Gopi Shah Goda is a Senior Fellow at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (SIEPR) at Stanford University. Gopi served as a senior economist at the White House Council of Economic Advisers from July 2021 to July 2022. She is also a Faculty Research Fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research, a Fellow of the Society of Actuaries, and served as SIEPR's Deputy Director from September 2016 to July 2021.
Gopi’s research focuses on the well-being of individuals as they age, the sustainability of public programs serving elderly and vulnerable populations, and the broader implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on health and labor supply. Her recent research studies examine the effects of long-term care insurance on family members’ work and location decisions, and how COVID-19 illness affects U.S. workers. Her work has appeared in a variety of leading economics journals, and has and has garnered coverage in major media outlets such as the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, the Washington Post, National Public Radio, the Guardian, and the San Francisco Chronicle. Gopi's research has been supported by the Social Security Administration, the National Institutes on Aging, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the TIAA Institute.
Prior to joining SIEPR, Gopi was a Robert Wood Johnson Scholar in Health Policy Research at Harvard University. She earned her PhD in economics from Stanford University in 2007 and her B.S. in mathematics and actuarial science from the University of Nebraska – Lincoln in 2000.
Senior Fellow, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (SIEPR)
Deputy Director, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (2016 - 2021)
- Temporary and permanent effects of withdrawal penalties on retirement savings accounts JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMICS 2022; 215
The impact of Covid-19 on older workers' employment and Social Security spillovers.
Journal of population economics
The COVID-19 pandemic represents a major threat to health and economic well-being in the USA, especially for older and disabled workers, and may spill over onto Social Security. We use individual-level from the Current Population Survey, state-level monthly Social Security administrative data on disability benefit applications, and national-level monthly data on Social Security retirement benefit applications to assess the impact of the pandemic on older adults' employment and benefit claiming. State-level monthly Google Trends data are used as a leading indicator of future claiming in the population. We find that employment for older workers dropped substantially more than would have been predicted prior to the pandemic: employment for 50-61-year-olds was 5.7 pp (8.3 percent) lower, while employment for 62-70-year-olds was 3.9 pp (10.7 percent) lower. We find declines in labor force exit due to disability (4-5 percent), applications for disability insurance (15 percent), the average age of disability program applicants, and Google searches for disability (7 percent). We contrast with prior periods of economic downturn and explore potential mechanisms, finding evidence for both supply- and demand-side explanations.The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00148-022-00915-z.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00148-022-00915-z
View details for PubMedID 35814291
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9251032
- Who is a passive saver under opt-in and auto-enrollment? JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR & ORGANIZATION 2020; 173: 301–21
- PREDICTING RETIREMENT SAVINGS USING SURVEY MEASURES OF EXPONENTIAL-GROWTH BIAS AND PRESENT BIAS ECONOMIC INQUIRY 2019; 57 (3): 1636–58
- THE EFFECTS OF THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT ON HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE AND LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES NATIONAL TAX JOURNAL 2019; 72 (2): 261–322
- Work incentives in the Social Security Disability benefit formula JOURNAL OF PENSION ECONOMICS & FINANCE 2019; 18 (2): 165–89
- HETEROGENEITY IN STATE-DEPENDENT UTILITY: EVIDENCE FROM STRATEGIC SURVEYS ECONOMIC INQUIRY 2016; 54 (2): 847-861
- What will my account really be worth? Experimental evidence on how retirement income projections affect saving JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMICS 2014; 119: 80-92
Does widowhood explain gender differences in out-of-pocket medical spending among the elderly?
JOURNAL OF HEALTH ECONOMICS
2013; 32 (3): 647-658
Despite the presence of Medicare, out-of-pocket medical spending is a large expenditure risk facing the elderly. While women live longer than men, elderly women incur higher out-of-pocket medical spending than men at each age. In this paper, we examine whether differences in marital status and living arrangements can explain this difference. We find that out-of-pocket medical spending is approximately 24 percent higher when an individual becomes widowed, a large portion of which is spending on nursing homes. Our results suggest a substantial role of living arrangements in out-of-pocket medical spending. Our estimates combined with differences in rates of widowhood across gender suggest that marital status can explain about one third of the gender difference in total out-of-pocket medical spending, leaving a large portion unexplained. On the other hand, gender differences in widowhood more than explain the observed gender difference in out-of-pocket spending on nursing homes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2012.10.011
View details for Web of Science ID 000319238100013
View details for PubMedID 23477686
Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?
JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCES
2012; 47 (4): 1055-1081
View details for Web of Science ID 000310856700007
Long-Term Care Insurance Demand Limited By Beliefs About Needs, Concerns About Insurers, And Care Available From Family
2012; 31 (6): 1294-1302
In spite of the high costs and major financial risks involved in long-term care, the majority of older Americans do not own long-term care insurance. We conducted a survey designed to learn more about the role of the following four broad factors in affecting the demand for long-term care insurance: preferences and beliefs, such as notions about the likelihood that one will become disabled; substitutes for insurance, such as savings that could be spent on long-term care; substitutes for formal care, such as care provided by family members; and features of the private market, such as concerns about the high costs of coverage. We found evidence that each of these factors was important in explaining low demand for long-term care insurance. For example, people who believed they might need long-term care were more likely to purchase long-term care coverage. People who had alternative ways to pay for care, such as through savings, or those who could use unpaid care from family members, were less likely to purchase insurance. Features of the private market, such as people's lack of trust in insurers and the high cost of coverage, made people less likely to buy long-term care insurance. We conclude that policy interventions designed to address only one factor limiting the purchase of long-term care insurance are unlikely to dramatically increase demand for long-term care insurance.
View details for DOI 10.1377/hlthaff.2011.1307
View details for Web of Science ID 000305130900018
View details for PubMedID 22665842
- The impact of state tax subsidies for private long-term care insurance on coverage and Medicaid expenditures JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMICS 2011; 95 (7-8): 744-757
Income and the utilization of long-term care services: Evidence from the Social Security benefit notch
JOURNAL OF HEALTH ECONOMICS
2011; 30 (4): 719-729
This paper estimates the impact of income on the long-term care utilization of elderly Americans using a natural experiment that led otherwise similar retirees to receive significantly different Social Security payments based on their year of birth. Using data from the 1993 and 1995 waves of the AHEAD, we estimate instrumental variables models and find that a positive permanent income shock lowers nursing home use but increases the utilization of paid home care services. We find some suggestive evidence that the effects are due to substitution of home care for nursing home utilization. The magnitude of these estimates suggests that moderate reductions in post-retirement income would significantly alter long-term utilization patterns among elderly individuals.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.04.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000294393500011
View details for PubMedID 21641063
- Fertility and the Personal Exemption: Comment AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW 2011; 101 (4): 1616-1628
HOW WELL ARE SOCIAL SECURITY RECIPIENTS PROTECTED FROM INFLATION?
NATIONAL TAX JOURNAL
2011; 64 (2): 429-449
View details for Web of Science ID 000291189100009
- What Explains Changes in Retirement Plans during the Great Recession? AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW 2011; 101 (3): 29-34
Do markets respond to quality information? The case of fertility clinics
JOURNAL OF HEALTH ECONOMICS
2009; 28 (3): 718-727
Although policymakers have increasingly turned to provider report cards as a tool to improve health care quality, existing studies provide mixed evidence on whether they influence consumer choices. We examine the effects of providing consumers with quality information in the context of fertility clinics providing Assisted Reproductive Therapies (ART). We report three main findings. First, clinics with higher birth rates had larger market shares after the adoption of report cards relative to before. Second, clinics with a disproportionate share of young, relatively easy-to-treat patients had lower market shares after adoption versus before. This suggests that consumers take into account information on patient mix when evaluating clinic outcomes. Third, report cards had larger effects on consumers and clinics from states with ART insurance coverage mandates. We conclude that consumers respond to quality report cards when choosing among providers of ART.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2009.01.001
View details for PubMedID 19328568