Dr. Kang is an interventional cardiologist who specializes in the treatment of structural heart disease. He has expertise in complex coronary interventions, transcatheter aortic and mitral valve replacements, transcatheter mitral valve repair, left atrial appendage occlusion, PFO/septal defect closure, alcohol septal ablation, and paravalvular leak closure.
A Bay Area native, he graduated from Stanford University and obtained his medical degree at Yale University. He came back to Stanford to train in internal medicine, cardiology, and interventional cardiology before completing an advanced structural interventions fellowship at Ford Hospital.
- Interventional Cardiology
- Structural Interventions
Board Certification: National Board of Echocardiography, Adult Echocardiography (2018)
Fellowship, Henry Ford Hospital, Structural Interventions (2020)
Fellowship, Stanford University, Interventional Cardiology (2019)
Fellowship, Stanford University, Cardiovascular Medicine (2018)
Residency, Stanford University, Internal Medicine (2015)
Internship, Stanford University, Internal Medicine (2013)
MD, Yale School of Medicine, Medicine (2012)
BS, Stanford University, Biological Sciences (2006)
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Interventional Cardiology (2019)
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease (2018)
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2015)
A deep learning-based electrocardiogram risk score for long term cardiovascular death and disease.
NPJ digital medicine
2023; 6 (1): 169
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most frequently performed cardiovascular diagnostic test, but it is unclear how much information resting ECGs contain about long term cardiovascular risk. Here we report that a deep convolutional neural network can accurately predict the long-term risk of cardiovascular mortality and disease based on a resting ECG alone. Using a large dataset of resting 12-lead ECGs collected at Stanford University Medical Center, we developed SEER, the Stanford Estimator of Electrocardiogram Risk. SEER predicts 5-year cardiovascular mortality with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.83 in a held-out test set at Stanford, and with AUCs of 0.78 and 0.83 respectively when independently evaluated at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and Columbia University Irving Medical Center. SEER predicts 5-year atherosclerotic disease (ASCVD) with an AUC of 0.67, similar to the Pooled Cohort Equations for ASCVD Risk, while being only modestly correlated. When used in conjunction with the Pooled Cohort Equations, SEER accurately reclassified 16% of patients from low to moderate risk, uncovering a group with an actual average 9.9% 10-year ASCVD risk who would not have otherwise been indicated for statin therapy. SEER can also predict several other cardiovascular conditions such as heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Using only lead I of the ECG it predicts 5-year cardiovascular mortality with an AUC of 0.80. SEER, used alongside the Pooled Cohort Equations and other risk tools, can substantially improve cardiovascular risk stratification and aid in medical decision making.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41746-023-00916-6
View details for PubMedID 37700032
View details for PubMedCentralID 8145781
Distance between valvular leaflet and coronary ostium predicting risk of coronary obstruction during TAVR.
International journal of cardiology. Heart & vasculature
1800; 37: 100917
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the distance between the aortic valve in projected position to the coronary ostium to determine risk of coronary artery obstruction after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).Methods: An Expected Leaflet-to-ostium Distance (ELOD) was obtained on pre-TAVR planning computed tomography by subtracting leaflet thickness and the distances from the center to the annular rim at annulus level and from the center to the coronary ostium at mid-ostial level. Variables were compared between patients with and without coronary obstruction and the level of association between variables was assessed using log odds ratio (OR).Results: A total of 177 patients with 353 coronary arteries was analyzed. Mean annulus diameters (22.8±2.8mm and 23.4±1.0mm, p>0.05) and mean sinus of Valsalva (SOV) diameters (31.2±3.6mm and 31.9±3.6mm, p>0.05) were similar between patients with lower and higher coronary heights, respectively. There were three coronary obstruction cases. ELOD≤2mm in combination with leaflet length longer than mid-ostial height allowed for discrimination of cases with and without coronary obstruction. There was a significant association between coronary obstruction event and ELOD≤2mm (log OR=6.180, p<0.001).Conclusions: Our study showed that a combination of ELOD<2mm and a longer leaflet length than mid-ostial height may be associated with increased risk for coronary obstruction during TAVR.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijcha.2021.100917
View details for PubMedID 34917750
Choosing Between Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement and Surgery in the Low-Risk Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Era.
Interventional cardiology clinics
2021; 10 (4): 413-422
The landmark results of the low surgical risk pivotal transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) trials fueled speculation that the role of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) would be limited in the future. Instead, the field has pivoted away from reductive surgical risk stratification toward understanding the complex interplay of anatomy, timing, and surgical risk to optimize the lifetime management of aortic stenosis. In this review, we systematically explore the subtleties that influence the choice between TAVR and surgery in the low-risk TAVR era.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.iccl.2021.05.001
View details for PubMedID 34593105
Chase the Leak - A Case of Valve-in-Ring with Mitral PVL Closure
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2021: S247–S248
View details for Web of Science ID 000637884100174
- Deep Neural Network Trained on Surface ECG Improves Diagnostic Accuracy of Prior Myocardial Infarction Over Q Wave Analysis IEEE. 2021
Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in an Anomalous LAD Artery
JACC: Case Reports
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaccas.2019.11.061
A novel noninvasive method for remote heart failure monitoring: the EuleriAn video Magnification apPLications In heart Failure studY (AMPLIFY).
NPJ digital medicine
2019; 2: 80
Current remote monitoring devices for heart failure have been shown to reduce hospitalizations but are invasive and costly; accurate non-invasive options remain limited. The EuleriAn Video Magnification ApPLications In Heart Failure StudY (AMPLIFY) pilot aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a novel noninvasive method that uses Eulerian video magnification. Video recordings were performed on the neck veins of 50 patients who were scheduled for right heart catheterization at the Palo Alto VA Medical Center. The recorded jugular venous pulsations were then enhanced by applying Eulerian phase-based motion magnification. Assessment of jugular venous pressure was compared across three categories: (1) physicians who performed bedside exams, (2) physicians who reviewed both the amplified and unamplified videos, and (3) direct invasive measurement of right atrial pressure from right heart catheterization. Motion magnification reduced inaccuracy of the clinician assessment of central venous pressure compared to the gold standard of right heart catheterization (mean discrepancy of -0.80cm H2O; 95% CI -2.189 to 0.612, p=0.27) when compared to both unamplified video (-1.84cm H2O; 95% CI -3.22 to -0.46, p=0.0096) and the bedside exam (-2.90cm H2O; 95% CI -4.33 to 1.40, p=0.0002). Major categorical disagreements with right heart catheterization were significantly reduced with motion magnification (12%) when compared to unamplified video (25%) or the bedside exam (27%). This novel method of assessing jugular venous pressure improves the accuracy of the clinical exam and may enable accurate remote monitoring of heart failure patients with minimal patient risk.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41746-019-0159-0
View details for PubMedID 31453375
Expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement into uncharted indications.
The Korean journal of internal medicine
2018; 33 (3): 474–82
Since the first-in-man transcatheter delivery of an aortic valve prosthesis in 2002, the landscape of aortic stenosis therapeutics has shifted dramatically. While initially restricted to non-surgical cases, progressive advances in transcatheter aortic valve replacement and our understanding of its safety and efficacy have expanded its use in intermediate and possibly low surgical risk patients. In this review, we explore the past, present, and future of transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
View details for PubMedID 29551053
Neprilysin Inhibitors in Cardiovascular Disease.
Current cardiology reports
2017; 19 (2): 16-?
Mortality from heart failure remains high despite advances in medical therapy over the last three decades. Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) combinations are the latest addition to the heart failure medical armamentarium, which is built on the cornerstone regimen of beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists. Recent trial data have shown a significant mortality benefit from ARNIs, which, as of May 2016, have now received a class I recommendation for use in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction from the major American and European cardiology societies.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11886-017-0827-0
View details for PubMedID 28185171
Pulmonary artery pulsatility index predicts right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device implantation.
journal of heart and lung transplantation
2016; 35 (1): 67-73
Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. The pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi) is a novel hemodynamic index that predicts RVF in the setting of myocardial infarction, although it has not been shown to predict RVF after LVAD implantation.We performed a retrospective, single-center analysis to examine the utility of the PAPi in predicting RVF and RV assist device (RVAD) implantation in 85 continuous-flow LVAD recipients. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis incorporating previously identified predictors of RVF after LVAD placement, including clinical and echocardiographic variables, to determine the independent effect of PAPi in predicting RVF or RVAD after LVAD placement.In this cohort, the mean PAPi was 3.4 with a standard deviation of 2.9. RVF occurred in 33% of patients, and 11% required a RVAD. Multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profile, revealed that higher PAPi was independently associated with a reduced risk of RVAD placement (odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-0.89). This relationship did not change significantly when echocardiographic measures were added to the analysis. Stratifying the analysis by the presence of inotropes during catheterization revealed that PAPi was more predictive of RVAD requirement when measured on inotropes (OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.02-0.97) than without (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.01-1.94). Furthermore, time from catheterization to LVAD did not significantly affect the predictive value of the PAPi (maximum time, 6 months). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved using a PAPi threshold of 2.0.In LVAD recipients, the PAPi is an independent predictor of RVF and the need for RVAD support after LVAD implantation. This index appears more predictive in patients receiving inotropes and was not affected by time from catheterization to LVAD in our cohort.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2015.06.009
View details for PubMedID 26212656