Dr. Grace Cho is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Dermatology at Stanford. She received a Bachelor of Arts degree in molecular biology from Harvard University and attended medical school at Stanford. She completed her internship at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center and her residency in dermatology at Stanford.
Her clinical interests include full range of general medical dermatology, including acne, psoriasis, and prevention and treatment of skin cancer, as well as complex medical dermatology such as blistering and autoimmune dermatoses. She also has a special interest in medical education and mentorship.
Dr. Cho is originally from Seoul, South Korea and Michigan. Outside of work, she enjoys hiking, cycling, and reading.
- prevention and treatment of skin cancer
- Blistering and autoimmune dermatoses
Clinical Assistant Professor, Dermatology
Board Certification: American Board of Dermatology, Dermatology (2022)
Residency: Stanford University Dermatology Residency (2022) CA
Internship: Santa Clara Valley Medical Center Internal Medicine Residency (2019) CA
Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (2018) CA
Characterization of comorbidity heterogeneity among 13,667 patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disorder characterized by recurrent abscesses in the groin and flexural areas. HS is associated with a wide range of comorbidities that complicate the disease course. Although these comorbidities have been well-described, it remains unclear how these comorbidities co-associate and whether comorbidity profiles affect disease trajectory. In addition, it is unknown how comorbidity associations are modulated by race and gender. In this comprehensive analysis of 77 million patients in a large U.S. population-based cohort, we examine co-association patterns among HS comorbidities and identify clinically relevant phenotypic subtypes within HS. We demonstrate that these subtypes not only differ among races, but also influence clinical outcomes as measured by HS-related emergency department (ED) visits and cellulitis. Taken together, our findings provide key insights that elucidate the unique disease trajectories experienced by HS patients, and equip clinicians with a novel framework for risk stratification and improved targeted care in HS.
View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.151872
View details for PubMedID 34546979
- Prevalence and risk factors for high frequency basal cell carcinoma in the United States. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2020
- Hyperhidrosis affects quality of life in hidradenitis suppurativa: a prospective analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2019
Frequent basal cell cancer development is a clinical marker for inherited cancer susceptibility
2018; 3 (15)
Innate DNA repair mechanisms play a critical role in protecting skin keratinocytes from UV mutagenesis and skin cancer development. We hypothesized that individuals who develop frequent skin cancers may harbor germline defects in DNA repair genes and have increased predisposition to internal malignancies. We enrolled 61 patients with unusually frequent basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development, seen at Stanford Hospital and Clinics from January 2005 until December 2015, for germline analysis of 29 DNA repair genes. In parallel, a case-control retrospective review was performed to interrogate the association of malignancies with frequent BCC development in a large US medical insurance claims database (Truven), which included 13,264 individuals with 6 or more BCCs from 2007 to 2011. 19.7% of the frequent BCC cohort harbored pathogenic mutations in DNA repair genes: APC, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, and PALB2. Individuals with 6 or more BCCs had an increased risk of other malignancies, with a 3.5-fold increase in the frequent BCC cohort and a 3.2-fold increase in the Truven database. Individuals who developed frequent BCCs have an increased prevalence of germline mutations in DNA repair genes and increased malignancy risk. Our data implicate frequent BCC development as an external marker of inherited cancer risk.
View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.122744
View details for Web of Science ID 000441201300022
View details for PubMedID 30089731
- Melanoma risk prediction using a multilocus genetic risk score in the Women's Health Initiative cohort JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY 2018; 79 (1): 36-+
Identification of Atorvastatin for Moderate to Severe Hidradenitis through Drug Repositioning Using Public Gene Expression Datasets
JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY
2018; 138 (5): 1209–12
View details for PubMedID 29247661
- Azathioprine and risk of multiple keratinocyte cancers JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY 2018; 78 (1): 27-+
- Standard dermoscopy and videodermoscopy as tools for medical student dermatologic education DERMATOLOGY PRACTICAL & CONCEPTUAL 2018; 8 (1): 39–42
Standard dermoscopy and videodermoscopy as tools for medical student dermatologic education.
Dermatology practical & conceptual
2018; 8 (1): 39–42
View details for PubMedID 29445573
Videodermoscopy as a Novel Tool for Dermatologic Education
2017; 100 (2): E25–E27
Dermoscopy is used as an adjunct to clinical examination in the diagnosis of skin lesions, including melanoma. Videodermoscopy, which allows for the concurrent examination of dermoscopic features at high magnification by instructors and trainees, may serve as a useful educational tool during bedside instruction. This article presents images of common cutaneous lesions taken with a standard optical dermatoscope and a videodermatoscope to highlight the potential educational advantages conferred by videodermoscopy.
View details for PubMedID 28961304
Association study of genetic variation in DNA repair pathway genes and risk of basal cell carcinoma.
International journal of cancer
DNA repair plays a critical role in protecting the genome from ultraviolet radiation and maintaining the genomic integrity of cells. Genetic variants in DNA repair-related genes can influence an individual's DNA repair capacity, which may be related to the risk of developing basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We comprehensively assessed the associations of 2,965 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 165 DNA repair pathway genes with BCC risk in a genome-wide association meta-analysis totaling 17,187 BCC cases and 287,054 controls from two data sets. After multiple testing corrections, we identified three SNPs (rs2805831 upstream of XPA: OR = 0.93, P = 1.35 × 10(-6) ; rs659857 in exon of MUS81: OR = 1.06, P = 3.09 × 10(-6) and rs57343616 in 3' UTR of NABP2: OR = 1.11, P = 6.47 × 10(-6) ) as significantly associated with BCC risk in meta-analysis, and all of them were nominally significant in both data sets. Furthermore, rs659857 [T] was significantly associated with decreased expression of MUS81 mRNA in the expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our findings suggest that the inherited common variation in three DNA repair genes-XPA, MUS81 and NABP2-may be involved in the development of BCC. To our knowledge, our study is the first report thoroughly examining the effects of SNPs across DNA repair pathway genes on BCC risk based on a genome-wide association meta-analysis.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ijc.30786
View details for PubMedID 28510302
- Correlates of multiple basal cell carcinoma in a retrospective cohort study: Sex, histologic subtypes, and anatomic distribution. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2017
Two-stage genome-wide association study identifies a novel susceptibility locus associated with melanoma.
Genome-wide association studies have identified 21 susceptibility loci associated with melanoma. These loci implicate genes affecting pigmentation, nevus count, telomere maintenance, and DNA repair in melanoma risk. Here, we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of melanoma. The stage 1 discovery phase consisted of 4,842 self-reported melanoma cases and 286,565 controls of European ancestry from the 23andMe research cohort and the stage 2 replication phase consisted of 1,804 melanoma cases and 1,026 controls from the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. We performed a combined meta-analysis totaling 6,628 melanoma cases and 287,591 controls. Our study replicates 20 of 21 previously known melanoma-loci and confirms the association of the telomerase reverse transcriptase, TERT, with melanoma susceptibility at genome-wide significance. In addition, we uncover a novel polymorphism, rs187843643 (OR = 1.96; 95% CI = [1.54, 2.48]; P = 3.53 x 10-8), associated with melanoma. The SNP rs187842643 lies within a noncoding RNA 177kb downstream of BASP1 (brain associated protein-1). We find that BASP1 expression is suppressed in melanoma as compared with benign nevi, providing additional evidence for a putative role in melanoma pathogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.18632/oncotarget.15230
View details for PubMedID 28212542
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5392271
Association between genetic variation within vitamin D receptor-DNA binding sites and risk of basal cell carcinoma.
International journal of cancer
An increasing number of studies have reported a protective association between vitamin D and cancer risk. The vitamin D endocrine system regulates transcriptional programs involved in inflammation, cell growth and differentiation through the binding of vitamin D receptor (VDR) to specific VDR elements. However, limited attention has been given to the role of variation within VDR binding sites in the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Across 2,776 previously identified VDR binding sites, we identified 2,540 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and examined their associations with BCC risk in a genome-wide association meta-analysis totaling 17,187 BCC cases and 287,054 controls from two data sets. After multiple testing corrections, we identified two SNPs at new loci (rs16917546 at 10q21.1: odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, p = 3.16 × 10(-7) and rs79824801 at 12q13.3: OR = 1.10, p = 1.88 × 10(-5) ) for the first time as independently related to BCC risk in meta-analysis; and both SNPs were nominally significant in two data sets. In addition, the SNP rs3769823 within VDR binding site at a previously reported BCC susceptibility locus (2q33.1, rs13014235) also exhibited a significant association (OR = 1.12, p = 3.99 × 10(-18) ). A mutually adjusted model suggested that rs3769823 explained the signal in this region. Our findings support the hypothesis that inherited common variation in VDR binding sites affects the development of BCC.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ijc.30634
View details for PubMedID 28177523
Limited Role of Random Skin Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Intravascular Lymphoma in Adult Patients with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
2017; 138 (1): 33–38
This study examined the role of random normal skin biopsy in the diagnosis of intravascular lymphoma (IVL) in adult Western patients with clinically diagnosed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).In a retrospective chart review study, we analyzed a total of 59 skin biopsies that were performed to diagnose IVL in 21 adult patients with HLH seen at Stanford Hospital between 2004 and 2016.Out of the 59 skin biopsies, 42 were taken from clinically normal-appearing skin and 17 from clinically abnormal-appearing skin. None of the 59 biopsies revealed a diagnosis of primary or metastatic malignancy, regardless of the malignancy history, clinical presentation, and biopsy and histopathologic characteristics. A review of 8 positive IVL cases at Stanford Hospital including 1 case associated with HLH showed 1 positive diagnosis by a targeted skin biopsy and other positive diagnoses by bone marrow (n = 4), lung (n = 2), brain (n = 2), muscle (n = 1), and nerve (n = 1).Random skin biopsies have a limited role in diagnosing IVL in adult patients with HLH, in the setting of a single academic institution in the USA. A review of the literature emphasizes the role of a full body skin exam with a selective skin biopsy in these patients.
View details for PubMedID 28668948
- Identification of Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists as Potential Therapeutic Agents for Dermatomyositis through Drug-Repurposing Using Public Expression Datasets. journal of investigative dermatology 2016; 136 (7): 1517-1520
Lateral Pharyngeal Wall Tension After Maxillomandibular Advancement for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is a Marker for Surgical Success: Observations From Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
2015; 73 (8): 1575-1582
The efficacy of maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with anatomic airway changes has previously been studied using static imaging and endoscopy in awake subjects. The aim of the present study was to use drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) to evaluate the dynamic upper airway changes in sleeping subjects before and after MMA and their association with the surgical outcome.This was a retrospective cohort study of subjects with OSA who had undergone MMA at the Stanford University Sleep Surgery Division from July 2013 to July 2014. The subjects were included if perioperative polysomnography and DISE had been performed. The predictor variable was the perioperative DISE velum-oropharynx-tongue-epiglottis score. The outcome variables were the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen-desaturation index (ODI), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A subgroup analysis was performed for the subjects who had undergone primary and secondary MMA. The statistical analyses included Cronbach's α coefficient, the McNemar test, and the independent Student t test. The P value was set at <.01.A total of 16 subjects (15 males, 1 female) were included in the present study, with an average age of 47 ± 10.9 years and body mass index of 29.4 ± 5.1 kg/m(2). Significant post-MMA decreases were found in the AHI (from 59.8 ± 25.6 to 9.3 ± 7.1 events/hr) and ODI (from 45 ± 29.7 to 5.7 ± 4.1 events/hr; P < .001). Greater improvement in the AHI occurred in the primary MMA group (P = .022). The post-MMA change in airway collapse was most significant at the lateral pharyngeal wall (P = .001). The subjects with the most improvement in lateral pharyngeal wall collapsibility demonstrated the largest changes in the AHI (from 60.0 ± 25.6 events/hr to 7.5 ± 3.4 events/hr) and ODI (from 46.7 ± 29.8 to 5.3 ± 2 events/hr; P = .002).Using DISE, we observed that after MMA, the greatest reduction in upper airway collapsibility is seen at the lateral pharyngeal wall of the oropharynx, followed by the velum, and then the tongue base. The stability of the lateral pharyngeal wall is a marker of surgical success after MMA using the AHI, ODI, and ESS.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joms.2015.01.028
View details for PubMedID 25843814