All Publications

  • Rapid prototyping of lab-scale electrolysis cells using stereolithography and electroless plating Device Wright, J. G., Charnay, B. P., Rabinowitz, J. A., Mariano, R. G., Kanan, M. W. 2023; 1 (2)
  • Quantitative Detection of Cathepsin B Activity in Neutral pH Buffers Using Gold Microelectrode Arrays: Toward Direct Multiplex Analyses of Extracellular Proteases in Human Serum. ACS sensors Song, Y., Wright, J. G., Anderson, M. J., Rajendran, S., Ren, Z., Hua, D. H., Koehne, J. E., Meyyappan, M., Li, J. 2021; 6 (10): 3621-3631


    Proteases are critical signaling molecules and prognostic biomarkers for many diseases including cancer. There is a strong demand for multiplex bioanalytical techniques that can rapidly detect the activity of extracellular proteases with high sensitivity and specificity. This study demonstrates an activity-based electrochemical biosensor of a 3 × 3 gold microelectrode array for the detection of cathepsin B activity in human serum diluted in a neutral buffer. Proteolysis of ferrocene-labeled peptide substrates functionalized on 200 × 200 μm microelectrodes is measured simultaneously over the nine channels by AC voltammetry. The protease activity is represented by the inverse of the exponential decay time constant (1/τ), which equals to (kcat/KM)[CB] based on the Michaelis-Menten model. An enhanced activity of the recombinant human cathepsin B (rhCB) is observed in a low-ionic-strength phosphate buffer at pH = 7.4, giving a very low limit of detection of 8.49 × 10-4 s-1 for activity and 57.1 pM for the active rhCB concentration that is comparable to affinity-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cathepsin B presented in the human serum sample is validated by ELISA, which mainly detects the inactive proenzyme, while the electrochemical biosensor specifically measures the active cathepsin B and shows significantly higher decay rates when rhCB and human serum are activated. Analyses of the kinetic electrochemical measurements with spiked active cathepsin B in human serum provide further assessment of the protease activity in the complex sample. This study lays the foundation to develop the gold microelectrode array into a multiplex biosensor for rapid detection of the activity of extracellular proteases toward cancer diagnosis and treatment assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acssensors.1c01175

    View details for PubMedID 34546741

  • Simultaneous, multiplex quantification of protease activities using a gold microelectrode array BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS Anderson, M. J., Song, Y., Fan, H., Wright, J., Ren, Z., Hua, D. H., Koehne, J. E., Meyyappan, M., Li, J. 2020; 165: 112330


    Proteases are a large family of enzymes involved in many important biological processes. Quantitative detection of the activity profile of specific target proteases is in high demand for the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases such as cancers. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of an individually addressable 3 × 3 Au microelectrode array for rapid, multiplex detection of cathepsin B activity based on a simple electrochemical method. The nine individual microelectrodes in the array show highly consistent cyclic voltammetric signals in Au surface cleaning experiments and detecting benchmark redox species in solution. The individual Au microelectrodes are further selectively functionalized with specific ferrocene-labeled peptide molecules which serve as the cognate substrates for the target proteases. Consistent proteolytic kinetics are measured by monitoring the decay of the AC voltammetry signal from the ferrocene label as the peptide molecules are cleaved by cathepsin B. Accurate activity of cathepsin B is derived with an improved fitting algorithm. Simultaneous detection of the proteolysis of cathepsin B on the microelectrode array functionalized with three different hexapeptides is demonstrated, showing the potential of this sensor platform for rapid detection of the activity profiles of multiple proteases in various diseases including many forms of cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2020.112330

    View details for Web of Science ID 000566789400016

    View details for PubMedID 32729476

  • Electrochemical Activity Assay for Protease Analysis Using Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrode Arrays ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Song, Y., Fan, H., Anderson, M. J., Wright, J., Hua, D. H., Koehne, J., Meyyappan, M., Li, J. 2019; 91 (6): 3971-3979


    There is a strong demand for bioanalytical techniques to rapidly detect protease activities with high sensitivity and high specificity. This study reports an activity-based electrochemical method toward this goal. Nanoelectrode arrays (NEAs) fabricated with embedded vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are functionalized with specific peptide substrates containing a ferrocene (Fc) tag. The kinetic proteolysis curves are measured with continuously repeated ac voltammetry, from which the catalytic activity is derived as the inverse of the exponential decay time constant based on a heterogeneous Michaelis-Menten model. Comparison of three peptide substrates with different lengths reveals that the hexapeptide H2N-(CH2)4-CO-Pro-Leu-Arg-Phe-Gly-Ala-NH-CH2-Fc is the optimal probe for cathepsin B. The activity strongly depends on temperature and is the highest around the body temperature. With the optimized peptide substrate and measuring conditions, the limit of detection of cathepsin B activity and concentration can reach 2.49 × 10-4 s-1 and 0.32 nM, respectively. The peptide substrates show high specificity to the cognate proteases, with negligible cross-reactions among three cancer-related proteases cathepsin B, ADAM10, and ADAM17. This electrochemical method can be developed into multiplex chips for rapid profiling of protease activities in cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b05189

    View details for Web of Science ID 000462098300030

    View details for PubMedID 30726059

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6501207