Mechanisms and Regulation of RNA Condensation in RNP Granule Formation.
Trends in biochemical sciences
Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are RNA-protein assemblies that are involved in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism and are linked to memory, development, and disease. Some RNP granules form, in part, through the formation of intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions. In vitro, such trans RNA condensation occurs readily, suggesting that cells require mechanisms to modulate RNA-based condensation. We assess the mechanisms of RNA condensation and how cells modulate this phenomenon. We propose that cells control RNA condensation through ATP-dependent processes, static RNA buffering, and dynamic post-translational mechanisms. Moreover, perturbations in these mechanisms can be involved in disease. This reveals multiple cellular mechanisms of kinetic and thermodynamic control that maintain the proper distribution of RNA molecules between dispersed and condensed forms.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tibs.2020.05.002
View details for PubMedID 32475683
Modulation of RNA Condensation by the DEAD-Box Protein eIF4A
2020; 180 (3): 411-+
Stress granules are condensates of non-translating mRNAs and proteins involved in the stress response and neurodegenerative diseases. Stress granules form in part through intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions, and to better understand how RNA-based condensation occurs, we demonstrate that RNA is effectively recruited to the surfaces of RNA or RNP condensates in vitro. We demonstrate that, through ATP-dependent RNA binding, the DEAD-box protein eIF4A reduces RNA condensation in vitro and limits stress granule formation in cells. This defines a function for eIF4A to limit intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions in cells. These results establish an important role for eIF4A, and potentially other DEAD-box proteins, as ATP-dependent RNA chaperones that limit the condensation of RNA, analogous to the function of proteins like HSP70 in combatting protein aggregates.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2019.12.031
View details for Web of Science ID 000512977500002
View details for PubMedID 31928844
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7194247
Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays
2016; 5 (1): 20–31
Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs.
View details for DOI 10.1242/bio.014951
View details for Web of Science ID 000368300600003
View details for PubMedID 26700722
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4728305