Felipe D. Perez is a Clinical Associate Professor who is board-certified as an Anesthesiologist and as a Pediatric Anesthesiologist. He is the Assistant Dean for Diversity in Medical Student Education in the Office of Diversity in Medical Education (ODME) at Stanford University School of Medicine. His parents emigrated from Mexico and was raised in an immigrant working class neighborhood of Long Beach, CA. After receiving his Bachelors at Stanford he dedicated three years to public health policy where he worked for local, state, and national levels of government. He worked for Congressman Henry Waxman, Assemblymember Hector De La Torre, and Senator Alex Padilla, on laws such as preventing homelessness and having restaurants post caloric information on their menus. He returned to Stanford University for his Medical Degree and stayed for residency, pediatric anesthesiology fellowship, and was hired on as faculty at both the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital and Stanford Hospital. He served as the Chair of the Legislative Affairs Committee for the California Society of Anesthesiologists (CSA) 2021 to 2023. He is involved with leading diversity efforts locally and nationally. He co-chairs his clinical department’s Anesthesiology Diversity Council, he is a steering committee member of Leadership Education in Advancing Diversity (LEAD), he founded CSA's Justice, Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (JEDI) Committee, and is the communication chair for the national Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) DEI Committee.

Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Anesthesiology
  • Diversity and Inclusion
  • Patient Advocacy
  • Patient Safety
  • Resident Education
  • Healthcare Simulation Education
  • Community Outreach
  • Health Equity
  • Medical Student Education
  • Pediatric Anesthesia

Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • Young Physician of the Year, National Hispanic Medical Association (March 2022)
  • Ray E. Helfer Award for Educational Innovation: Leadership Education in Advancing Diversity (LEAD), Academic Pediatric Association (April 2022)
  • First Place Poster Presentation: Community Outreach by Anesthesiology Department, California Society of Anesthesiologists (CSA) Annual Meeting (April 2022)
  • Faculty Fellow $20,000 Grant, Office of Diversity in Medical Education (ODME) (Aug 2020)
  • Anesthesiology Department Junior Faculty Highlight, Stanford Dept. of Anesthesiology (Aug 2020)
  • Faculty of The Year, Pediatric Anesthesiology Divsion (July 2020)
  • Excellence Through Diversity: Leadership Education in Advancing Diversity, Stanford University President’s Awards (March 2020)
  • Leadership Development $20,000 Faculty Award, Stanford Medical School Hispanic Center of Excellence (September 2019)
  • Safety Champion Winner, Pediatric Anesthesiology Division (July 2019)
  • Certificate of Recognition for Community Service, CA State Assembly Resolution (April 2019)
  • Anesthesiology Fellow of the Month, Stanford Dept. of Anesthesiology (March 2019)
  • Frank H Sanquist Recognition Award for supporting the overall mission of the department, Stanford Dept. of Anesthesiology (June 2018)
  • The G. Brant Walton Resident Award for Teaching Excellence, Stanford Dept. of Anesthesiology (June 2018)
  • Top Quality Improvement Project- Paper Chart, 2nd Annual Resident Safety Council Symposium (May 2017)
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, AOA (May 2017)
  • Gold Humanism and Excellence in Teaching Award, Gold Foundation (May 2015)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Assistant Dean for Diversity in Medical Student Education, Office of Diversity in Medical Education (ODME), Stanford University School of Medicine (2021 - Present)
  • Founder and Co-Lead, Stanford Anesthesiology Diversity Council (ADC) (2015 - Present)
  • Chair of Legislative Affairs Committee, California Society of Anesthesiology (CSA) (2021 - Present)
  • Steering Committee Member, Leadership Education in Advancing Diversity (LEAD) Program Stanford School of Medicine (2019 - Present)
  • Communications Director, National Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) Committee on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (2019 - Present)
  • Site Director-Community Outreach, Stanford Anesthesiology Dept and Project Lead The Way Partnership (2019 - Present)
  • ASA/CSA Stanford Resident Faculty Advisor, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) (2019 - Present)
  • Represent California Anesthesiologists at the California Medical Association (CMA), California Society of Anesthesiologist (CSA) (2020 - 2021)
  • Lead Quality Improvement Project Manager, Stanford Anesthesiology Resident Program (2017 - 2018)
  • Vice-Chair of Communications, Resident Safety Council (2016 - 2017)

Professional Education

  • Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (2014) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Pediatric Anesthesia (2019)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Anesthesia (2019)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Anesthesiology Fellowships (2019) CA
  • Residency: Stanford University Anesthesiology Residency (2018) CA
  • Internship: Santa Clara Valley Medical Center Dept of Medicine (2015) CA
  • MD, Stanford University School of Medicine, Health Services Research Focus (2014)
  • BA, Stanford University, Human Biology, Minor in Psychology (2006)

Community and International Work

  • Project Lead The Way Partnership


    Encourage High School Students Into STEM Careers

    Partnering Organization(s)

    CSA, 3 High Schools, PLTW

    Populations Served

    Santa Clara County



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


Graduate and Fellowship Programs

  • Pediatric Anesthesia (Fellowship Program)

All Publications

  • Association of Race and Ethnicity with Pediatric Postoperative Pain Outcomes. Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities Rosenbloom, J. M., De Souza, E., Perez, F. D., Xie, J., Suarez-Nieto, M. V., Wang, E., Anderson, T. A. 2022


    INTRODUCTION: Inequitable variability in healthcare practice negatively affects patient outcomes. Children of color may receive different analgesic medications in the perioperative period, resulting in different outcomes.METHODS: Medical records of children 0 to≤18years old from May 2014 to August 2019 were reviewed. The exposure was racial or ethnic groups: Asian, Black, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, and White non-Hispanic (reference).PRIMARY OUTCOME: post-anesthesia care unit mean pain score.SECONDARY OUTCOMES: inpatient mean pain score; opioid, antiemetic, and antipruritic administration in the post-anesthesia care unit and inpatient ward. The association of race or ethnicity with outcomes was modeled using multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for confounders and covariates.RESULTS: Twenty-nine thousand six hundred fourteen cases are included. In the post-anesthesia care unit, Black, Hispanic, and Pacific Islander children had no significant difference in the odds of receiving opioids or having moderate-severe pain as compared to White non-Hispanic patients; Asian children had lower odds of receiving opioids and lower odds of having a moderate-severe mean pain score. In the inpatient setting, Black, Hispanic, and Pacific Islander children had no significant difference in the odds of receiving opioids or having moderate severe-pain as compared to White non-Hispanic children, but Asian children had lower odds of receiving opioids and of having a moderate-severe mean pain score.CONCLUSIONS: Asian children had lower odds of receiving opioids and having moderate-severe pain postoperatively compared to the White non-Hispanic children. These differences may be a function of variation in patient/caregivers culture or healthcare provider care and warrant further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s40615-022-01327-1

    View details for PubMedID 35622316

  • Content Evaluation of Residency Websites for All 159 Anesthesiology ACGME Programs in the USA. The journal of education in perioperative medicine : JEPM Cohen, S. A., Cohen, L. E., Perez, F. D., Macario, A., Xie, J. 2022; 24 (1): E683


    Background: The shift to virtual interviews during the COVID-19 pandemic has elevated the vital role of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education residency program websites in conveying information to applicants. The purpose of our study was to assess the recruitment, education, and diversity and inclusion content on websites for anesthesiology residency programs. Second, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the content scores of websites are higher in programs with more National Institutes of Health funding, in programs that are university-based versus community-based, and in larger programs, as measured by number of residents.Methods: Two independent reviewers evaluated the websites of the 159 anesthesiology residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for the presence (yes/no) of 12 recruitment, 6 education, and 8 diversity and inclusion criteria. Multiple linear regression was used to determine which program factors were most associated with total website content score.Results: Anesthesiology residency program websites contained a mean of 12.9 (SD = 3.4; range, 3-21) of the 26 study-defined criteria. The most common recruitment, education, and diversity and inclusion criteria were, respectively, program description, rotation information, and community demographics. Controlling for program factors, a university-based affiliation (P = .016) was associated with higher website content scores.Conclusions: There is large variation in the recruitment, education, and diversity and inclusion content on anesthesiology residency program websites nationally. Since program websites averaged only half of criteria, this may provide an impetus for programs to modify their websites, which may inform applicant decisions about which programs align with their training and career goals.

    View details for DOI 10.46374/volxxiv_issue1_xie

    View details for PubMedID 35707018

  • Rhythmic expressed clock regulates the transcription of proliferating cellular nuclear antigen in teleost retina. Experimental eye research Song, H., Wang, D., De Jesus Perez, F., Xie, R., Liu, Z., Chen, C., Yu, M., Yuan, L., Fernald, R. D., Zhao, S. 2017; 160: 21-30


    Teleost fish continues to grow their eyes throughout life with the body size. In Astatotilapia burtoni, the fish retina increases by adding new retinal cells at the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) and in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Cell proliferation at both sites exhibits a daily rhythm in number of dividing cells. To understand how this diurnal rhythm of new cell production is controlled in retinal progenitor cells, we studied the transcription pattern of clock genes in retina, including clock1a, clock1b, bmal1a (brain and muscle ARNT-Like), and per1b (period1b). We found that these genes have a strong diurnal rhythmic transcription during light-dark cycles but not in constant darkness. An oscillation in pcna transcription was also observed during light-dark cycles, but again not in constant darkness. Our results also indicate an association between Clock proteins and the upstream region of pcna (proliferating cellular nuclear antigen) gene. A luciferase reporter assay conducted in an inducible clock knockdown cell line further demonstrated that the mutation on predicted E-Boxes in pcna promoter region significantly attenuated the transcriptional activation induced by Clock protein. These results suggested that the diurnal rhythmic expression of clock genes in A. burtoni retina could be light dependent and might contribute to the daily regulation of the proliferation of the retina progenitors through key components of cell cycle machinery, for instance, pcna.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exer.2017.04.004

    View details for PubMedID 28434813

  • Characteristics and Direct Costs of Academic Pediatric Subspecialty Outpatient No-Show Events JOURNAL FOR HEALTHCARE QUALITY Perez, F. D., Xie, J., Sin, A., Tsai, R., Sanders, L., Cox, K., Haberland, C. A., Park, K. T. 2014; 36 (4): 32-42


    BACKGROUND: Clinic no shows (NS) create a lost opportunity for provider-patient interaction and impose a financial burden to the healthcare system and on society. We aimed to: (1) to determine the clinical and demographic factors associated with increased NS rates at a children's hospital's subsubspecialty clinics and (2) to estimate the direct institutional financial costs associated with NS events. METHODS: A comprehensive database was generated from all clinic encounters for 15 subspecialty outpatient clinics (five surgical and 10 medical) between September 12, 2005 and December 30, 2010. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify the variables associated with NS events. Direct costs of NS events were estimated using annual revenue for each clinic. RESULTS: A total of 284,275 encounters and 17,024 NS events were available for analysis. Public insurance coverage (Medicaid and Title V), compared to private insurance or self-pay status, was associated with an increased likelihood NS (OR 2.19, 95% CI 2.10-2.28, p < 0.0005 for Medicaid; OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.50-1.62, p < 0.0005 for Title V). Compared to patients 21-30 years of age, patients <12 years (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.77-2.45, p < 0.0005) had increased likelihood of NS. Scheduled visits with medical subspecialists were more likely than surgical subspecialty visits to result in a NS (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.63-1.75, p < 0.0005). The predicted annualized lost revenue associated with NS visits was estimated at $730,000 from the 15 clinics analyzed, approximately $210 per NS event. CONCLUSION: Pediatric subspecialty NS events are common, costly, and potentially preventable.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000348450800003

    View details for PubMedID 23551280

  • Cost-Effectiveness of Early Colectomy With Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastamosis Versus Standard Medical Therapy in Severe Ulcerative Colitis ANNALS OF SURGERY Park, K. T., Tsai, R., Perez, F., Cipriano, L. E., Bass, D., Garber, A. M. 2012; 256 (1): 117-124


    Inflammatory bowel diseases are costly chronic gastrointestinal diseases. We aimed to determine whether immediate colectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastamosis (IPAA) after diagnosis of severe ulcerative colitis (UC) was cost-effective compared to the standard medical therapy.We created a Markov model simulating 2 cohorts of 21-year-old patients with severe UC, following them until 100 years of age or death, comparing early colectomy with IPAA strategy to the standard medical therapy strategy. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were performed.Standard medical care accrued a discounted lifetime cost of $236,370 per patient. In contrast, early colectomy with IPAA accrued a discounted lifetime cost of $147,763 per patient. Lifetime quality-adjusted life-years gained (QALY-gained) for standard medical therapy was 20.78, while QALY-gained for early colectomy with IPAA was 20.72. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (Δcosts/ΔQALY) was approximately $1.5 million per QALY-gained. Results were robust to one-way sensitivity analyses for all variables in the model. Quality-of-life after colectomy with IPAA was the most sensitive variable impacting cost-effectiveness. A low utility value of less than 0.7 after colectomy with IPAA was necessary for the colectomy with IPAA strategy to be cost-ineffective.Under the appropriate clinical settings, early colectomy with IPAA after diagnosis of severe UC reduces health care expenditures and provides comparable quality of life compared to exhaustive standard medical therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182445321

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306083300020

    View details for PubMedID 22270693

  • Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Adjunct VSL#3 Therapy Versus Standard Medical Therapy in Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION Park, K. T., Perez, F., Tsai, R., Honkanen, A., Bass, D., Garber, A. 2011; 53 (5): 489-496


    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are costly chronic gastrointestinal diseases, with pediatric IBD representing increased costs per patient compared to adult disease. Health care expenditures for ulcerative colitis (UC) are >$2 billion annually. It is not clear whether the addition of VSL#3 to standard medical therapy in UC induction and maintenance of remission is a cost-effective strategy.We performed a systematic review of the literature and created a Markov model simulating a cohort of 10-year-old patients with severe UC, studying them until 100 years of age or death. We compared 2 strategies: standard medical therapy versus medical therapy + VSL#3. For both strategies, we assumed that patients progressed through escalating therapies--mesalamine, azathioprine, and infliximab--before receiving a colectomy + ileal pouch anal anastamosis (IPAA) if the 3 medical therapy options were exhausted. The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), defined as the difference of costs between strategies for each quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed on variables to determine the key variables affecting cost-effectiveness.Standard medical care accrued a lifetime cost of $203,317 per patient, compared to $212,582 per patient for medical therapy + VSL#3. Lifetime QALYs gained was comparable for standard medical therapy and medical therapy + VSL#3 at 24.93 versus 25.05, respectively. Using the definition of ICER <50,000/QALY as a cost-effective intervention, medical therapy + VSL#3 produced an ICER of $79,910 per QALY gained, making this strategy cost-ineffective. Sensitivity analyses showed that 4 key parameters could affect the cost-effectiveness of the 2 strategies: cost of colectomy + IPAA, maintenance cost after surgery, probability of developing pouchitis after surgery, and the quality of life after a colectomy + IPAA. High surgical and postsurgical costs, a high probability of developing pouchitis, and a low quality of life after a colectomy + IPAA could make adjunct VSL#3 use a cost-effective strategy.Given present data, adjunct VSL#3 use for pediatric UC induction and maintenance of remission is not cost-effective, although several key parameters could make this strategy cost-effective. The quality of life after an IPAA is the single most important variable predicting whether this procedure benefits patients over escalating standard medical therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MPG.0b013e3182293a5e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296383000007

    View details for PubMedID 21694634