Clinical Focus

  • Pediatrics

Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • Grantee (English Teaching Assistant), Fulbright (2008-2009)

Professional Education

  • Residency: UCSF Pediatric Residency (2017) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2017)
  • Medical Education: Mount Sinai Medical Center (2014) NY
  • Applied Epidemiology Fellowship, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013)

Research Interests

  • Adolescence
  • Technology and Education

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Hart-Cooper's research focuses on youth provider barriers and education surrounding pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP). He founded the Virtual PrEP Program for Adolescents and Young Adults at Stanford to improve access to PrEP care for youth within California. In his current role, he advises health departments and health systems in creating youth-focused telehealth tools to improve youth access to PrEP.

All Publications

  • Usability and Utility of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Clinical Decision Support to Increase Knowledge and PrEP Initiations among Pediatric Providers. Applied clinical informatics Chan, C. T., Carlson, J., Lee, T. C., Vo, M., Nasr, A., Hart-Cooper, G. 2022


    OBJECTIVES: An effective clinical decision support system (CDSS) may address the current provider training barrier to offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to youth at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This study evaluated change in provider knowledge and likelihood to initiate PrEP after exposure to a PrEP CDSS. A secondary objective explored perceived provider utility of the CDSS and suggestions for improving CDSS effectiveness.METHODS: This was a prospective study using survey responses from a convenience sample of pediatric providers who launched the interruptive PrEP CDSS when ordering an HIV test. McNemar's test evaluated change in provider PrEP knowledge and likelihood to initiate PrEP. Qualitative responses on CDSS utility and suggested improvements were analyzed using Framework Analysis and were connected to quantitative analysis elements using the merge approach.RESULTS: Of the 73 invited providers, 43 had available outcome data and were included in the analysis. Prior to using the CDSS, 86% of participants had never prescribed PrEP. Compared to before CDSS exposure, there were significant increases in the proportion of providers who were knowledgeable about PrEP (p=0.0001), likely to prescribe PrEP (p<0.0001), and likely to refer their patient for PrEP (p<0.0001). Suggestions for improving the CDSS included alternative "triggers" for the CDSS earlier in visit workflows, having a non-interruptive CDSS, additional provider educational materials, access to patient-facing PrEP materials, and additional CDSS support for adolescent confidentiality and navigating financial implications of PrEP.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an interruptive PrEP CDSS attached to HIV test orders can be an effective tool to increase knowledge and likelihood to initiate PrEP among pediatric providers. Continual improvement of the PrEP CDSS based on provider feedback is required to optimize usability, effectiveness, and adoption. A highly usable PrEP CDSS may be a powerful tool to close the gap in youth PrEP access and uptake.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/a-1975-4277

    View details for PubMedID 36351546

  • Pediatric Provider Utilization of a Clinical Decision Support Alert and Association with HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Prescription Rates. Applied clinical informatics Chan, C. T., Vo, M., Carlson, J., Lee, T., Chang, M., Hart-Cooper, G. 2022; 13 (1): 30-36


     An electronic clinical decision support (CDS) alert can provide real-time provider support to offer pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to youth at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The purpose of this study was to evaluate provider utilization of a PrEP CDS alert in a large academic-community pediatric network and assess the association of the alert with PrEP prescribing rates. HIV test orders were altered for patients 13 years and older to include a hard-stop prompt asking if the patient would benefit from PrEP. If providers answered "Yes" or "Not Sure," the CDS alert launched with options to open a standardized order set, refer to an internal PrEP specialist, and/or receive an education module. We analyzed provider utilization using a frequency analysis. The rate of new PrEP prescriptions for 1 year after CDS alert implementation was compared with the year prior using Fisher's exact test. Of the 56 providers exposed to the CDS alert, 70% (n = 39) responded "Not sure" to the alert prompt asking if their patient would benefit from PrEP, and 54% (n = 30) chose at least one clinical support tool. The PrEP prescribing rate increased from 2.3 prescriptions per 10,000 patients to 6.6 prescriptions per 10,000 patients in the year post-intervention (p = 0.02). Our findings suggest a knowledge gap among pediatric providers in identifying patients who would benefit from PrEP. A hard-stop prompt within an HIV test order that offers CDS and provider education might be an effective tool to increase PrEP prescribing among pediatric providers.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0041-1740484

    View details for PubMedID 35021253

  • Adolescent Health Providers' Willingness to Prescribe Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to Youth at Risk of HIV Infection in the United States JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Hart-Cooper, G. D., Allen, I., Irwin, C. E., Scott, H. 2018; 63 (2): 242–44


    HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV acquisition; however, youth access to PrEP is limited by provider willingness to prescribe PrEP.We conducted an online survey of clinicians working with adolescents (aged 13-17 years) and young adults (aged 18-26 years) in the United States through the Society of Adolescent Health and Medicine. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess provider beliefs associated with willingness to provide PrEP.Nearly all (93.2%) providers had heard of PrEP, and 57 (35.2%) had prescribed PrEP. While almost all providers (95%) agreed that PrEP prevents HIV, fewer were willing to prescribe to young adults (77.8%) or adolescents (64.8%). Willingness to prescribe PrEP was strongly associated with the belief that providers had enough knowledge to safely provide PrEP to adolescents (OR 2.11, confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-3.76, p = .01) and young adults (odds ratio 5.19, CI: 2.15-12.50, p ≤ .001), and that adolescents would be adherent (odds ratio 3, CI: 1.30-6.90, p = .01). Response rate was 17%.Almost all providers had heard of PrEP and most providers were willing to prescribe PrEP. Provider education and tools to promote provider self-efficacy and adolescent adherence might improve provider willingness to provide PrEP.

    View details for PubMedID 29843969

  • Adolescent medicine providers' attitudes towards prescribing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to youth at risk of HIV infection in the US Hart-Cooper, G., Irwin, C., Scott, H. AMER ACAD PEDIATRICS. 2018
  • Low Viral Suppression and High HIV Diagnosis Rate Among Men Who Have Sex With Men With Syphilis - Baltimore, Maryland SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Cooley, L. A., Pearl, M. L., Flynn, C., Ross, C., Hart-Cooper, G., Elmore, K., Blythe, D., Morgan, J., Oster, A. M. 2015; 42 (4): 226–31


    The burden of syphilis and HIV among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in Baltimore, Maryland, is substantial. Syphilis and HIV surveillance data were analyzed to characterize MSM with syphilis, including those with repeat infection and HIV coinfection, to strengthen prevention efforts.MSM 15 years or older from Baltimore City or County diagnosed as having early syphilis in 2010 to 2011 were included. Those previously treated for syphilis in 2007 to 2011 were considered to have repeat syphilis infection. HIV surveillance data were used to identify HIV coinfection and assess viral suppression. For MSM not diagnosed as having HIV at or before their syphilis diagnosis, annual HIV diagnosis rates were estimated, using Baltimore City data.Of 460 MSM with early syphilis in 2010 or 2011, 92 (20%) had repeat infection; 55% of MSM with a single diagnosis and 86% with repeat infection were HIV coinfected. Among MSM diagnosed as having HIV, viral suppression was low (25%, or 46% of those with a viral load reported). Among Baltimore City MSM without a prior HIV diagnosis, estimated annual HIV diagnosis rates were high (5% for those with 1 syphilis diagnosis, 23% for those with repeat infection).Baltimore-area MSM with syphilis, particularly those with repeat infection, represent a unique population for whom coinfection with HIV is high. Increasing frequency of syphilis and HIV testing among Baltimore area MSM with a syphilis diagnosis and prioritizing HIV-infected MSM with syphilis in efforts to achieve viral suppression may improve outcomes locally for both infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000256

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351009100012

    View details for PubMedID 25763676

  • Circumcision of Privately Insured Males Aged 0 to 18 Years in the United States PEDIATRICS Hart-Cooper, G. D., Tao, G., Stock, J. A., Hoover, K. W. 2014; 134 (5): 950–56


    Male circumcision confers protection against HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and urinary tract infections. Compared with circumcision of postneonates (>28 days), circumcision of neonates is associated with fewer complications and usually performed with local rather than general anesthesia. We assessed circumcision of commercially insured males during the neonatal or postneonatal period.We analyzed 2010 MarketScan claims data from commercial health plans, using procedural codes to identify circumcisions performed on males aged 0 to 18 years, and diagnostic codes to assess clinical indications for the procedure. Among circumcisions performed in the first year of life, we estimated rates for neonates and postneonates. We estimated the percentage of circumcisions by age among males who had circumcisions in 2010, and the mean payment for neonatal and postneonatal procedures.We found that 156,247 circumcisions were performed, with 146,213 (93.6%) in neonates and 10,034 (6.4%) in postneonates. The neonatal circumcision rate was 65.7%, and 6.1% of uncircumcised neonates were circumcised by their first birthday. Among postneonatal circumcisions, 46.6% were performed in males younger than 1 year and 25.1% were for nonmedical indications. The mean payment was $285 for a neonatal and $1885 for a postneonatal circumcision.The large number of nonmedical postneonatal circumcisions suggests that neonatal circumcision might be a missed opportunity for these boys. Delay of nonmedical circumcision results in greater risk for the child, and a more costly procedure. Discussions with parents early in pregnancy might help them make an informed decision about circumcision of their child.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-1007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344385900044

    View details for PubMedID 25332502

  • Provider Barriers Prevent Recommended Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening of HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Carter, J. W., Hart-Cooper, G. D., Butler, M. O., Workowski, K. A., Hoover, K. W. 2014; 41 (2): 137–42


    HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for transmitting and acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Guidelines recommend at least annual screening of HIV-infected MSM for syphilis and for chlamydia and gonorrhea at exposed anatomical sites, to protect their health and their sexual partners' health. Despite these guidelines, STD screening has been suboptimal, with very low nongenital chlamydia and gonorrhea testing rates. Our objective was to better understand barriers encountered by HIV care providers in adhering to STD screening guidelines for HIV-infected MSM.We conducted 40 individual semistructured interviews with health care providers (physicians, midlevel providers, nurses, and health educators) of HIV-infected MSM at 8 large HIV clinics in 6 US cities. Providers were asked about their STD screening practices and barriers to conducting sexual risk assessments of their patients. Emerging themes were identified by qualitative data analysis.Although most health care providers reported routine syphilis screening, screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea at exposed anatomical sites was less frequent. Obstacles that prevented routine chlamydia and gonorrhea screening included time constraints, difficulty obtaining a sexual history, language and cultural barriers, and patient confidentiality concerns.Providers reported many obstacles to routine chlamydia and gonorrhea screening. Interventions are needed to help to mitigate barriers to STD screening, such as structural and patient-directed health services models that might facilitate increased testing coverage of these important preventive services.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000067

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336208800013

    View details for PubMedID 24413496

  • Notes from the field: repeat syphilis infection and HIV coinfection among men who have sex with men--Baltimore, Maryland, 2010-2011 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Cooley, L., et al 2013; 62 (32)