predominantly in obese individuals who are also insulin resistant and fall in parallel with weight loss-associated improvements in insulin resistance. The relation between CRP concentrations and insulin resistance is independent of obesity.
View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000041046.32962.86
View details for Web of Science ID 000179698600011
View details for PubMedID 12460870
Comparison in patients with type 2 diabetes of fibric acid versus hepatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl- coenzyme a reductase inhibitor treatment of combined dyslipidemia
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2002; 51 (10): 1355-1359
Patients with combined dyslipidemia are at greatly increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The threat of rhabdomyolysis with dual pharmacologic treatment (hepatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitors plus fibric acid derivatives) has tended to limit therapy in patients with combined dyslipidemia to a choice of one or the other drug. Judgment of the potential benefits of either agent has rarely taken into account their effect on the postprandial accumulation of highly atherogenic, triglyceride (TG)-rich, remnant lipoprotein particles (RLPs). Because this information could be of substantial clinical relevance, we addressed this question in patients with type 2 diabetes and combined dyslipidemia by comparing the effects of gemfibrozil versus HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) on both fasting and postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. For this purpose, 22 patients with type 2 diabetes and combined dyslipidemia were randomized to treatment with either a statin or gemfibrozil for 3 months. Glycemic control was similar in both groups at baseline and did not change in response to treatment. Baseline lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were also similar in the 2 treatment groups, but the responses to therapy were quite different. Statin-treated patients had a statistically significant decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration (156 mg/dL to 96 mg/dL, P <.001), whereas there was no change in patients treated with gemfibrozil. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease (P <.05) in plasma TG concentrations (116 mg/dL) in gemfibrozil-treated individuals, without any change in subjects treated with statins. However, the decrease in total integrated postprandial plasma RLP response measured hourly from 8 AM to 4 PM was not different in patients treated with either gemfibrozil (-43%) or statins (-34%). These results indicate that statin treatment, in addition to its beneficial effect on hypercholesterolemia, was as effective as gemfibrozil in reducing postprandial accumulation of triglyceride-rich, atherogenic RLPs in patients with type 2 diabetes and combined dyslipidemia. As such, the clinical utility of statin monotherapy in the treatment of combined dyslipidemia may have been underestimated.
View details for DOI 10.1053/meta.2002.34713
View details for Web of Science ID 000178587200021
View details for PubMedID 12370858
Assessment of insulin resistance in patients with hepatitis C that are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
53rd Annual Meeting of the Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases (AASLD)
WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2002: 545A–545A
View details for Web of Science ID 000178301701512
Relationship between obesity, insulin resistance, and coronary heart disease risk
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
2002; 40 (5): 937-943
The study goals were to: 1) define the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance in 314 nondiabetic, normotensive, healthy volunteers; and 2) determine the relationship between each of these two variables and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors.The importance of obesity as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension is well-recognized, but its role as a CHD risk factor in nondiabetic, normotensive individuals is less well established.Insulin resistance was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the last 30 min of a 180-min infusion of octreotide, glucose, and insulin. In addition, nine CHD risk factors: age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and glucose and insulin responses to a 75-g oral glucose load were measured in the volunteers.The BMI and the SSPG concentration were significantly related (r = 0.465, p < 0.001). The BMI and SSPG were both independently associated with each of the nine risk factors. In multiple regression analysis, SSPG concentration added modest to substantial power to BMI with regard to the prediction of DBP, HDL cholesterol and TG concentrations, and the glucose and insulin responses.Obesity and insulin resistance are both powerful predictors of CHD risk, and insulin resistance at any given degree of obesity accentuates the risk of CHD and type 2 diabetes.
View details for Web of Science ID 000177765200014
View details for PubMedID 12225719
Metformin treatment lowers asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2002; 51 (7): 843-846
This study was initiated to see if plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations decreased in hyperglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes following metformin treatment, either as monotherapy or following its addition to sulfonylurea-treated patients. Fasting plasma glucose, dimethylarginine, and L-arginine concentrations were measured before and 3 months after the administration of a maximally effective dose of metformin to 31 patients with type 2 diabetes in poor glycemic control (fasting plasma concentrations > 9.7 mmol/L), while being treated with either diet (n = 16) or a maximal amount of a sulfonylurea compound (n = 15). Fasting plasma glucose concentration (mean +/- SEM) decreased to a similar degree (P <.01) in patients treated with either metformin alone (12.4 +/- 0.5 to 9.5 +/- 0.5 mmol/L) or when it was added to a sulfonylurea compound (14.1 +/- 0.5 to 10.6 +/- 0.9 mmol/L). The improvement in glycemic control was associated with similar decreases (P <.01) in ADMA concentrations in metformin (1.65 +/- 0.21 to 1.18 +/- 0.13 micromol/L) and sulfonylurea + metformin-treated patients (1.75 +/- 0.13 to 1.19 +/- 0.08 micromol/L). Plasma L-arginine concentrations were similar in the 2 groups at baseline and did not change in response to metformin. Thus, metformin treatment was associated with a favorable increase in the plasma L-arginine/ADMA ratio. These results provide the first evidence that plasma ADMA concentrations decrease in association with improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes and demonstrate that the magnitude of the change in metformin-treated patients was similar, irrespective of whether it was used as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylurea treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1053/meta.2002.33349
View details for Web of Science ID 000176578200007
View details for PubMedID 12077728
Relationship between fasting and day-long plasma glucose concentrations in diet-treated patients with type 2 diabetes
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2002; 51 (4): 457-459
To define the relationship between fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, plasma glucose concentrations were determined before and after breakfast and lunch in 42 diet-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Breakfast was consumed at 8:00 AM and lunch at 12:00 PM, with blood drawn hourly from 8:00 AM to 4:00 PM for measurement of plasma glucose concentration. The results demonstrated highly significant correlation coefficients (r) between fasting plasma glucose concentration and any individual hourly value (r values varying between 0.86 and 0.91). Furthermore, fasting plasma glucose concentrations and the total integrated glucose response areas, post-breakfast (8:00 AM to 12:00 PM), post-lunch (12:00 PM to 4:00 PM), and day-long (8:00 AM to 4:00 PM) were also highly correlated, with r values of 0.95, 0.91, and 0.94, respectively. These results demonstrate that fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations are almost perfectly correlated in diet-treated patients with type 2 diabetes, and that determination of fasting plasma glucose concentrations in these individuals provides an excellent estimate of degree of glycemic control.
View details for DOI 10.1053/meta.2002.31325
View details for Web of Science ID 000174820900011
View details for PubMedID 11912553
Relationship between insulin resistance and an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor
JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
2002; 287 (11): 1420-1426
Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several cardiovascular risk factors are associated with reduced sensitivity to insulin, but elevated ADMA concentrations have not been fully linked to the metabolic syndrome.To evaluate the relationship between insulin sensitivity and plasma ADMA concentrations, and to determine whether a pharmacological treatment that increases insulin sensitivity would also modulate ADMA concentrations.Cross-sectional study, containing a nonrandomized controlled trial component, of 64 healthy volunteers without diabetes (42 women, 22 men; 48 with normal blood pressure and 16 with hypertension), which was conducted at a university medical center between October 2000 and July 2001.Rosiglitazone (4 mg/d for 4 weeks and then 4 mg twice daily for 8 weeks), an insulin-sensitizing agent, was given to 7 insulin-resistant subjects with hypertension. These subjects were studied before and after 12-week treatment.Insulin sensitivity measured by the insulin suppression test, and fasting plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and ADMA concentrations.Plasma ADMA concentrations were positively correlated with impairment of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in nondiabetic, normotensive subjects (r = 0.73; P<.001). Consistent with the metabolic syndrome, ADMA levels were also positively correlated with fasting triglyceride levels (r = 0.52; P<.001) but not with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (r = 0.19; P =.20). Plasma ADMA concentrations increased in insulin-resistant subjects independent of hypertension. Pharmacological treatment improved insulin sensitivity and reduced mean (SD) plasma ADMA concentrations from 1.50 (0.30) to 1.05 (0.33) micromol/L (P =.001).A significant relationship exists between insulin resistance and plasma concentrations of ADMA. Pharmacological intervention with rosiglitazone enhanced insulin sensitivity and reduced ADMA levels. Increases in plasma ADMA concentrations may contribute to the endothelial dysfunction observed in insulin-resistant patients.
View details for Web of Science ID 000174465000024
View details for PubMedID 11903029
Evaluation of the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index as an estimate of insulin sensitivity in humans
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2002; 51 (2): 235-237
The goal of this study was to compare estimates of insulin resistance generated by the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) with a direct measure of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in healthy, nondiabetic volunteers. For this purpose, the results of measurements of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in 490 nondiabetic, healthy subjects were used to compute several surrogate estimates of insulin resistance, and these values were compared with a direct measure of insulin-mediated glucose disposal. The results of this analysis showed that estimates of insulin resistance derived from use of QUICKI were significantly correlated (r = -.60, P <.001) with direct measures of insulin-mediated glucose in the 490 subjects studied. It was also noted that QUICKI estimates of insulin resistance were highly correlated with fasting insulin concentrations (r = -.98) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, r = -.99). On the other hand, the correlation between all 3 of the surrogate methods for estimating insulin resistance and the direct assessment of insulin-mediated glucose disposal was relatively weak, i.e., r =.61, r =.64, and r = -.60) for fasting insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI, respectively. The results of these comparisons do not provide support for the superiority of QUICKI over other commonly used surrogate measures of insulin resistance based upon use of fasting insulin concentration or equations utilizing fasting insulin and glucose concentration. Furthermore, none of the 3 surrogate estimates can account for more than approximately 40% of the variability of the difference in insulin-mediated glucose disposal measured directly in 490 healthy, nondiabetic volunteers.
View details for DOI 10.1053/meta.2002.28970
View details for Web of Science ID 000173738800017
View details for PubMedID 11833054
- Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY 2001; 88 (10): 1201-?
Effect of insulin resistance on postprandial elevations of remnant lipoprotein concentrations in postmenopausal women
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
2001; 74 (5): 592-595
Questions remain as to why postmenopausal women are at a higher risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) than are premenopausal women. Studies have shown that plasma concentrations of remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) are elevated in patients with CAD and that increases in plasma RLP concentrations may be related to variations in insulin-mediated glucose disposal.We sought to evaluate the possibility that postprandial accumulation of plasma RLPs will be accentuated in insulin-resistant, postmenopausal women.Postmenopausal women were divided into insulin-sensitive (n = 15) and insulin-resistant (n = 15) groups according to their steady state plasma glucose concentrations in response to a 180-min infusion of octreotide, insulin, and glucose. Plasma insulin, triacylglycerol, and RLP-cholesterol concentrations were measured either hourly (insulin) or every 2 h (triacylglycerol and RLP cholesterol) for 8 h, before and after breakfast (0800) and lunch (1200).By selection, insulin-resistant women had higher steady state plasma glucose concentrations than did insulin-sensitive women (10.8 +/- 0.5 compared with 4.1 +/- 5 mmol/L, respectively; P < 0.001), associated with higher fasting triacylglycerol (1.58 +/- 0.04 compared with 1.00 +/- 0.03 mmol/L; P = 0.01) and lower HDL-cholesterol (1.06 +/- 0.08 compared with 1.34 +/- 0.05; P = 0.01) concentrations. In addition, measurements of daylong concentrations of insulin, triacylglycerol, and RLP cholesterol were also significantly greater in insulin-resistant than in insulin-sensitive women (P < 0.001).Postprandial accumulation of RLPs is accentuated in insulin-resistant, postmenopausal women. This may contribute to the increased risk of CAD in these individuals.
View details for Web of Science ID 000171779500009
View details for PubMedID 11684526
Improvement in insulin sensitivity followed by ovulation and pregnancy in a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome who was treated with rosiglitazone
83rd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine-Society
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2001: 1057–59
To determine the metabolic and reproductive effectiveness of rosiglitazone in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Case report.Academic clinical practice and General Clinical Research Center.A 25-year-old woman with PCOS.Rosiglitazone maleate, 4 mg daily for 5 months until conception.Insulin sensitivity by steady-state plasma glucose technique; serum androgens, progesterone, and hCG; and pelvic ultrasound images.Rosiglitazone treatment for 5 months improved insulin sensitivity, lowered serum free testosterone, and resulted in spontaneous ovulation and conception.Rosiglitazone is a promising insulin sensitizer for treatment of PCOS. Clinical trials are warranted.
View details for Web of Science ID 000172083900034
View details for PubMedID 11704136
Insulin resistance as a predictor of age-related diseases
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
2001; 86 (8): 3574-3578
The current study was initiated to evaluate the ability of insulin resistance to predict a variety of age-related diseases. Baseline measurements of insulin resistance and related variables were made between 1988-1995 in 208 apparently healthy, nonobese (body mass index < 30 kg/m2) individuals, who were then evaluated 4-11 yr later (mean +/- SEM = 6.3 +/- 0.2 yr) for the appearance of the following age-related diseases: hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. The effect of insulin resistance on the development of clinical events was evaluated by dividing the study group into tertiles of insulin resistance at baseline and comparing the events in these 3 groups. Clinical endpoints (n = 40) were identified in 37 individuals (18%) of those evaluated, including 12 with hypertension, 3 with hypertension + type 2 diabetes, 9 with cancer, 7 with coronary heart disease, 4 with stroke, and 2 with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-eight out of the total 40 clinical events were seen in 25 individuals (36%) in the most insulin-resistant tertile, with the other 12 occurring in the group with an intermediate degree of insulin resistance. Furthermore, insulin resistance was an independent predictor of all clinical events, using both multiple logistic regression and Cox's proportional hazards analysis. The fact that an age-related clinical event developed in approximately 1 out of 3 healthy individuals in the upper tertile of insulin resistance at baseline, followed for an average of 6 yr, whereas no clinical events were observed in the most insulin-sensitive tertile, should serve as a strong stimulus to further efforts to define the role of insulin resistance in the genesis of age-related diseases.
View details for Web of Science ID 000170430200017
View details for PubMedID 11502781
Metabolic changes following sibutramine-assisted weight loss in obese individuals: Role of plasma free fatty acids in the insulin resistance of obesity
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2001; 50 (7): 819-824
The relationship between insulin-mediated glucose disposal and daylong free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations before and after sibutramine-assisted weight loss was investigated in 24 healthy, normotensive, nondiabetic, obese women (body mass index [BMI] >30.0 kg/m(2)). The 24 volunteers were defined as being insulin-resistant (IR) or insulin-sensitive (IS) on the basis of their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration in response to a 180-minute continuous intravenous infusion of octreotide, insulin, and glucose. The mean (+/- SEM) SSPG concentrations were significantly higher (P <.001) in the IR group (219 +/- 7 v 69 +/- 6 mg/dL) at baseline. The IR group also had significantly higher plasma glucose (P =.002), insulin (P <.001), and FFA (P =.02) concentrations measured at hourly intervals from 8 AM to 4 PM, before and after breakfast (8 AM) and lunch (noon). Weight loss in response to an energy-restricted diet for 4 months and sibutramine (15 mg/d) was comparable in the 2 experimental groups (8.6 +/- 1.3 v 7.9 +/- 1.4 kg). SSPG concentrations decreased significantly (P <.001) following weight loss (219 +/- 7 to 144 +/- mg/dL) in the IR group, but there was no change in the SSPG of the IS group (69 +/- 6 to 73 +/- 7 mg/dL. The improvement in insulin sensitivity in the IR group after weight loss was associated with a significant decline in daylong plasma glucose (P >.001) and insulin (P =.02) concentrations, without a weight-loss-associated decrease in daylong plasma FFA responses. In contrast, there was no significant change in plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations following weight loss in the IS group. These results indicate that daylong FFA concentrations vary substantially in obese individuals as a function of whether they are IR or IS. Furthermore the observation that the IR group was more insulin-sensitive after weight loss, associated with lower daylong insulin concentrations in the absence of a significant decrease in circulating FFA concentrations, suggests that resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in obese individuals cannot be entirely due to high FFA levels.
View details for DOI 10.1053/meta.2001.24220
View details for Web of Science ID 000169829600014
View details for PubMedID 11436188
Relationship between insulin resistance, weight loss, and coronary heart disease risk in healthy, obese women
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2001; 50 (7): 795-800
Several popular books have recently been published stating that being insulin-resistant favors weight gain and/or prevents weight loss. Because this view seems to have gained widespread support in the general population, we thought it important to perform the current study testing the hypothesis that differences in insulin-mediated glucose disposal do not affect weight loss in response to calorie-restricted diets. For this purpose, we studied the change in weight and risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in healthy women volunteers, defined as being obese on the basis of a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30.0 kg/m(2). The insulin suppression test was used to stratify obese women at baseline into insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive subgroups on the basis of their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration at the end of a 180-minute infusion of octreotide, exogenous insulin, and glucose. They were then instructed on a calorie-restricted diet plus sibutraminine (15 mg/day) for a total period of 4 months. Baseline measurements also included determination of fasting lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and hourly (8 AM to 4 PM) determinations of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations before and after breakfast and lunch. Twenty-four women completed the 4-month period of calorie restriction: 13 classified as insulin-resistant (SSPG = 219 +/- 7 mg/dL) and 11 as insulin-sensitive (SSPG = 69 +/- 6 mg/dL). The insulin-resistant group also had higher (P =.03) plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations and a higher ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration (P =.02) at baseline. Both groups lost a significant amount of weight during the study, and there was no difference between the weight loss in the insulin-resistant (8.6 +/- 1.3 kg) and insulin-sensitive (7.9 +/- 1.4 kg) groups. Weight loss in the insulin-resistant group was also associated with a significant decrease in SSPG concentration (219 +/- 7 to 144 +/- 14 mg/dL), associated with significantly lower fasting TG concentrations (P <.001) and day-long concentrations of plasma glucose and insulin (P <.005). None of these variables changed in the insulin-sensitive group. These results indicate that: (1) CHD risk factors in obese women vary as a function of being insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive; (2) dramatic variations in insulin-mediated glucose disposal do not modulate weight loss in response to calorie-restricted diets, and (3) weight loss is effective in reducing CHD risk in insulin-resistant, obese women. Given these data, it seems obvious that attempts to reduce CHD risk factors by weight loss should focus on obese individuals who are also insulin-resistant.
View details for DOI 10.1053/meta.2001.24210
View details for Web of Science ID 000169829600010
View details for PubMedID 11436184
Insulin resistance, dietary cholesterol, and cholesterol concentration in postmenopausal women
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2001; 50 (5): 594-597
Questions remain concerning the effect of variations in cholesterol intake on plasma cholesterol concentration, as well as on the role of factors modulating the metabolic impact of this dietary intervention. To define the impact of wide variations in dietary cholesterol intake on plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, as well as testing the hypothesis that resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal would accentuate the increase in plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in response to a given increment in dietary cholesterol intake, we performed a prospective, randomized study comparing diets varying in cholesterol content in 65 healthy, postmenopausal women, 31 defined as insulin-resistant and 34 as insulin-sensitive. The changes in total and LDL cholesterol in response to increments in dietary cholesterol of up to approximately 800 mg/day were modest in magnitude, without evidence of a statistically significant diet-induced increase in cholesterol concentration, or of any difference in the responses of insulin-resistant as compared with insulin-sensitive women. These results indicate that relatively large increments in dietary cholesterol intake had little effect on total or LDL cholesterol concentrations in healthy, postmenopausal women, irrespective of whether they were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive.
View details for Web of Science ID 000168444100014
View details for PubMedID 11319723
Metformin attenuates plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine and monocyte adhesion in type 2 diabetes
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2000: 232–32
View details for Web of Science ID 000090072301125
Relation between insulin resistance and plasma concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides, carotenoids, and tocopherols
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
2000; 72 (3): 776-779
It is not known whether total circulating lipid hydroperoxides are increased in insulin-resistant individuals and whether this correlates with depletion of liposoluble antioxidant vitamins that are consumed during lipid peroxidation.The goal of this study was to define the relation between resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal and plasma concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and liposoluble antioxidant vitamins in healthy volunteers.Insulin-mediated glucose disposal was determined in 36 healthy, nondiabetic volunteers by measuring their steady-state plasma insulin (SSPI) and glucose (SSPG) concentrations in response to a 180-min constant infusion of octreotide, insulin, and glucose. In addition, fasting plasma concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and liposoluble antioxidant vitamins were determined by using the FOX 2 assay and liquid chromatography.Statistically significant direct relations were observed between SSPG and mean arterial blood pressure (r = 0.44, P: = 0.008) and plasma lipid hydroperoxide concentrations (r = 0.42, P: = 0.01), whereas significant inverse correlations were found between SSPG and alpha-carotene (r = -0.58, P: = 0.0002), beta-carotene (r = -0.49, P: = 0.004), lutein (r = -0.35, P: = 0.04), alpha-tocopherol (r = -0. 36, P: = 0.04), and delta-tocopherol (r = -0.45, P: = 0.007).Variations in insulin-mediated glucose disposal in healthy individuals are significantly related to plasma concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and liposoluble antioxidant vitamins. These findings suggest that total plasma lipid peroxidation is increased in insulin-resistant individuals at an early, preclinical stage, ie, well before the development of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes.
View details for Web of Science ID 000089021300018
View details for PubMedID 10966898
Carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia: An insight into the link between plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
2000; 85 (9): 3085-3088
This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that endogenous hypertriglyceridemia results from a defect in the ability of insulin to inhibit the release of very low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride (TG) from the liver. To accomplish this goal, plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid (FFA), and TG concentrations were compared in 12 healthy volunteers, in response to diets containing either 40% or 60% of total calories as carbohydrate (CHO). The protein content of the two diets was similar (15% of calories), and the fat content varied inversely with the amount of CHO (45% or 25%). The diets were consumed in random order, and measurements were made of plasma glucose, insulin, FFA, and TG concentrations at the end of each dietary period, fasting, and at hourly intervals following breakfast and lunch. The results indicated that the 60% CHO diet resulted in higher fasting plasma TG concentrations associated with higher day-long plasma insulin and TG concentrations, and lower FFA concentrations. These results do not support the view that hypertriglyceridemia is secondary to a failure of insulin to inhibit hepatic TG secretion.
View details for Web of Science ID 000089166200016
View details for PubMedID 10999790
The relationship between plasma glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose, LDL oxidation, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in healthy volunteers
2000; 152 (1): 203-208
This study was initiated to describe the relationships between plasma glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose and the concentrations of partially oxidized low density lipoprotein (poxLDL) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in 23 healthy, non-diabetic volunteers. Results demonstrated that plasma glucose (r=0.65, P<0.002) and insulin (r=0.58, P<0.007) responses to a 75-g oral glucose challenge were highly correlated to poxLDL concentrations. Plasma glucose (r=0.63, P<0.002) and insulin (r=0.68, P<0.001) concentrations also significantly correlated with sICAM-1 concentrations. Furthermore, concentrations of poxLDL and sICAM-1 were significantly related (r=0.55, P<0.001). These relationships remained statistically significant when adjusted for differences in age, gender, body mass index, and lipoprotein concentrations. These results provide further evidence that circulating LDL particles are more highly oxidized in insulin resistant states, and demonstrate the presence of an in vivo relationship between insulin resistance, LDL oxidized state, and sICAM-1 concentrations. These results help explain why soluble forms of adhesion molecules are increased in clinical conditions characterized by insulin resistance, and support the possibility that LDL oxidizability is increased in insulin resistant subjects, and that the increase in sICAM-1 results from stimulation of cellular adhesion molecules by more highly oxidized LDL.
View details for Web of Science ID 000089447700024
View details for PubMedID 10996356
Plasma insulin concentration is more tightly linked to plasma leptin concentration than is the body mass index
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2000; 49 (4): 544-547
This study tested the hypothesis that the integrated plasma insulin response to oral glucose is a more sensitive predictor of the fasting plasma leptin concentration than the body mass index (BMI) or waist to hip ratio (WHR). For this purpose, we determined the fasting plasma leptin concentration and plasma insulin response to a 75-g oral glucose challenge in 76 healthy female subjects, with a BMI of 19.1 to 36.6 kg/m2 and a WHR of 0.57 to 1.1. The results demonstrated that fasting plasma leptin concentrations were significantly correlated with both the BMI (r = .64, P < .001) and the plasma insulin response to glucose (r = .61, P < .001), but not with the WHR (r = .27). Since the BMI and the insulin response were also significantly related (r = .34, P = .003), multivariate analysis was performed to determine if the BMI and insulin response were independent determinants of the fasting leptin concentration. This analysis indicated that both the BMI and insulin response were significantly related to plasma leptin (P < .001). To pursue this issue further, the population was divided into tertiles on the basis of the (1) plasma leptin concentration, (2) BMI, and (3) integrated insulin response. The two variables that were most closely linked to each other were the leptin concentration and insulin response. In contrast, the BMI was relatively easily disassociated from the other two variables. These results indicate that while both the plasma insulin response to glucose and the BMI are significantly associated with the fasting plasma leptin concentration, the plasma insulin response appears more closely associated with the plasma leptin concentration.
View details for Web of Science ID 000086444800023
View details for PubMedID 10778883
The relationship between glucose disposal in response to physiological hyperinsulinemia and basal glucose and free fatty acid concentrations in healthy volunteers
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
2000; 85 (3): 1251-1254
This study was initiated to see if defects in the ability of physiological hyperinsulinemia (approximately 60 microU/mL) to stimulate glucose uptake in healthy, nondiabetic volunteers are associated with increases in concentrations of plasma glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) when measured at basal insulin concentrations (approximately 10 microU/mL). We recruited 22 volunteers (12 women and 10 men) for these studies, with a (mean +/- SEM) body mass index of 24.8 +/- 0.5 kg/m2. Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal during physiological hyperinsulinemia was determined by suppressing endogenous insulin and determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) and steady-state plasma insulin (SSPI) concentrations at the end of a 3-h infusion, period during which glucose (267 mg/m2 x min) and insulin (32 mU/m2 x min) were infused at a constant rate. Glucose, insulin and FFA concentrations were also measured in response to infusion rates of glucose (50 mg/m2 x min) and insulin (6 mU/m2 x min). The SSPI concentration (mean +/- SEM) during physiological hyperinsulinemia was 64 +/- 3 microU/mL), in contrast to 12 +/- 0.4 microU/mL during the basal insulin study. The results demonstrated a significant relationship between SSPG concentration in response to physiological hyperinsulinemia (SSPG60) and SSPG(Basal) (r = 0.57, P < 0.01) and FFA(Basal) (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Furthermore, FFA(Basal) and SSPG(Basal) were significantly correlated (r = 0.47, P < 0.05). Comparison of the seven most insulin-resistant and seven most insulin sensitive individuals (SSPG60 values of 209 +/- 16 vs. 64 +/- 8 mg/dL) revealed that the insulin-resistant group also had significantly higher SSPG(Basal) (105 +/- 5 vs. 78 +/- 7 mg/dL, P < 0.01) and FFA(Basal) (394 +/- 91 vs. 104 +/- 41, P < 0.02) concentrations. However, random fasting plasma glucose and FFA concentrations of the two groups were not different. The results presented demonstrate that individual differences in the ability of elevated insulin concentrations to stimulate muscle glucose disposal are significantly correlated with variations in insulin regulation of plasma glucose and FFA concentrations at basal insulin concentrations.
View details for Web of Science ID 000088387000057
View details for PubMedID 10720071
Roles of insulin resistance and obesity in regulation of plasma insulin concentrations
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
2000; 278 (3): E501-E508
Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were determined in response to graded infusions of glucose, and insulin secretion rates were calculated over each sampling period. Measurements were also made of insulin clearance, resistance to insulin-mediated glucose, uptake, and the plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations at hourly intervals from 8:00 AM to 4:00 PM in response to breakfast and lunch. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in obese women in response to the graded intravenous glucose infusion, associated with a 40% (P < 0.005) greater insulin secretory response. Degree of insulin resistance correlated positively (P < 0.05) with the increase in insulin secretion rate in both nonobese (r = 0.52) and obese (r = 0.58) groups and inversely (P < 0.05) with the decrease in insulin clearance in obese (r = -0.46) and nonobese (r = -0.39) individuals. Weight loss was associated with significantly lower plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations in response to graded glucose infusions and in day-long insulin concentrations. Neither insulin resistance nor the insulin secretory response changed after weight loss, whereas there was a significant increase in the rate of insulin clearance during the glucose infusion. It is concluded that 1) obesity is associated with a shift to the left in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretory dose-response curve as well as a decrease in insulin clearance and 2) changes in insulin secretion and insulin clearance in obese women are more a function of insulin resistance than obesity.
View details for Web of Science ID 000085819900017
View details for PubMedID 10710505
Insulin regulation of plasma free fatty acid concentrations is abnormal in healthy subjects with muscle insulin resistance
METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
2000; 49 (2): 151-154
This study evaluated the ability of insulin to regulate free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations in healthy nondiabetic subjects selected to be either insulin-resistant or -sensitive on the basis of insulin-mediated glucose disposal by muscle. Comparisons of steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG), insulin (SSPI), and FFA concentrations were made at the end of 3 infusion periods: (1) under basal insulin conditions (approximately 10 microU/mL), (2) in response to isoproterenol-induced stimulation of lipolysis at the same basal insulin concentration, and (3) following inhibition of isoproterenol-induced lipolysis by a 2-fold increase in the insulin concentration. The results showed that steady-state FFA concentrations were significantly higher under basal conditions (360 +/- 73 v 158 +/- 36 microEq/L, P = .02), in response to isoproterenol-induced lipolysis (809 +/- 92 v433 +/- 65 microEq/L, P = .005), and following insulin inhibition of isoproterenol-induced lipolysis (309 +/- 65 v 159 +/- 37 microEq/L, P = .06). These differences were found despite the fact that SSPG concentrations were also higher in insulin-resistant individuals during all 3 infusion periods. These results demonstrate that the ability of insulin to regulate plasma FFA concentrations is impaired in healthy subjects with muscle insulin resistance, indicating that insulin-resistant individuals share defects in the ability of insulin to stimulate muscle glucose disposal and to inhibit adipose tissue lipolysis.
View details for Web of Science ID 000085340800002
View details for PubMedID 10690936
Relationship between several surrogate estimates of insulin resistance and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 490 healthy nondiabetic volunteers
2000; 23 (2): 171-175
The goal of this study was to define the relationship between a quantitative measure of the ability of physiological hyperinsulinemia to stimulate glucose disposal and several surrogate measures of insulin resistance.Insulin-mediated glucose disposal was quantified in 490 healthy nondiabetic volunteers by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration in response to a continuous infusion of somatostatin, insulin, and glucose. Because the steady-state plasma insulin concentration was similar in all subjects during the infusion (approximately 60 microU/ml), the SSPG concentration provided a direct estimate of insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Relationships between this specific measure of insulin resistance and several surrogate estimates of insulin resistance based on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were then defined.The surrogate measure of insulin resistance most closely related to the direct determination of insulin action was the total integrated insulin response to a 75-g oral glucose challenge with correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.67 to 0.79. Fasting plasma insulin concentration was significantly correlated (r = 0.61, P<0.001) to the specific estimate of insulin action. Two other surrogate estimates of insulin action, the ratio of fasting glucose-to-fasting insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, were no more closely related to SSPG than the fasting plasma insulin concentration.The total integrated insulin response to oral glucose is the best surrogate measure of insulin resistance, accounting for approximately two-thirds of the variability in insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Fasting insulin concentration accounted for approximately one-third of the variability in insulin-mediated glucose disposal, and the use of fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations to calculate more sophisticated estimates of insulin resistance appears to offer little advantage over the fasting plasma insulin concentration. Given the large number of nondiabetic individuals in this study, the results should have general application in population-based studies, providing evidence for both the utility and limitation of the use of these surrogate measures.
View details for Web of Science ID 000085037300008
View details for PubMedID 10868826
High carbohydrate diets, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and coronary heart disease risk
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2000; 85 (1): 45-48
In this study we compared the effects of variations in dietary fat and carbohydrate (CHO) content on concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in 8, healthy, nondiabetic volunteers. The diets contained, as a percentage of total calories, either 60% CHO, 25% fat, and 15% protein, or 40% CHO, 45% fat, and 15% protein. They were consumed in random order for 2 weeks, with a 2-week washout period in between. Measurements were obtained at the end of each dietary period of plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein (RLP) cholesterol, and RLP triglyceride concentrations, both after an overnight fast and throughout an 8-hour period (8 A.M. to 4 P.M.) in response to breakfast and lunch. The 60% CHO diet resulted in higher (mean +/- SEM) fasting plasma triglycerides (206 +/- 50 vs 113 +/- 19 mg/dl, p = 0.03), RLP cholesterol (15 +/- 6 vs 6 +/- 1 mg/dl, p = 0.005), RLP triglyceride (56 +/- 25 vs 16 +/- 3 mg/dl, p = 0.003), and lower HDL cholesterol (39 +/- 3 vs 44 +/- 3 mg/dl, p = 0.003) concentrations, without any change in LDL cholesterol concentration. Furthermore, the changes in plasma triglyceride, RLP cholesterol, and RLP triglyceride persisted throughout the day in response to breakfast and lunch. These results indicate that the effects of lowfat diets on lipoprotein metabolism are not limited to higher fasting plasma triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations, but also include a persistent elevation in RLPs. Given the atherogenic potential of these changes in lipoprotein metabolism, it seems appropriate to question the wisdom of recommending that all Americans should replace dietary saturated fat with CHO.
View details for Web of Science ID 000084555000009
View details for PubMedID 11078235
Fasting remnant lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations are elevated in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant, female volunteers
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
1999; 84 (11): 3903-3906
This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that plasma concentrations of remnant lipoproteins would be higher after an overnight fast in insulin-resistant compared to insulin-sensitive volunteers. Forty-three healthy nonobese women were studied, divided into insulin-resistant (n = 21) and insulin-sensitive (n = 22) groups on the basis of their steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration at the end of a 180-min infusion of octreotide acetate, insulin, and glucose. Under these conditions, steady state plasma insulin concentrations are similar in all subjects (approximately 60 microU/mL), and the higher the SSPG concentrations, the more insulin resistant the individual. By selection, mean (+/-SEM) SSPG concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the insulin-resistant group (210 +/- 7 vs. 78 +/- 3 mg/dL). In addition, the insulin-resistant group had higher triglycerides (198 +/- 27 vs. 101 +/- 12 mg/dL; P < 0.005) and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (48 +/- 4 vs. 60 +/- 4 mg/dL; P < 0.05) concentrations. Finally, insulin resistance was associated with higher remnant lipoprotein particle concentrations of cholesterol (7.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.3; P < 0.005) and triglycerides (22.2 +/- 3.4 vs. 8.5 +/- 1.0; P < 0.001). All of these differences were seen despite the fact that the two groups were similar in terms of age and body mass index. These results identify additional abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism that may contribute to the increased risk of coronary heart disease seen in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic subjects (syndrome X).
View details for Web of Science ID 000083555800007
View details for PubMedID 10566626
Comparison of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration in insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive healthy women
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
1999; 19 (11): 2818-2821
The primary goal of this investigation was to see whether plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations varied as a function of differences in insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 2 groups of healthy women matched for every other variable that might play a role in regulation of PAI-1. For this purpose, we recruited 32 healthy women, divided on the basis of their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test into an insulin-resistant (SSPG=216+/-12 mg/dL, n=16) and an insulin-sensitive (94+/-6 mg/dL, n=16) group. PAI-1 antigen concentrations were significantly higher (26+/-4 versus 14+/-3 ng/mL, P<0.02) in the insulin-resistant group. In addition, fasting plasma insulin (18+/-3 versus 11+/-2 microU/mL, P<0.02) and triglyceride (160+/-19 versus 93+/-10 mg/dL, P<0.001) concentrations were higher in the insulin-resistant individuals, whereas HDL concentrations were lower (44+/-3 versus 58+/-3 mg/dL, P<0.005). However, the 2 groups were essentially identical in terms of age, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index (BMI), ratio of waist-to-hip girth, and blood pressure. When the experimental population was considered as 1 group, there were statistically significant correlations between PAI-1 antigen and the following variables: adjusting for differences in age and BMI, SSPG (r=0.56, P<0.001); triglyceride (r=0.39, P<0.05); and HDL cholesterol (r=-0. 65, P<0.001) concentrations. Finally, multiple regression analysis revealed the major determinants of PAI-1 to be insulin resistance, or insulin concentration, and HDL cholesterol. These results: 1) demonstrate that PAI-1 concentrations are higher in healthy, insulin-resistant women as compared with insulin-sensitive individuals, independent of differences in BMI or ratio of waist-to-hip girth; and 2) provide another mechanism by which insulin-resistant individuals are at increased thrombotic cardiovascular risk.
View details for Web of Science ID 000083725700035
View details for PubMedID 10559032
Plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers are not related to differences in insulin-mediated glucose disposal
1999; 146 (1): 175-178
This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that plasma homocysteine concentrations are increased in insulin resistant individuals. For this purpose, the relationship between insulin resistance, as assessed by the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test, and fasting plasma homocysteine concentration was defined in 55 healthy volunteers. The results indicated that homocysteine concentrations did not vary as a function of SSPG concentrations (r = 0.02, P = 0.88). Furthermore, mean (+/- S.E.M.) plasma homocysteine concentrations were similar (8.2+/-0.4 vs. 8.7+/-0.7 micromol/l) in individuals classified as being either insulin sensitive (SSPG <100 mg/dl) or insulin resistant (SSPG >180 mg/dl). On the other hand, SSPG concentration was significantly correlated with fasting plasma insulin (r = 0.58, P<0.001), triglycerides (r = 0.34, P<0.05), and HDL-cholesterol (r = -0.36, P = 0.04) concentrations. These data strongly suggest that the increased risk of atherosclerosis associated with increased plasma homocysteine concentrations is unrelated to insulin resistance and/or the metabolic abnormalities associated with it.
View details for Web of Science ID 000082257900022
View details for PubMedID 10487501
Mononuclear cell adherence to cultured endothelium is enhanced by hypertension and insulin resistance in healthy nondiabetic volunteers
1999; 100 (9): 940-943
This study was initiated to compare the adherence to cultured endothelial cells of mononuclear cells isolated from normotensive and hypertensive individuals.Mononuclear cell binding to endothelium was greater in patients with hypertension (32+/-1 versus 25+/-2; P<0.001) than in normal volunteers. There was a significant relationship (r=0.42, P<0. 01) between mononuclear cell binding and mean arterial pressure, independent of differences in age, sex, and body mass index. A significant relationship also existed between insulin resistance (estimated by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration during the insulin suppression test) and mononuclear cell binding in both the normotensive (r=0.86, P<0.001) and hypertensive (r=0.74, P<0. 001) groups. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis demonstrated an independent relationship (P<0.001) between mononuclear cell binding and both steady-state plasma glucose and hypertensive status.These results indicate that both hypertension and insulin resistance lead to changes in mononuclear cells that increase their adherence to cultured endothelial cells.
View details for Web of Science ID 000082353000009
View details for PubMedID 10468524
Can changes in plasma insulin concentration explain the variability in leptin response to weight loss in obese women with normal glucose tolerance?
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
1999; 84 (3): 869-872
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the fall in circulating insulin concentration associated with moderate weight loss determines the associated decrease in plasma leptin concentration. For this purpose, 12 healthy, nondiabetic, obese women were studied before and after an average weight loss of 9.5 kg (11.2% of initial body weight). Plasma leptin concentrations fell from a mean (+/-SE) value of 35 +/- 3 to 17 +/- 2 ng/mL (P < 0.001) in association with the loss of weight. However, there was no correlation between the decline in leptin concentration and the associated fall in weight, body mass index, fat mass, or percent body fat. Furthermore, no correlation was seen among changes in fasting plasma glucose or insulin concentrations, the 8-h integrated plasma glucose response to breakfast and lunch, or the estimate of insulin-mediated glucose disposal. The only measured variable that correlated with the fall in plasma leptin concentration (r = 0.78; P < 0.005) was the decline in the 8-h integrated plasma insulin response after weight loss (from 304 +/- 44 to 232 +/- 36 microU/8 h x mL; P < 0.001). Finally, multivariate regression analysis, using various estimates of degree of obesity, insulin resistance, integrated glucose response, and integrated insulin response as dependent variables, indicated that only the insulin response was independently related to the decrease in leptin concentration (P = 0.035). The fall in integrated insulin response accounted for 66% of the variance in leptin concentrations after weight loss, and this was true no matter what the estimate of change in degree of obesity. In addition to offering an explanation for the variance in postweight loss leptin concentrations, these data provide further evidence of the importance of ambient insulin concentrations in the regulation of plasma leptin concentrations.
View details for Web of Science ID 000079147100008
View details for PubMedID 10084563
Differences in insulin resistance do not predict weight loss in response to hypocaloric diets in healthy obese women
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
1999; 84 (2): 578-581
The current study was initiated to determine whether insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia affected the ability of obese individuals to lose weight in response to hypocaloric diets. Thirty-one obese, nondiabetic women, with values for body mass index ranging from 28.0-35.0 kg/m2, volunteered for this program. Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal was assessed by determining their steady state plasma insulin and glucose concentration during the last 30 min of a 180-min infusion of somatostatin, insulin, and glucose. The total integrated insulin response to breakfast and lunch was also determined. After the baseline measurements, volunteers were placed on a hypocaloric diet calculated to lead to a minimum weekly loss of 1% of ideal body weight. Individuals who met the criteria after 30 days of dieting were defined as weight loss successes (n = 20) and continued on the diet for another 30 days. Individuals not meeting the criteria were designated as weight loss failures (n = 12) and were discharged from the study. There was a mean (+/-SEM) weight loss at 60 days of 9.2 +/- 0.4 kg in the 20 individuals defined as weight loss successes, but there was no correlation between weight loss and either steady state plasma glucose or the total integrated insulin response (r < 0.1; P > 0.83). Furthermore, using the same criteria to define insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance as those for therapeutic successes, the therapeutic failures comprised six insulin-sensitive and five insulin-resistant subjects. In summary, insulin-mediated glucose disposal varied widely in nondiabetic, obese women, and there was no relationship between baseline insulin resistance or total integrated insulin response and weight loss. It is concluded that the ability to lose weight on a calorie-restricted diet over a short time period does not vary in obese, healthy women as a function of insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia.
View details for Web of Science ID 000078464000031
View details for PubMedID 10022419
Adherence of mononuclear cells to endothelium is increased in patients with hypertension
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 1998: 376–76
View details for Web of Science ID 000076594402000
Further evidence for a central role of adipose tissue in the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin
1998; 21 (8): 1301-1305
To evaluate further the relative roles played by liver and adipose tissue in the therapeutic response to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes.A total of 11 patients with diet-treated type 2 diabetes were given metformin for approximately 3 months. Measurements were made before and after treatment of 1) fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations; 2) glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) rates measured overnight with 3-[3H]glucose; and 3) plasma FFA concentrations during a 195-min infusion period at relatively low insulin (approximately 12-24 microU/ml) concentrations.Mean +/- SEM fasting plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower (175 +/- 11 vs. 224 +/- 15 mg/dl; P < 0.01) after treatment with metformin. Mean +/- SEM insulin concentrations measured from 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. did not change with treatment. However, both glucose and FFA concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.01) when measured over the same time period, and the decreases in plasma FFA and glucose concentration were highly correlated (r = 0.81; P = 0.03). Overnight glucose turnover studies indicated that neither Ra (hepatic glucose production [HGP]) nor Rd changed significantly with treatment in association with metformin treatment. Since plasma glucose concentration was much lower after metformin treatment, the overnight glucose metabolic clearance rate (MCR) was significantly lower (P < 0.01). Finally, the ability of insulin to inhibit isoproterenol-stimulated increases in plasma FFA concentration was enhanced in metformin-treated patients (P < 0.05).Metformin treatment was associated with significantly lower fasting plasma glucose concentrations and lower day-long plasma glucose and FFA concentrations. Although overnight HGP was unchanged after treatment with metformin, the overnight glucose MCR was significantly increased, and the antilipolytic activity of insulin was also enhanced. Given these findings, it is suggested that at least part of the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin is due to a decrease in release of FFA from adipose tissue, leading to lower circulating FFA concentrations and an increase in glucose uptake.
View details for Web of Science ID 000075177900017
View details for PubMedID 9702437
Relationship between insulin resistance and partially oxidized LDL particles in healthy, nondiabetic volunteers
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
1998; 18 (5): 762-767
This study was performed in 36 healthy volunteers to define the relationship between plasma concentrations of partially oxidized low density lipoprotein (poxLDL), plasma glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose, and steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations after a 180-minute infusion of somatostatin, insulin, and glucose. The concentration of poxLDL was estimated by determining the amount of conjugated dienes formed during in vitro LDL oxidation in the presence or absence of alanine. Under these conditions, the greater the in vitro antioxidant effect of alanine, the lower the amount of poxLDL that was present in plasma. The results demonstrated that plasma poxLDL concentration was significantly correlated with plasma glucose (r=.53, P<.001) and insulin (r=.43, P<.01) responses, SSPG concentrations (r=.53, P<.001), and plasma triglyceride (r=.42, P<.01) and HDL cholesterol (r=-.50, P<.002) concentrations. Furthermore, these relationships persisted when the data were corrected for differences in age, sex, body mass index, and the ratio of waist to hip girth. Of note, there was no correlation between poxLDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. When SSPG was entered along with age, sex, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio in a multiple regression model, SSPG alone was a significant prediction of poxLDL (r-=.37, P<.02). The addition of plasma glucose and insulin responses and triglyceride and HDL cholesterol concentrations increased the r2 to only .47. These results show that the amount of poxLDL in plasma is significantly correlated with insulin resistance (ie, SSPG) and its metabolic consequences.
View details for Web of Science ID 000073770100012
View details for PubMedID 9598835
Plasma leptin concentrations do not appear to decrease insulin-mediated glucose disposal or glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in women with normal glucose tolerance
1998; 47 (2): 244-247
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma leptin concentrations contributed to the pathophysiology of NIDDM by decreasing both insulin-mediated glucose disposal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The study was performed in 60 women with normal oral glucose tolerance. Differences in insulin-mediated glucose disposal were determined by comparing the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations attained at the end of a 180-min constant infusion of somatostatin, glucose, and insulin, while comparisons of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were based on the incremental increase in insulin concentration 30 min after an oral glucose challenge (deltaIns) as compared with the fasting value. The results showed that the higher the fasting plasma leptin concentration, the greater the degree of insulin resistance (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis indicated that the relationship between leptin and SSPG was independent of age and degree of obesity as estimated by BMI. However, since the total integrated plasma insulin response was highly correlated with both SSPG (r = 0.80, P < 0.001) and leptin (r = 0.55, P < 0.01), multiple regression analysis was repeated, adding total insulin response to the model. When this was done, the significant relationship between leptin and SSPG disappeared, whereas both BMI (P < 0.03) and insulin response (P < 0.001) were correlated with SSPG. A significant relationship between leptin and deltaIns was seen, but it was a positive one (r = 0.31, P < 0.02), not a negative one as would be expected if circulating levels of leptin inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis could only confirm an independent relationship between deltaIns and SSPG, but not between deltaIns and leptin. The results of these studies do not support the view that circulating leptin has a primary effect on either insulin action or secretion in normal female volunteers. It seems more likely that chronic hyperinsulinemia in insulin-resistant individuals acts to increase adipose tissue leptin synthesis and secretion, leading to higher ambient leptin concentrations.
View details for Web of Science ID 000071689400014
View details for PubMedID 9519720
Results of a placebo-controlled study of the metabolic effects of the addition of metaformin to sulfonylurea-treated patients - Evidence for a central role of adipose tissue
1997; 20 (12): 1863-1869
To define the metabolic effects of metformin in the treatment of NIDDM and to evaluate potential mechanisms for its ability to improve glycemic control.Sulfonylurea-treated patients, with inadequate glycemic control, were treated with metformin in either a placebo-controlled or open fashion. Measurements were made of 1) fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations; 2) glucose appearance and disappearance rates measured overnight with 3-[3H]glucose; and 3) plasma FFA concentrations during a 45-min infusion period at relatively low (approximately 60 pmol/l) insulin concentrations.Mean +/- SE hourly plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations were similar before and after treatment in the placebo group. In contrast, mean hourly plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.005) after metformin treatment in both the placebo-controlled and open-label groups (-3.9 +/- 1.0 and -4.4 +/- 0.8 mmol/l, respectively). Similarly, day-long hourly FFA levels were lower (P < 0.005) following metformin in the placebo-controlled and open-label groups (-87 +/- 35 and -136 +/- 31 mumol/l, respectively). Plasma insulin concentrations did not change with treatment in any group. Overnight glucose turnover studies indicated that neither the rate of glucose appearance (hepatic glucose production) or glucose disappearance changed significantly with treatment in the placebo or metformin groups. Because plasma glucose concentration was much lower after metformin treatment, overnight glucose metabolic clearance rate was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in this group. Finally, plasma FFA concentrations in response to a low-dosage insulin infusion (5 mU.m-2.min-1) were significantly lower after metformin as compared with the placebo-treated group (P < 0.001).Metformin treatment was associated with significantly lower day-long plasma glucose and FFA concentrations. Although overnight hepatic glucose production was unchanged following treatment with metformin, the overnight glucose metabolic clearance rate significantly increased. Given these findings, it is suggested that at least part of the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin is due to an increase in glucose uptake, secondary to a decrease in release of FFA from adipose tissue, and lower circulating FFA concentrations.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997YH35900012
View details for PubMedID 9405908
Insulin resistance does not change the ratio of proinsulin to insulin in normal volunteers
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
1997; 82 (10): 3221-3224
Plasma glucose, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations were measured before and after an oral glucose challenge in 57 nondiabetic individuals. In addition, insulin-mediated glucose disposal was estimated by determining the steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration after a 180-min iv infusion of somatostatin, insulin, and glucose. The plasma glucose concentration after oral glucose administration was used to divide the population into those with normal (n = 36) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 21), and the 36 normal glucose-tolerant individuals were further subdivided into an insulin-sensitive (SSPG, < 9.0 mmol/L; n = 15) and an insulin-resistant (SSPG, > 10 mmol/L; n = 21) group. Fasting and postglucose load insulin concentrations were similar in the normal glucose-tolerant insulin-resistant and IGT groups, but were significantly higher (P < 0.02- < 0.001) than those in normal glucose-tolerant insulin-sensitive individuals. Fasting proinsulin concentrations were also higher (P < 0.002) in the normal glucose-tolerant insulin-resistant (15.1 +/- 1.5 pmol/L) and IGT (15.8 +/- 1.8 pmol/L) groups compared to those in normal glucose-tolerant insulin-sensitive volunteers (9.3 +/- 1.2 pmol/ L). However, the ratio of fasting proinsulin to insulin was identical in all three groups (0.12). When the three groups were combined, significant relationships (P < 0.001) existed between SSPG (degree of insulin resistance) and both fasting proinsulin (r = 0.59) and insulin (r = 0.66) concentrations, but not with the ratio of proinsulin to insulin (r = 0.03). These results demonstrate that fasting proinsulin and insulin concentrations are increased in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic subjects, and the more insulin resistant, the greater the increase. In contrast, the ratio of proinsulin to insulin did not vary as a function of insulin resistance. Thus, neither insulin resistance nor the need to secrete more insulin to maintain glucose tolerance necessarily leads to abnormal insulin processing by the beta-cell.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997YA00200008
View details for PubMedID 9329342
Adherence of mononuclear cells to endothelium in vitro is increased in patients with NIDDM
1997; 20 (9): 1462-1465
To compare the binding to cultured endothelial cells of mononuclear cells isolated from healthy volunteers and patients with NIDDM.Mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy volunteers (n = 11) and patients with NIDDM (n = 14) and incubated with ECV 304 cells, a human umbilical endothelial cell-derived transformed cell line. Following a period of incubation, the adherence of mononuclear cells to endothelial cells was determined.Adherence of mononuclear cells from patients with NIDDM was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that of cells isolated from the healthy volunteers, and this difference persisted when adjusted for age, sex, and degree of obesity. Mononuclear cell binding to ECV 304 cells correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.52, P < 0.01), insulin (r = 0.51, P < 0.01), triglyceride (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), and VLDL (r = 0.54, P < 0.01) and HDL cholesterol (r = -0.45, P < 0.05) levels, but not with either total or LDL cholesterol levels or blood pressure.Since the adherence of mononuclear cells to the endothelium represents the earliest step in atherogenesis, the observation that mononuclear cells from patients with NIDDM bind more avidly to cultured endothelial cells may help explain why accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in patients with NIDDM. The metabolic abnormality, or abnormalities, present in patients with NIDDM that is responsible for the enhanced adhesiveness of mononuclear cells requires further examination.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XT09100023
View details for PubMedID 9283798