Pain Prevalence and Treatment in Hospitalized Children and Adolescents at a US Tertiary Pediatric Hospital.
Poorly controlled acute pain is associated with worsened patient outcomes. Prior studies suggest that acute pain is a common complaint among hospitalized pediatric patients, but recent studies with substantial numbers of patients from US hospitals are lacking. We retrospectively reviewed inpatients at a single academic children's hospital during twelve 24-hour periods in 2021. Outcomes were assessed for patients on non-intensive care unit (ICU) inpatient floors and in ICUs. The primary outcome was any presence of moderate to severe pain. Of 1355 patients on a non-ICU inpatient floor and 485 patients in the ICU, 23.5% and 58.6%, respectively, had ≥1 moderate to severe pain score during the 24-hour analysis period. While the mean pain score was low for the majority of patients, moderate to severe pain is frequent in hospitalized children. Future studies may focus on identification of variables associated with pediatric inpatients at risk of moderate to severe pain as well as improved pain prevention and reduction strategies.
View details for DOI 10.1177/00099228231196473
View details for PubMedID 37671731
A randomized controlled trial of graded exposure treatment (GET living) for adolescents with chronic pain.
Graded exposure treatment (GET) is a theory-driven pain treatment that aims to improve functioning by exposing patients to activities previously feared and avoided. Combining key elements of GET with acceptance-based exposure, GET Living (GL) was developed for adolescents with chronic pain (GL). Based on robust treatment effects observed in our single-case experimental design pilot trial of GL (NCT01974791), we conducted a 2-arm randomized clinical trial comparing GL with multidisciplinary pain management (MPM) comprised of cognitive behavioral therapy and physical therapy for pain management (NCT03699007). A cohort of 68 youth with chronic musculoskeletal pain (M age 14.2 years; 81% female) were randomized to GL or MPM. Owing to COVID-19 restrictions, 54% of participants received zoom video delivered care. Assessments were collected at baseline, discharge, as well as at 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were self-reported pain-related fear and avoidance. Secondary outcomes were child functional disability and parent protective responses to child pain. As hypothesized, GL improved in primary and secondary outcomes at 3-month follow-up. Contrary to our superiority hypothesis, there was no significant difference between GL and MPM. Patients reported both GL and MPM (in person and video) as credible and were highly satisfied with the treatment experience. Next steps will involve examining the single-case experimental design data embedded in this trial to facilitate an understanding of individual differences in treatment responses (eg, when effects occurred, what processes changed during treatment within the treatment arm). The current findings support GET Living and MPM for youth with chronic pain.
View details for DOI 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000003010
View details for PubMedID 37624900
Virtual Reality-Augmented Physiotherapy for Chronic Pain in Youth: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Enhanced With a Single-Case Experimental Design.
JMIR research protocols
2022; 11 (12): e40705
BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is a prominent health concern, resulting in pain-related disability, loss of functioning, and high health care costs. Physiotherapy rehabilitation is a gold-standard treatment for improving functioning in youth with chronic MSK pain. However, increasing physical activity can feel unattainable for many adolescents because of pain-related fear and movement avoidance. Virtual reality (VR) offers an immersive experience that can interrupt the fear-avoidance cycle and improve engagement in physiotherapy. Despite promising initial findings, data are limited and often lack the rigor required to establish VR as an evidence-based treatment for MSK pain.OBJECTIVE: This trial evaluates physiorehabilitation with VR in adolescents with MSK pain. This protocol outlines the rationale, design, and implementation of a randomized controlled trial enhanced with a single-case experimental design.METHODS: This study is a 2-group randomized controlled trial assessing the use of physiorehabilitation with VR in adolescents with MSK pain. The authors will collaborate with physical therapists to integrate VR into their standard clinical care. For participants enrolled in standard physiotherapy, there will be no VR integrated into their physical therapy program. Primary outcomes include physical function and engagement in VR. Secondary outcomes include pain-related fear and treatment adherence. Moreover, we will obtain clinician perspectives regarding the feasibility of integrating the intervention into the flow of clinical practice.RESULTS: The pilot study implementing physiorehabilitation with VR demonstrated that high engagement and use of physiorehabilitation with VR were associated with improvements in pain, fear, avoidance, and function. Coupled with qualitative feedback from patients, families, and clinicians, the pilot study results provide support for this trial to evaluate physiorehabilitation with VR for youth with chronic MSK pain. Analysis of results from the main clinical trial will begin as recruitment progresses, and results are expected in early 2024.CONCLUSIONS: Significant breakthroughs for treating MSK pain require mechanistically informed innovative approaches. Physiorehabilitation with VR provides exposure to progressive challenges, real-time feedback, and reinforcement for movement and can include activities that are difficult to achieve in the real world. It has the added benefit of sustaining patient motivation and adherence while enabling clinicians to use objective benchmarks to influence progression. These findings will inform the decision of whether to proceed with a hybrid effectiveness-dissemination trial of physiorehabilitation with VR, serving as the basis for potential large-scale implementation of physiorehabilitation with VR.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04636177; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04636177.INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/40705.
View details for DOI 10.2196/40705
View details for PubMedID 36508251
Health Care Burden Associated With Adolescent Prolonged Opioid Use After Surgery.
Anesthesia and analgesia
BACKGROUND: Prolonged opioid use after surgery (POUS), defined as the filling of at least 1 opioid prescription filled between 90 and 180 days after surgery, has been shown to increase health care costs and utilization in adult populations. However, its economic burden has not been studied in adolescent patients. We hypothesized that adolescents with POUS would have higher health care costs and utilization than non-POUS patients.METHODS: Opioid-naive patients 12 to 21 years of age in the United States who received outpatient prescription opioids after surgery were identified from insurance claim data from the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart Database from January 1, 2003, to June 30, 2019. The primary outcomes were total health care costs and visits in the 730-day period after the surgical encounter in patients with POUS versus those without POUS. Multivariable regression analyses were used to determine adjusted health care cost and visit differences.RESULTS: A total of 126,338 unique patients undergoing 132,107 procedures were included in the analysis, with 4867 patients meeting criteria for POUS for an incidence of 3.9%. Adjusted mean total health care costs in the 730 days after surgery were $4604 (95% confidence interval [CI], $4027-$5181) higher in patients with POUS than that in non-POUS patients. Patients with POUS had increases in mean adjusted inpatient length of stay (0.26 greater [95% CI, 0.22-0.30]), inpatient visits (0.07 greater [95% CI, 0.07-0.08]), emergency visits (0.96 greater [95% CI, 0.89-1.03]), and outpatient/other visits (5.78 greater [95% CI, 5.37-6.19]) in the 730 days after surgery (P < .001 for all comparisons).CONCLUSIONS: In adolescents, POUS was associated with increased total health care costs and utilization in the 730 days after their surgical encounter. Given the increased health care burden associated with POUS in adolescents, further investigation of preventative measures for high-risk individuals and additional study of the relationship between opioid prescription and outcomes may be warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000006111
View details for PubMedID 35726884