Bio


Gavin Wright is the William Robertson Coe Professor of American Economic History Emeritus at Stanford University, where he has taught since 1982.

Professor Wright received his BA from Swarthmore College and his Ph.D. from Yale University. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1993, and is a past president of the Economic History Association and the Agricultural History Society. The author of numerous books and articles, Wright was an editor-in-chief for the 5-volume collaborative reference work, Historical Statistics of the United States.

Professor Wright’s research centers on the historical record of the American economy, specifically the institutional and cultural foundations of the country’s rise to world economic pre-eminence. He also has a longstanding interest in the economy of the American South and has published three books on that subject. The most recent is Sharing the Prize: The Economics of the Civil Rights Revolution in the American South, published by Harvard University Press in 2013. The book was named as a Choice Top 25 Outstanding Academic Title for 2013, and won the Alice Hanson Jones Prize as the best book in North American Economic History 2013-2014. The paperback edition was released in 2018.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Assistant Professor of Economics, Yale University (1969 - 1972)
  • Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Michigan (1972 - 1974)
  • Associate Professor of Economics, University of Michigan (1974 - 1978)
  • Visiting Associate Professor, University of California at Berkeley (1975 - 1975)
  • Visiting Associate Professor, Stanford University (1978 - 1978)
  • Professor of Economics, University of Michigan (1978 - 1982)
  • Professor of Economics, Stanford University (1982 - Present)
  • Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions, University of Cambridge (1994 - 1995)
  • William Robertson Coe Professor of American Economic History, Stanford University (1994 - Present)
  • Visiting Fellow, All Souls College, Oxford University (1999 - 1999)
  • Senior Fellow, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (2001 - Present)
  • Ellen Andrew Wright Fellow, Stanford Humanities Center (2003 - 2004)
  • Senior Fellow, Stanford Center for International Development (2008 - Present)
  • Fellow, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (2010 - 2011)

Honors & Awards


  • Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Beta Kappa Society (1965)
  • Fellow, Woodrow Wilson (1965 - 1966)
  • Graduate Fellowship, National Science Foundation (1966 - 1968)
  • Post-Doctoral Fellowship, National Science Foundation (1971 - 1972)
  • Post-Doctoral Fellowship, University of Chicago (1971 - 1972)
  • Arthur C. Cole Prize, Journal of Economic History (1975)
  • John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship, John Simon Guggenheim Foundation (1976)
  • Frank Lawrence and Harriet Chappell Owsley Award (best book in Southern History), Southern Historical Association (1987)
  • Olin Fellow, Institute of Advanced Study (1988 - 1989)
  • Carstensen Priize, Agricultural History Society (1989)
  • Distinguished Visiting Fellow, Christ's College (Cambridge) (1994 - 1995)
  • Ellen and Andrew Wright Fellow, Stanford Humanities Center (2003 - 2004)
  • Carstensen Prize (best article in Agricultural History), Agricultural History Society (2004)
  • Thomas Jefferson Prize for Research Tools, Society for History in the Federal Government (2008)
  • Fellow, Society of American Historians (2009)
  • Fellow, Cliometric Society (2010)
  • Headley Distinguished Visitor-in Residence, Carleton College (2011)
  • Alice Hanson Jones Prize, Economic History Association (2014)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1993)
  • Member, Board of Editors, Journal of Economic History (1977 - 1982)
  • Member, National Science Foundation Economics Panel (1977 - 1979)
  • Director, Masters in Applied Economics Program, University of Michigan (1978 - 1981)
  • Member, Editorial Committee, Comparative Studies in Society and History (1979 - 1982)
  • Member, Advisory Editorial Board, Agricultural History (1980 - 1988)
  • Associate Editor, Explorations in Economic History (1981 - 1999)
  • Elected Member, Board of Trustees, Economic History Association (1982 - 1985)
  • Member, Board of Editors, Journal of Economic Perspectives (1988 - 1999)
  • Vice President (elected), Economic History Association (1989 - 1990)
  • Chair, Stanford Economics Department (1989 - 1993)
  • Chair, Stanford Economics Department (2000 - 2002)
  • Elected Member of Executive Committee, American Economic Association (1990 - 1993)
  • Director, Center for Economic Policy Research (Stanford) (1993 - 1994)
  • Editor in Chief, Historical Statistics of the United States (Millennial Edition) (1996)
  • Member, Board of Directors, National Bureau of Economic Research (1998 - 2007)
  • President, Economic History Association (1997 - 1998)
  • Member, Board of Trustees, Institute for Advanced Study (1999 - 2004)
  • Editor, Journal of Economic History (2000 - 2004)
  • President, Agricultural History Society (2002 - 2003)
  • Member, Program Committee, Organization of American Historians Annual Meeting (2005 - 2005)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Pacific Economic Review (2005 - 2008)
  • Member, Board of Advisors, MeasuringWorth.com (2007)
  • Member, Wall Prize Committee (Southern Historical Association) (2007 - 2007)
  • Member, Scientific Committee, Industrial and Corporate Change (2008)
  • Member, Jones Prize Committee (Economic History Association) (2008 - 2012)
  • Session Organizer, Western Economic Association Meetings (2010 - 2010)
  • Member, Nominating Committee, Western Economic Association (2011 - 2011)
  • Chair, American Studies Review Committee (1986 - 1986)
  • Associate Chair, Economics Department (1986 - 1988)
  • Member, Truman Fellowship Interview Committee (1982 - 1999)
  • Member, Committee on Academic Appraisal and Achievement (1987 - 1988)
  • Member, Committee on Academic Appraisal and Achievement (1992 - 1994)
  • Member, Steering Committee, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (1989)
  • Elected Member, H&S Faculty Council (1993 - 1994)
  • Chair, Provost's Committee on Housing Policies and Programs (1993 - 1993)
  • Chair, Department of Economics, Stanford University (1989 - 1993)
  • Chair, Department of Economics, Stanford University (2000 - 2002)
  • Director, Stanford Center for Economic Policy Research (1993 - 1994)
  • Elected Member, Faculty Senate (1993 - 1994)
  • Elected Member, Faculty Senate (1995 - 1997)
  • Elected Member, Faculty Senate (1999 - 2001)
  • Elected Member, Faculty Senate (2002 - 2003)
  • Elected Member, Faculty Senate (2004 - 2006)
  • Elected Member, Faculty Senate (2009 - 2010)
  • Elected Member, Faculty Senate Steering Committee (1995 - 1996)
  • Elected Member, Faculty Senate Steering Committee (2005 - 2006)
  • Member, Appointments and Promotions Committee, H&S (1994 - 1995)
  • Member, Appointments and Promotions Committee, H&S (1996 - 1997)
  • Member, Appointments and Promotions Committee, H&S (1997 - 1998)
  • Member, Appointments and Promotions Committee, H&S (2001 - 2002)
  • Advisory Board Member, Social Science History Institute (1997)
  • Elected Alternate, Advisory Board of the Academic Council (1998 - 1998)
  • Director, Introductory Economics Center (1999 - 2000)
  • Director, Introductory Economics Center (2002 - 2003)
  • Director, Introductory Economics Center (2004 - 2010)
  • Member, Committee on Undergraduate Studies (1999 - 2001)
  • Fact-Finder, The Provost (1999 - 2000)
  • Fact-Finder, The Provost (2004 - 2005)
  • Member, Advisory Board, Stanford Program on International and Cross-Cultural Education (2000)
  • Member, Provost's Advisory Committee on the Status of Women Faculty (2001 - 2003)
  • Member, Committee on Committees (2002 - 2003)
  • Member, Committee on Committees (2010 - 2010)
  • Member, American Studies Committee in Charge (2002)
  • Investigator, lRiSS Center on Institutions and Governance (2005)
  • Member, Sawyer Seminar Steering Committee, Program in Poverty and Inequality (2005 - 2008)
  • Grievance Committee Member, H&S (2006 - 2006)
  • Co-organizer, SITE session on "History and Theory" (2008 - 2008)
  • Member, C-Lib Subcommittee on Digital Information Technologies in the Research Library Environment at Stanford (2007 - 2008)
  • Co-Director, Summer Institute for High School Economics Teachers (1987)
  • Co-organizer, Abramovitz Lecture Series (2000 - 2009)
  • Co-organizer, SITE session on ''New Frontiers in Economic History" (2010 - 2010)
  • Member, Committee on Libraries (C-LIB) (2009 - 2010)
  • Co-organizer, SITE sessions on "Innovation in Economic History" (2012 - 2012)

Program Affiliations


  • Science, Technology and Society

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., Yale University, Economics (1969)
  • M.A., Yale University, Economics (1966)
  • B.A., Swarthmore College, Economics (1965)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Professor Wright is now studying the economic implications of voting rights and vote suppression in the American South. He is also revisiting the relationship between slavery and Anglo-American capitalism.

2018-19 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Roundtable discussion Nathan Rosenberg Memorial Issue INDUSTRIAL AND CORPORATE CHANGE Teece, D. J., Arrow, K., Dosi, G., Granstrand, O., Nelson, R. R., Wright, G. 2019; 28 (2): 409–17

    View details for DOI 10.1093/icc/dtz002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000465100400011

  • The United States and the Transatlantic Slave Trade to the Americas, 1776-1867 (Book Review) HISTORIAN Book Review Authored by: Wright, G. 2018; 80 (3): 562–63
  • Roaring Metropolis: Businessmen's Campaign for a Civic Welfare State (Book Review) AMERICAN HISTORICAL REVIEW Book Review Authored by: Wright, G. 2017; 122 (5): 1641–42
  • THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 BOSTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW Wright, G. 2015; 95 (3): 759-779
  • Race, region, and the new deal: reflections on Ira Katznelson's Fear Itself LABOR HISTORY Wright, G. 2015; 56 (2): 206-212
  • National Leadership and Competing Technological Paradigms: The Globalization of Cotton Spinning, 1878-1933 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC HISTORY Saxonhouse, G. R., Wright, G. 2010; 70 (3): 535-566
  • The Japanese Economy in Retrospect: Selected Papers by Gary R. Saxonhouse edited by Stern, R. M., Patrick, H., Wright, G. World Scientific Studies in International Economics. 2010
  • The Industrious Revolution in America The Birth of Modern Europe: Culture and Economy 1400-1800 Wright, G. edited by Cruz, L., Mokyr, J. Brill. 2010
  • The New Deal and the Modernization of the South Federal History Wright, G. 2010: 58 - 73
  • Historical Origins of the New American Economy International Journal of Public Affairs Wright, G. 2009; 5
  • Industry in the Old South: Polemics and Politics Technology, Innovation and Southern Industrialization Wright, G. edited by Delfino, S., Gillepsie, M. Univ. of Missouri Press. 2008
  • The Economics of the Civil Rights Revolution Toward the Meeting of the Waters: The Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina Wright, G. edited by Moore Jr, W. O., Burton, O. V. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. 2008
  • Jim Crow South The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Wright, G. 2008
  • William Nelson Parker: Biographical Memoir Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Wright, G. 2007; 151: 268 - 270
  • Organized labor and the race issue: Economics or economic history (Book Review) LABOR HISTORY Book Review Authored by: Wright, G. 2007; 48 (2): 234-241
  • Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition edited by Wright, G., Carter, S. B., Gartner, S., Haines, M. R., Olmstead, A. L., Sutch, R. Cambridge University Press. 2006
  • Slavery and American Economic Development Wright, G. Louisiana State University Press. 2006
  • Resource-Based Growth Past and Present Neither Curse nor Destiny: Natural Resources and Development Wright, G., Czelusta, J. edited by Lederman, D., Maloney, W. Stanford University Press and World Bank Publication. 2006
  • Productivity Growth and the American Labor Market: The 1990s in Historical Perspective Understanding the 1990s Wright, G. edited by Rhode, P., Toniolo, G. Cambridge U. Press. 2006
  • Order without law? Property rights during the California gold rush EXPLORATIONS IN ECONOMIC HISTORY Clay, K., Wright, G. 2005; 42 (2): 155-183
  • Persisting Dixie: The South as an Economic Region The American South in the Twentieth Century Wright, G. edited by Pascoe, C. S., Leathem, K. T., Ambrose, A. Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 2005
  • The Myth of the Resource Curse Challenge Wright, G., Czelusta, J. 2004; 47
  • Technological Evolution in Cotton Spinning, 1878-1933 The Fibre that Changed the World Wright, G., Saxonhouse, G. edited by Farnie, D. A., Jeremy, D. J. Oxford University Press. 2004
  • Slavery and American agricultural history AGRICULTURAL HISTORY Wright, G. 2003; 77 (4): 527-?
  • Arbitraging a discriminatory labor market: Black workers at the Ford Motor Company, 1918-1947 JOURNAL OF LABOR ECONOMICS Foote, C. L., Whatley, W. C., Wright, G. 2003; 21 (3): 493-532
  • The Role of Nationhood in the Economic Development of the USA Economic Change and the Nation State in History Wright, G. edited by Teichova, A., Matis, H. Cambridge University Press. 2003
  • General purpose technologies and surges in productivity: Historical reflections on the future of the ICT revolution International Symposium on the Economic Challenges of the 21st Century in Historical Perspective David, P. A., Wright, G. OXFORD UNIV PRESS. 2003: 135–166
  • Afterword Second Wave Conference Wright, G. UNIV GEORGIA PRESS. 2001: 286–300
  • Reflections on One kind of freedom and the southern economy Conference on One Kind of Freedom reconsideres - African-American Economic Life in the Segregation Era Wright, G. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2001: 40–47
  • Quantitative Economic History in the United States International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences Wright, G. 2001
  • The Persistence of the South as an Economic Region Atlanta History Wright, G. 2001; 44
  • Economic history as a cure for economics Conference on Schools of Thought Wright, G. PRINCETON UNIV PRESS. 2001: 41–51
  • The civil rights revolution as economic history JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC HISTORY Wright, G. 1999; 59 (2): 267-289
  • Can a nation learn? American technology as a network phenomenon Conference on Learning by Doing in Markets, Firms, and Countries Wright, G. UNIV CHICAGO PRESS. 1999: 295–331
  • Rings and Mules around the World: A Comparative Study in Technological Change The Textile Industry and the Rise of the Japanese Economy Wright, G., Saxonhouse, G. edited by Smitka, M. 1998
  • How and Why I Work in Economic History Passion and Craft: How Economists Work Wright, G. edited by Szenberg, M. University of Michigan Press. 1998
  • Les Fondements Historiques de la Domination Economique Americaine Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales Wright, G. 1998
  • Two Forms of Cheap Labor in Textile History The Textile Industry and the Rise of the Japanese Economy Wright, G., Saxonhouse, G. edited by Smitka, M. 1998
  • Towards a more historical approach to technological change ECONOMIC JOURNAL Wright, G. 1997; 107 (444): 1560-1566
  • Convict Labor after Emancipation: Old South or New South? Georgia Historical Quarterly Wright, G. 1997; 81
  • Increasing Returns and the Genesis of American Resource Abundance Industrial and Corporate Change Wright, G., David, P. A. 1997; 6
  • Natural Resources and the American Economy Encyclopedia of the United States in the Twentieth Century Wright, G. edited by Kutler, S. I. 1996
  • The Mosaic of Economic Growth edited by Wright, G., Landau, R., Taylor, T. Stanford University Press. 1996
  • The Origins of American Industrial Success, 1879-1940 Historical Perspectives on the American Economy: Selected Readings Wright, G. edited by Whaples, R., Betts, D. C. Cambridge University Press. 1995
  • The Economic Revolution in the American South Historical Perspectives on the American Economy Wright, G. edited by Whaples, R., Betts, D. C. Cambridge University Press. 1995
  • The Erosion of U.S. Technological Leadership as a Factor in Postwar Economic Convergence Convergence of Productivity Wright, G. edited by Baumol, W. J., Nelson, R. R., Wolff, E. N. Oxford University Press. 1994
  • Cheap Labor and Southern Textiles before 1880 Industrialization in North America: The Industrial Revolutions Series Wright, G. edited by Temin, P. Blackwell. 1994
  • Race, Human Capital and Labour Markets in American History Labour Markets in History Wright, G., Whatley, W. edited by Grantham, G., MacKinnon, M. 1994
  • Economic Progress and the Mind of the South W.J. Cash and the Minds of the South Wright, G., edited by Escott, P. D. Louisiana State University Press. 1993
  • Old and New Directions in Agricultural History Outstanding in His Field Wright, G. edited by Rothstein, M. Iowa State University Press. 1993
  • THE RISE AND FALL OF AMERICAN TECHNOLOGICAL LEADERSHIP - THE POSTWAR ERA IN HISTORICAL-PERSPECTIVE JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE Nelson, R. R., Wright, G. 1992; 30 (4): 1931-1964
  • The Economics and Politics of Slavery and Freedom in the U.S. South The Meaning of Freedom Wright, G. edited by McGlynn, F., Drescher, S. University of Pittsburgh Press. 1992
  • Economic Aspects of the Civil Rights Movement New Directions in Civil Rights Studies Wright, G. edited by Robinson, A. L., Sullivan, P. University of Virginia Press. 1991
  • What Was Slavery? Social Concept Wright, G. 1991; 6
  • Understanding the Gender Gap: A Review Article Journal of Economic Literature Wright, G. 1991; 29
  • THE ORIGINS OF AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL SUCCESS, 1879-1940 AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW Wright, G. 1990; 80 (4): 651-668
  • Black Labor in the American Economy Since Emancipation: What Are the Lessons of History The Wealth of Races Wright, G., Whatley, W. edited by America, R. F. Greenwood. 1990
  • AMERICAN-AGRICULTURE AND THE LABOR-MARKET - WHAT HAPPENED TO PROLETARIANIZATION AGRICULTURAL HISTORY Wright, G. 1988; 62 (3): 182-209
  • CAPITALISM AND SLAVERY ON THE ISLANDS - A LESSON FROM THE MAINLAND JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY HISTORY Wright, G. 1987; 17 (4): 851-870
  • STUBBORN MULES AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION - THE DISAPPEARING CONSTRAINT ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW Saxonhouse, G., Wright, G. 1987; 40 (1): 87-94
  • Labor History and Labor Economics The Future of Economic History Wright, G. edited by Field, A. Kluwer-Nijhoff. 1987
  • Capitalism and Slavery on the Islands: Lessons from the Mainland British Capitalism and Caribbean Slavery Wright, G. edited by Solow, B. L., Engerman, S. L. Cambridge Univ. Press. 1987
  • Postbellum Southern Labor Markets Quantity and Quiddity: Essays in U.S. Economic History (in honor of Stanley Lebergott) Wright, G. edited by Kilby, P. Wesleyan Univ. Press,. 1987
  • The Economic Revolution in the American South Journal of Economic Perspectives Wright, G. 1987; 1
  • Stubborn Mules and Vertical Integration: The Vanishing Constraint? Economic History Review Wright, G., Saxonhouse, G. 1987; 40
  • Capitalism and Slavery on the Islands: Lessons from the Mainland Journal of lnterdisciplinary History Wright, G. 1987; 18
  • Old South New South: Revolutions in the Southern Economy Since the Civil War. Wright, G. Basic Books. 1986
  • Regulation in American History: The Human Touch Reviews in American History Wright, G. 1986; 14
  • History and the Future of Economics Economic History and the Modern Economist Wright, G. edited by Parker, W. N. Basil Blackwell. 1986
  • Two Forms of Cheap Labor in Textile History Technique, Spirit and Form in the Making of the Modern Economies Wright, G., Saxonhouse, G. 1984
  • Technique, Spirit and Form in the Making of the Modem Economies: Essays in Honor of William N. Parker edited by Saxonhouse, G. R., Wright, G. JAI Press. 1984
  • Rings and Mules around the World: A Comparative Study in Technological Change Technique, Spirit and Form edited by Wright, G., Saxonhouse, G. 1984
  • NEW EVIDENCE ON THE STUBBORN ENGLISH MULE AND THE COTTON INDUSTRY, 1878-1920 ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW SAXONHOUSE, G. R., Wright, G. 1984; 37 (4): 507-519
  • Rethinking the Postbellum Southern Political Economy Business History Review Wright, G. 1984; 58
  • Night Work as a Labor Market Phenomenon: Southern Textiles during the Interwar Period Explorations in Economic History Wright, G., Shiells, M. 1983; 20
  • THE STRANGE CAREER OF THE NEW SOUTHERN ECONOMIC-HISTORY REVIEWS IN AMERICAN HISTORY Wright, G. 1982; 10 (4): 164-180
  • The Strange Career of the New Southern Economic History The Promise of American History Wright, G. 1982
  • Freedom and the Southern Economy Market Institutions and Economic Progress in the New South Wright, G. edited by Shephered, J., Walton, G. Academic Press. 1981
  • Black and White Labor in the Old New South Business in the New South Wright, G. edited by Bateman, F. Sewanee, Tennessee: University Press. 1981
  • CHEAP LABOR AND SOUTHERN TEXTILES, 1880-1930 QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS Wright, G. 1981; 96 (4): 605-629
  • Agriculture in the South Dictionary of American Economic History Wright, G. edited by Porter, G. Scribners. 1980
  • FREEDOM AND THE SOUTHERN ECONOMY EXPLORATIONS IN ECONOMIC HISTORY Wright, G. 1979; 16 (1): 90-108
  • CHEAP LABOR AND SOUTHERN TEXTILES BEFORE 1880 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC HISTORY Wright, G. 1979; 39 (3): 655-680
  • EFFICIENCY OF SLAVERY - ANOTHER INTERPRETATION AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW Wright, G. 1979; 69 (1): 219-226
  • Safety-First, Gambling and the Subsistence Farmer Risk, Uncertainty, and Agricultural Development Wright, G., Kunreuther, H. edited by Roumasset, J. A., Boussard, J., Singh, I. 1979
  • The Political Economy of the Cotton South Wright, G. W.W. Norton. 1978
  • Cotton, Corn and Risk in the Nineteenth Century: Reply Explorations in Economic History Wright, G., Kunreuther, H. 1977; 14
  • Reckoning With Slavery Wright, G., David, P., Gutman, H., Sutch, R., Temin, P. Oxford University Press. 1976
  • Prosperity, Progress and American Slavery Reckoning with Slavery David, P., Wright, G., et al Oxford University Press. 1976
  • Cotton, Corn and Risk in the Nineteenth Century Journal of Economic History Wright, G. 1975; 35
  • Slavery and the Cotton Boom Explorations in Economic History Wright, G. 1975; 12
  • Cotton Competition and the Post-Bellum Recovery of the American South Journal of Economic History Wright, G. 1974; 34
  • The Political Economy of New Deal Spending: An Econometric Analysis Review of Economics and Statistics Wright, G. 1974; 56
  • New and Old Views on the Economics of Slavery Journal of Economic History Wright, G. 1973; 33
  • An Econometric Study of Cotton Production and Trade, 1830-1860 The New Economic History Wright, G. edited by Temin, P. 1973
  • The Effects of Territorial Expansion on the Price of Slaves Journal of Political Economy Wright, G., Passel, P. 1972; 80
  • Econometric Studies of History Frontiers of Quantitative Economics Wright, G. edited by Intriligator, M. 1971
  • ECONOMETRIC STUDY OF COTTON PRODUCTION AND TRADE, 1830-1860 REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS Wright, G. 1971; 53 (2): 111-120
  • 'Economic Democracy' and the Concentration of Agricultural Wealth in the Cotton South, 1850-1860 The Structure ofthe Cotton Economy in the Antebellum South Wright, G. edited by Parker, W. N. 1970