Evidence-based surgery for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Surgery open science
2022; 10: 116-134
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is frequently performed for acute cholecystitis and symptomatic cholelithiasis. Considerable variation in the execution of key steps of the operation remains. We conducted a systematic review of evidence regarding best practices for critical intraoperative steps for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.We identified 5 main intraoperative decision points in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: (1) number and position of laparoscopic ports; (2) identification of cystic artery and duct; (3) division of cystic artery and duct; (4) indications for subtotal cholecystectomy; and (5) retrieval of the gallbladder. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were queried for relevant studies. Randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews were included for analysis, and evidence quality was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework.Fifty-two articles were included. Although all port configurations were comparable from a safety standpoint, fewer ports sometimes resulted in improved cosmesis or decreased pain but longer operative times. The critical view of safety should be obtained for identification of the cystic duct and artery but may be obtained through fundus-first dissection and augmented with cholangiography or ultrasound. Insufficient evidence exists to compare harmonic-shear, clipless ligation against clip ligation of the cystic duct and artery. Stump closure during subtotal cholecystectomy may reduce rates of bile leak and reoperation. Use of retrieval bag for gallbladder extraction results in minimal benefit. Most studies were underpowered to detect differences in incidence of rare complications.Key operative steps of laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be informed by both compiled data and surgeon preference/patient considerations.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.sopen.2022.08.003
View details for PubMedID 36132940
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9483801
Scoping review of traumatic hemothorax: Evidence and knowledge gaps, from diagnosis to chest tube removal.
BACKGROUND: Traumatic hemothorax is a common injury that invites diagnostic and management strategy debates. Evidence-based management has been associated with improved care efficiency. However, the literature abounds with long-debated, re-emerging, and new questions. We aimed to consolidate up-to-date evidence on traumatic hemothoraces, focusing on clinical conundra debated in literature.METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of 21 clinical conundra in traumatic hemothorax diagnosis and management according to PRISMA-ScR guidelines. Experimental and observational studies evaluating patients (aged ≥18 years) with traumatic hemothoraces were identified through database searches (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library; database inception to Sep, 26 2020) and bibliography reviews of selected articles. Three reviewers screened and selected articles using standardized forms.RESULTS: We screened 1,440 articles for eligibility, of which 71 met criteria for synthesis. The review comprises 6 sections: (1) Presumptive antibiotics before tube thoracostomy; (2) Initial diagnostic and intervention decisions; (3) Chest tubes; (4) Retained hemothoraces; (5) Delayed hemothoraces; and (6) Chest tube removal). The 21 conundra across these sections follow the format of a question, our recommendation based on interpretation of available evidence, and succinct rationale. Rationale sections detail knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research.CONCLUSION: Even practices engrained into surgical dogma, such as obtaining chest x-rays after inserting or removing chest tubes and mandating operation for patients who develop chest tube output above a certain threshold, deserve re-evaluation. Some knowledge gaps require rigorous future investigation; sound clinical judgment can likely supplement others.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.03.030
View details for PubMedID 33888318
Practical Computer Vision Application to Compute Total Body Surface Area Burn: Reappraising a Fundamental Burn Injury Formula in the Modern Era.
Critical burn management decisions rely on accurate percent total body surface area (%TBSA) burn estimation. Existing %TBSA burn estimation models (eg, Lund-Browder chart and rule of nines) were derived from a linear formula and a limited number of individuals a century ago and do not reflect the range of body habitus of the modern population.To develop a practical %TBSA burn estimation tool that accounts for exact burn injury pattern, sex, and body habitus.This population-based cohort study evaluated the efficacy of a computer vision algorithm application in processing an adult laser body scan data set. High-resolution surface anthropometry laser body scans of 3047 North American and European adults aged 18 to 65 years from the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource data set (1998-2001) were included. Of these, 1517 participants (49.8%) were male. Race and ethnicity data were not available for analysis. Analyses were conducted in 2020.The contributory %TBSA for 18 body regions in each individual. Mobile application for real-time %TBSA burn computation based on sex, habitus, and exact burn injury pattern.Of the 3047 individuals aged 18 to 65 years for whom body scans were available, 1517 (49.8%) were male. Wide individual variability was found in the extent to which major body regions contributed to %TBSA, especially in the torso and legs. Anterior torso %TBSA increased with increasing body habitus (mean [SD], 15.1 [0.9] to 19.1 [2.0] for male individuals; 15.1 [0.8] to 18.0 [1.7] for female individuals). This increase was attributable to increase in abdomen %TBSA (mean [SD], 5.3 [0.7] to 8.7 [1.8]) among male individuals and increase in abdomen (mean [SD], 4.6 [0.6] to 6.8 [1.7]) and pelvis (mean [SD], 1.5 [0.2] to 2.9 [0.9]) %TBSAs among female individuals. For most body regions, Lund-Browder chart and rule of nines estimates fell outside the population's measured interquartile ranges. The mobile application tested in this study, Burn Area, facilitated accurate %TBSA burn computation based on exact burn injury pattern for 10 sex and body habitus-specific models.Computer vision algorithm application to a large laser body scan data set may provide a practical tool that facilitates accurate %TBSA burn computation in the modern era.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2021.5848
View details for PubMedID 34817552