Clinical Associate Professor, Radiation Oncology - Radiation Physics
Small field measurement and monte carlo model validation of a novel image-guided radiotherapy system.
PURPOSE: The RefleXionTM X1 is a novel radiotherapy system that is designed for image-guided radiotherapy and, eventually, biology-guided radiotherapy (BgRT). BgRT is a treatment paradigm that tracks tumor motion using real-time positron emission signals. This study reports the small field measurement results and the validation of a Monte Carlo (MC) model of the first clinical RefleXion unit.METHODS: The RefleXion linear accelerator (linac) produces a 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam and consists of a binary multi-leaf collimator (MLC) system with 64 leaves and two pairs of y-jaws. The maximum clinical field size achievable is 400 * 20 mm2 . The y-jaws provide either a 10 mm or 20 mm opening at source-to-axis distance (SAD) of 850 mm. The width of each MLC leaf at SAD is 6.25 mm. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) and relative beam profiles were acquired using an Edge diode detector in a water tank for field sizes from 12.5 * 10 mm2 to 100 * 20 mm2 . Beam profiles were also measured using films. Output factors of fields ranging from 6.25 * 10 mm2 to 100 * 20 mm2 were measured using W2 scintillator detector, Edge detector, and films. Output correction factors k of the Edge detector for RefleXion were calculated. A MC model of the linac including pre-MLC beam sources and detailed structures of MLC and lower y-jaws was validated against the measurements. Simulation codes BEAMnrc and GATE were utilized.RESULTS: The diode measured PDD at 10 cm depth (PDD10) increases from 53.6% to 56.9% as the field opens from 12.5 * 10 mm2 to 100 * 20 mm2 . The W2-measured output factor increases from 0.706 to 1 as the field opens from 6.25 * 10 mm2 to 100 * 20 mm2 (reference field size). The output factors acquired by diode and film differ from the W2 results by 1.65% (std = 1.49%) and 2.09% (std = 1.41%) on average, respectively. The profile penumbra and full width half maximum (FWHM) measured by diode agree well with the film results with a deviation of 0.60 mm and 0.73% on average, respectively. The averaged beam profile consistency calculated between the diode and film measured profiles among different depths is within 1.72%. By taking the W2 measurements as the ground truth, the output correction factors k for Edge detector ranging from 0.958 to 1 were reported. For the MC model validation, the simulated PDD10 agreed within 0.6% to the diode measurement. The MC simulated output factor differed from the W2 results by 2.3% on average (std = 3.7%) while the MC simulated beam penumbra differed from the diode results by 0.67 mm on average (std = 0.42 mm). The MC FWHM agreed with the diode results to within 1.40% on average. The averaged beam profile consistency calculated between the diode and MC profiles among different depths is less than 1.29%.CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first small field dosimetry of a clinical RefleXion system. A complete and accurate MC model of the RefleXion linac has been validated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mp.15273
View details for PubMedID 34628666
Deep learning-enabled EPID-based 3D dosimetry for dose verification of step-and-shoot radiotherapy.
PURPOSE: The study aims at a novel dosimetry methodology to reconstruct a 3D dose distribution as imparted to a virtual cylindrical phantom using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID).METHODS: A deep learning-based signal processing strategy, referred to as 3DosiNet, is utilized to learn a mapping from an EPID image to planar dose distributions at given depths. The network was trained with the volumetric dose exported from the clinical treatment planning system (TPS). Given the latent inconsistency between measurements and corresponding TPS calculations, unsupervised learning is formulated in 3DosiNet to capture abstractive image features that are less sensitive to the potential variations.RESULTS: Validation experiments were performed using five regular fields and three clinical IMRT cases. The measured dose profiles and percentage depth dose (PDD) curves were compared with those measured using standard tools in terms of the 1D gamma index. The mean gamma pass rates (2%/2mm) over the regular fields are 100% and 97.3% for the dose profile and PDD measurements, respectively. The measured volumetric dose was compared to corresponding TPS calculation in terms of the 3D gamma index. The mean 2% / 2mm gamma pass rates are 97.9% for square fields and 94.9% for the IMRT fields.CONCLUSIONS: The system promises to be a practical 3D dosimetric tool for pre-treatment patient-specific quality assurance and further developed for in-treatment patient dose monitoring. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mp.15218
View details for PubMedID 34519365
Medical Physics Practice Guideline (MPPG) 11.a: Plan and chart review in external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy.
Journal of applied clinical medical physics
A therapeutic medical physicist is responsible for reviewing radiation therapy treatment plans and patient charts, including initial treatment plans and new chart review, on treatment chart (weekly) review, and end of treatment chart review for both external beam radiation and brachytherapy. Task group report TG 275 examined this topic using a risk-based approach to provide a thorough analysis and guidance for best practice. Considering differences in resources and workflows of various clinical practice settings, the Professional Council of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine assembled this task group to develop a practice guideline on the same topic to provide a minimum standard that balances an appropriate level of safety and resource utilization. This medical physics practice guidelines (MPPG) thus provides a concise set of recommendations for medical physicists and other clinical staff regarding the review of treatment plans and patient charts while providing specific recommendations about who to be involved, and when/what to check in the chart review process. The recommendations, particularly those related to the initial plan review process, are critical for preventing errors and ensuring smooth clinical workflow. We believe that an effective review process for high-risk items should include multiple layers with collective efforts across the department. Therefore, in this report, we make specific recommendations for various roles beyond medical physicists. The recommendations of this MPPG have been reviewed and endorsed by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists and the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists.
View details for DOI 10.1002/acm2.13366
View details for PubMedID 34342124
The Stanford stereotactic radiosurgery experience on 7000 patients over 2 decades (1999-2018): looking far beyond the scalpel.
Journal of neurosurgery
OBJECTIVE: The CyberKnife (CK) has emerged as an effective frameless and noninvasive method for treating a myriad of neurosurgical conditions. Here, the authors conducted an extensive retrospective analysis and review of the literature to elucidate the trend for CK use in the management paradigm for common neurosurgical diseases at their institution.METHODS: A literature review (January 1990-June 2019) and clinical review (January 1999-December 2018) were performed using, respectively, online research databases and the Stanford Research Repository of patients with intracranial and spinal lesions treated with CK at Stanford. For each disease considered, the coefficient of determination (r2) was estimated as a measure of CK utilization over time. A change in treatment modality was assessed using a t-test, with statistical significance assessed at the 0.05 alpha level.RESULTS: In over 7000 patients treated with CK for various brain and spinal lesions over the past 20 years, a positive linear trend (r2 = 0.80) in the system's use was observed. CK gained prominence in the management of intracranial and spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs; r2 = 0.89 and 0.95, respectively); brain and spine metastases (r2 = 0.97 and 0.79, respectively); benign tumors such as meningioma (r2 = 0.85), vestibular schwannoma (r2 = 0.76), and glomus jugulare tumor (r2 = 0.89); glioblastoma (r2 = 0.54); and trigeminal neuralgia (r2 = 0.81). A statistically significant difference in the change in treatment modality to CK was observed in the management of intracranial and spinal AVMs (p < 0.05), and while the treatment of brain and spine metastases, meningioma, and glioblastoma trended toward the use of CK, the change in treatment modality for these lesions was not statistically significant.CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests the robust use of CK for treating a wide range of neurological conditions.
View details for DOI 10.3171/2020.9.JNS201484
View details for PubMedID 33799297
A robotically assisted 3D printed quality assurance lung phantom for Calypso.
Physics in medicine and biology
Purpose:Radiation dose delivered to targets located near the upper-abdomen or in the thorax are significantly affected by respiratory-motion. Relatively large-margins are commonly added to compensate for this motion, limiting radiation-dose-escalation. Internal-surrogates of target motion, such as a radiofrequency (RF) tracking system, i.e. Calypso® System, are used to overcome this challenge and improve normal-tissue sparing. RF tracking systems consist of implanting transponders in the vicinity of the tumor to be tracked using radiofrequency-waves. Unfortunately, although the manufacture provides a universal quality-assurance (QA) phantom, QA-phantoms specifically for lung-applications are limited, warranting the development of alternative solutions to fulfil the tests mandated by AAPM's TG142. Accordingly, our objective was to design and develop a motion-phantom to evaluate Calypso for lung-applications that allows the Calypso® Beacons to move in different directions to better simulate true lung-motion.Methods and Materials:A Calypso lung QA-phantom was designed, and 3D-printed. The design consists of three independent arms where the transponders were attached. A pinpoint-chamber with a buildup-cap was also incorporated. A 4-axis robotic arm was programmed to drive the motion-phantom to mimic breathing. After acquiring a four-dimensional-computed-tomography (4DCT) scan of the motion-phantom, treatment-plans were generated and delivered on a Varian TrueBeam® with Calypso capabilities. Stationary and gated-treatment plans were generated and delivered to determine the dosimetric difference between gated and non-gated treatments. Portal cine-images were acquired to determine the temporal-accuracy of delivery by calculating the difference between the observed versus expected transponders locations with the known speed of the transponders' motion.Results:Dosimetric accuracy is better than TG142 tolerance of 2%. Temporal accuracy is greater than, TG142 tolerance of 100ms for beam-on, but less than 100ms for beam-hold.Conclusions:The robotic QA-phantom designed and developed in this study provides an independent phantom for performing Calypso lung-QA for commissioning and acceptance testing of Calypso for lung treatments.
View details for DOI 10.1088/1361-6560/abebaa
View details for PubMedID 33657537
- ZAP-X: A Novel Radiosurgical Device for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia CUREUS 2020; 12 (5)
Clinical impact of the VOLO optimizer on treatment plan quality and clinical treatment efficiency for CyberKnife.
Journal of applied clinical medical physics
With the recent CyberKnife treatment planning system (TPS) upgrade from Precision 1.0 to Precision 2.0, the new VOLO optimizer was released for plan optimization. The VOLO optimizer sought to overcome some of the limitations seen with the Sequential optimizer from previous TPS versions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical impact of the VOLO optimizer on treatment plan quality and clinical treatment efficiency as compared to the Sequential optimizer. Treatment plan quality was evaluated in four categories of patients: Brain Simple (BS), Brain Complex (BC), Spine Complex (SC), and Prostate (PC). A total of 60 treatment plans were compared using both the Sequential and VOLO optimizers with Iris and MLC collimation with the same clinical constraints. Metrics evaluated included estimated treatment time, monitor units (MUs) delivered, conformity index (CI), and gradient index (GI). Furthermore, the clinical impact of the VOLO optimizer was evaluated through statistical analysis of the patient population treated during the 4months before (n=297) and 4months after (n=285) VOLO introduction. Significant MU and time reductions were observed for all four categories planned. MU reduction ranged from -14% (BS Iris) to -52% (BC MLC), and time reduction ranged from -11% (BS Iris) to -22% (BC MLC). The statistical analysis of patient population before and after VOLO introduction for patients using 6D Skull tracking with fixed cone, 6D Skull tracking with Iris, and Xsight Spine tracking with Iris were -4.6%, -22.2%, and -17.8% for treatment time reduction, -1.1%, -22.0%, and -28.4% for beam reduction and -3.2%, -21.8%, and -28.1% for MU reduction, respectively. The VOLO optimizer maintains or improves the plan quality while decreases the plan complexity and improves treatment efficiency. We anticipate an increase in patient throughput with the introduction of the VOLO optimizer.
View details for DOI 10.1002/acm2.12851
View details for PubMedID 32212374
ZAP-X: A Novel Radiosurgical Device for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia.
2020; 12 (5): e8324
Introduction The treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is one of the most demanding of all radiosurgery procedures, requiring accurate delivery and sharp dose fall off. ZAP-X®, a new, innovative frameless radiosurgical device, maybe an attractive platform for the treatment of TN and other functional brain disorders. Here, we compared the dosimetry of ZAP-X plans for a single patient to that generated by a well-established dedicated radiosurgery device, the CyberKnife. Methods Radiosurgery plans that delineated the cranial nerve from a single patient's fused computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (CT-MR) data set were planned on both the ZAP-X and CyberKnife, with the latter serving as a validated benchmark. The same target and treatment planning constraints were applied. Plans were evaluated by a physician with experience treating TN and a medical physicist. The ZAP-X treatment plan used two isocenters delivered through 4-mm collimators based on a non-isocentric plan that delivered 29,441 MU through 81 beams. The CyberKnife plans used a 5-mm collimator for a non-isocentric plan that delivered 17,880 MU through 88 beams. Results Based on visual inspection, the isodose volumes covered by ZAP-X and CyberKnife were similar at the prescription isodose (70% and 80%, respectively, with a maximum dose (Dmax) of 7500 cGy. The conformality index was better for the CyberKnife as compared to ZAP-X. However, the irradiated volumes were smaller at the 50%, 20%, and 10% isodoses for ZAP-X (0.12 cc, 0.57 cc, and 1.69 for ZAP-X; 0.18 cc, 0.91 cc, and 3.41 cc for CyberKnife). In particular, the 20% and 10% isodose volumes were much smaller for ZAP-X, especially on the axial and sagittal planes. Conclusions ZAP-X treatment planning for TN compares favorably with equivalent planning on CyberKnife. The brain volumes containing the 20% and 10% isodoses are smaller using ZAP-X, thus relatively sparing critical structures close to the target, including the Gasserian ganglion and brainstem. This feature could be of clinical relevance by potentially reducing treatment-related complications.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.8324
View details for PubMedID 32617203
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7325335
Successful Use of Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Recurrent Brain Metastases in an 18 Month Old Child.
The International journal of neuroscience
There are very few reported cases of stereotactic radiosurgery delivered in children under 3 years of age. We report an 18 month old boy with metastatic recurrence of undifferentiated round cell sarcoma to the brain which was treated with chemotherapy, resection, and robotic frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Frameless SRS was delivered without technical difficulties, acute adverse events, or clinical sequelae 1.5 months post-radiation. Longer term follow-up will be needed to evaluate local tumor control and effects on neurocognitive development, endocrine function, and growth. This report adds to the literature of the few reported cases of successfully attempted SRS in very young children.
View details for DOI 10.1080/00207454.2019.1655015
View details for PubMedID 31401906
- Report of AAPM TG 135: Quality assurance for robotic radiosurgery (vol 38, pg 2914, 2011) MEDICAL PHYSICS 2011; 38 (9): 5264-5264
Report of AAPM TG 135: Quality assurance for robotic radiosurgery
2011; 38 (6): 2914-2936
The task group (TG) for quality assurance for robotic radiosurgery was formed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine's Science Council under the direction of the Radiation Therapy Committee and the Quality Assurance (QA) Subcommittee. The task group (TG-135) had three main charges: (1) To make recommendations on a code of practice for Robotic Radiosurgery QA; (2) To make recommendations on quality assurance and dosimetric verification techniques, especially in regard to real-time respiratory motion tracking software; (3) To make recommendations on issues which require further research and development. This report provides a general functional overview of the only clinically implemented robotic radiosurgery device, the CyberKnife. This report includes sections on device components and their individual component QA recommendations, followed by a section on the QA requirements for integrated systems. Examples of checklists for daily, monthly, annual, and upgrade QA are given as guidance for medical physicists. Areas in which QA procedures are still under development are discussed.
View details for DOI 10.1118/1.3579139
View details for Web of Science ID 000291405200011
View details for PubMedID 21815366
Erratum: "Report of AAPM TG 135: Quality assurance for robotic radiosurgery".
2011; 38 (9): 5264
View details for PubMedID 28524974