All Publications


  • Preventing Engrailed-1 activation in fibroblasts yields wound regeneration without scarring. Science (New York, N.Y.) Mascharak, S., desJardins-Park, H. E., Davitt, M. F., Griffin, M., Borrelli, M. R., Moore, A. L., Chen, K., Duoto, B., Chinta, M., Foster, D. S., Shen, A. H., Januszyk, M., Kwon, S. H., Wernig, G., Wan, D. C., Lorenz, H. P., Gurtner, G. C., Longaker, M. T. 2021; 372 (6540)

    Abstract

    Skin scarring, the end result of adult wound healing, is detrimental to tissue form and function. Engrailed-1 lineage-positive fibroblasts (EPFs) are known to function in scarring, but Engrailed-1 lineage-negative fibroblasts (ENFs) remain poorly characterized. Using cell transplantation and transgenic mouse models, we identified a dermal ENF subpopulation that gives rise to postnatally derived EPFs by activating Engrailed-1 expression during adult wound healing. By studying ENF responses to substrate mechanics, we found that mechanical tension drives Engrailed-1 activation via canonical mechanotransduction signaling. Finally, we showed that blocking mechanotransduction signaling with either verteporfin, an inhibitor of Yes-associated protein (YAP), or fibroblast-specific transgenic YAP knockout prevents Engrailed-1 activation and promotes wound regeneration by ENFs, with recovery of skin appendages, ultrastructure, and mechanical strength. This finding suggests that there are two possible outcomes to postnatal wound healing: a fibrotic response (EPF-mediated) and a regenerative response (ENF-mediated).

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aba2374

    View details for PubMedID 33888614

  • Prrx1 Fibroblasts Represent a Pro-fibrotic Lineage in the Mouse Ventral Dermis. Cell reports Leavitt, T., Hu, M. S., Borrelli, M. R., Januszyk, M., Garcia, J. T., Ransom, R. C., Mascharak, S., desJardins-Park, H. E., Litzenburger, U. M., Walmsley, G. G., Marshall, C. D., Moore, A. L., Duoto, B., Adem, S., Foster, D. S., Salhotra, A., Shen, A. H., Griffin, M., Shen, E. Z., Barnes, L. A., Zielins, E. R., Maan, Z. N., Wei, Y., Chan, C. K., Wan, D. C., Lorenz, H. P., Chang, H. Y., Gurtner, G. C., Longaker, M. T. 2020; 33 (6): 108356

    Abstract

    Fibroblast heterogeneity has been shown within the unwounded mouse dorsal dermis, with fibroblast subpopulations being identified according to anatomical location and embryonic lineage. Using lineage tracing, we demonstrate that paired related homeobox 1 (Prrx1)-expressing fibroblasts are responsible for acute and chronic fibroses in the ventral dermis. Single-cell transcriptomics further corroborated the inherent fibrotic characteristics of Prrx1 fibroblasts during wound repair. In summary, we identify and characterize a fibroblast subpopulation in the mouse ventral dermis with intrinsic scar-forming potential.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108356

    View details for PubMedID 33176144

  • Peripheral Motor Neuron Activity Influences over Local Sarcoma Progression Davitt, M., Foster, D., Mascharak, S., desJardins-Park, H., Norton, J., Longaker, M. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S230–S231
  • Detection, Scoring, and Classification of Solid Organ Fibroses with Machine Learning Analysis Mascharak, S., desJardins-Park, H. E., Davitt, M., Foster, D. S., Chinta, M., Wan, D. C., Wernig, G., Longaker, M. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S222
  • A Surgical Model for Investigating the Role of Creeping Fat in Intestinal Fibrosis Bauer-Rowe, K. E., Foster, D., Titan, A., Chinta, M., desJardins-Park, H., Griffin, M., Longaker, M. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S50–S51
  • Elucidating Molecular Drivers of Wound Regeneration in MRL Mice Via Novel Transcriptomic Analyses desJardins-Park, H. E., Mack, K. L., Davitt, M. F., Griffin, M., Mascharak, S., Fraser, H. B., Longaker, M. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S225
  • Fibroblast Heterogeneity in Wound Healing: Hurdles to Clinical Translation. Trends in molecular medicine Mascharak, S., desJardins-Park, H. E., Longaker, M. T. 2020

    Abstract

    Recent work has revealed that fibroblasts are remarkably heterogeneous cells, but the appropriate lens through which to study this variation (lineage, phenotype, and plasticity) and its relevance to human biology remain unclear. In this opinion article, we comment on recent breakthroughs in our understanding of fibroblast heterogeneity during skin wound healing, and on open questions that must be addressed to clinically translate these findings in order to minimize scarring in patients. We emphasize the need for experimental models of wound healing that better approximate human biology, as well as comparison of scarring and regenerative phenotypes to uncover master regulators of fibrosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molmed.2020.07.008

    View details for PubMedID 32800679

  • Rewriting the Future: Promises and Limits of Germline Gene Editing in Craniofacial Surgery. The Journal of craniofacial surgery Davitt, M., Mascharak, S., desJardins-Park, H., Chinta, M., Wan, D. C., Longaker, M. T. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006602

    View details for PubMedID 32796298

  • Doxycycline Reduces Scar Thickness and Improves Collagen Architecture ANNALS OF SURGERY Moore, A. L., desJardins-Park, H. E., Duoto, B. A., Mascharak, S., Murphy, M. P., Irizarry, D. M., Foster, D. S., Jones, R. E., Barnes, L. A., Marshall, C. D., Ransom, R. C., Wernig, G., Longaker, M. T. 2020; 272 (1): 183–93
  • Harnessing novel gene expression analyses to identify drivers of regenerative ear wound healing in MRL mice desJardins-Park, H. E., Mack, K. L., Davitt, M. F., Griffin, M., Fraser, H. B., Longaker, M. T. WILEY. 2020: S25
  • Fibroblast Heterogeneity in and Its Implications for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: A Basic Science Review PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY-GLOBAL OPEN desJardins-Park, H. E., Chinta, M. S., Foster, D. S., Borrelli, M. R., Shen, A. H., Wan, D. C., Longaker, M. T. 2020; 8 (6)
  • Fibroblast Heterogeneity in and Its Implications for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: A Basic Science Review. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open desJardins-Park, H. E., Chinta, M. S., Foster, D. S., Borrelli, M. R., Shen, A. H., Wan, D. C., Longaker, M. T. 2020; 8 (6): e2927

    Abstract

    Fibroblasts' integral role in tissue development, maintenance, and disease represents a fast-growing field of basic science research. Although fibroblasts were long thought to be a homogeneous cell population, recent research has illuminated the unforeseen complexity of these cells, giving rise to the rapidly expanding research field of "fibroblast heterogeneity." Fibroblasts play a critical role in states of tissue fibrosis such as skin scarring, which affects hundreds of millions of patients annually and causes severe aesthetic, developmental, and functional morbidity. Beyond scarring, major organ fibrosis is an enormous public health concern responsible for nearly half of all deaths in the United States. Because fibrosis is a conserved response to tissue damage in all organs, the study of fibroblasts throughout the body may help us to understand their role in the conditions most relevant to plastic and reconstructive surgery-for instance, skin scarring (eg, from burns, traumatic lacerations, or surgical incisions), "pathological" scarring (hypertrophic scars, keloids), and capsular contracture. Here, we present a basic science review of fibroblast heterogeneity in wound healing, cancer, organ fibrosis, and human dermal architecture. The field of fibroblast heterogeneity is young, and many of the insights discussed have yet to be translated clinically. However, plastic surgeons stand in a unique position to bridge these discoveries into clinical realities. We hope this information can spur readers to consider both what questions in plastic surgery can be studied from the lens of fibroblast heterogeneity, and how these preclinical insights can be translated to improving care of our patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000002927

    View details for PubMedID 32766071

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7339369

  • Understanding the impact of fibroblast heterogeneity on skin fibrosis. Disease models & mechanisms Griffin, M. F., desJardins-Park, H. E., Mascharak, S. n., Borrelli, M. R., Longaker, M. T. 2020; 13 (6)

    Abstract

    Tissue fibrosis is the deposition of excessive extracellular matrix and can occur as part of the body's natural wound healing process upon injury, or as a consequence of diseases such as systemic sclerosis. Skin fibrosis contributes to significant morbidity due to the prevalence of injuries resulting from trauma and burn. Fibroblasts, the principal cells of the dermis, synthesize extracellular matrix to maintain the skin during homeostasis and also play a pivotal role in all stages of wound healing. Although it was previously believed that fibroblasts are homogeneous and mostly quiescent cells, it has become increasingly recognized that numerous fibroblast subtypes with unique functions and morphologies exist. This Review provides an overview of fibroblast heterogeneity in the mammalian dermis. We explain how fibroblast identity relates to their developmental origin, anatomical site and precise location within the skin tissue architecture in both human and mouse dermis. We discuss current evidence for the varied functionality of fibroblasts within the dermis and the relationships between fibroblast subtypes, and explain the current understanding of how fibroblast subpopulations may be controlled through transcriptional regulatory networks and paracrine communications. We consider how fibroblast heterogeneity can influence wound healing and fibrosis, and how insight into fibroblast heterogeneity could lead to novel therapeutic developments and targets for skin fibrosis. Finally, we contemplate how future studies should be shaped to implement knowledge of fibroblast heterogeneity into clinical practice in order to lessen the burden of skin fibrosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1242/dmm.044164

    View details for PubMedID 32541065

  • "Tissues in a Dish": A Review of Organoids in Plastic Surgery. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Chinta, M. S., desJardins-Park, H. E., Wan, D. C., Longaker, M. T. 2020; 8 (4): e2787

    Abstract

    Organoids are in vitro miniaturized organ models-or, colloquially, "organs in a dish." These 3-dimensional, multicellular structures are classically derived from pluripotent or multipotent stem cells. When guided by tissue-specific molecular factors, these cells exhibit self-organizing abilities that allow them to accurately recapitulate the architecture and function of the organ of interest. Organoid technology is a rapidly expanding field that endows researchers with an unprecedented ability to recreate, study, and manipulate complex biologic processes in vitro. When compared with standard 2- and 3-dimensional culture systems, which rely on co-culturing pre-established cell types, organoids provide a more biomimetic model with which to study the intercellular interactions necessary for in vivo organ function and architecture. Organoids have the potential to impact all avenues of medicine, including those fields most relevant to plastic and reconstructive surgery such as wound healing, oncology, craniofacial reconstruction, and burn care. In addition to their ability to serve as a novel tool for studying human-specific disease, organoids may be used for tissue engineering with the goal of developing biomimetic soft-tissue substitutes, which would be especially valuable to the plastic surgeon. Although organoids hold great promise for the field of plastic surgery, technical challenges in creating vascularized, multilineage organoids must be overcome to allow for the integration of this technology in clinical practice. This review provides a brief history of the organoid, highlights its potential clinical applications, discusses certain limitations, and examines the impact that this technology may have on the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000002787

    View details for PubMedID 32440447

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7209840

  • Intrinsic Chromatin State and Extrinsic Wound-Related Cues Can Coordinate to Activate Fibroblasts for Scarring desJardins-Park, H. E., Moore, A. L., Litzenburger, U., Mascharak, S., Chinta, M., Ransom, R. C., Hu, M. S., Lorenz, H. P., Chang, H. Y., Longaker, M. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: S223–S224
  • Regenerative Skin Healing Through Targeted Modulation of Engrailed1-Negative Fibroblasts Mascharak, S., desJardins-Park, H. E., Moore, A. L., Borrelli, M. R., Chinta, M., Foster, D., Lorenz, H., Longaker, M. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: S228
  • Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials for Surgical Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Long, C., Azad, A. D., desJardins-Park, H. E., Fox, P. M. 2019; 143 (3): 791–99

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard in evidence-based medicine. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the quantity, quality, and trends of randomized controlled trials that assess surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.METHODS: The authors identified randomized controlled trials comparing two or more surgical interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome in PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Clinicaltrials.gov. Two independent reviewers evaluated articles for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed randomized controlled trial quality using the Jadad score.RESULTS: Of 2253 identified studies, 58 met full inclusion criteria. They were published between 1985 and 2015, with a significant increase over time (p = 0.003). They were most frequently published in Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume) [n = 15 (25.9 percent)]. Most randomized controlled trials were single-center studies [n = 54 (93.1 percent)] conducted in the United Kingdom [n = 13 (22.4 percent)] or the United States [n = 10 (17.2 percent)], with a mean study size of 80.1 ± 55.5 patients. Funding source was unknown in 62.1 percent (n = 36). Three-quarters [n = 44 (75.9 percent)] of randomized controlled trials did not define the primary outcome measure(s). Less than 30 percent (n = 17) of randomized controlled trials conducted a power analysis. Only four studies with patients reported lost to follow-up provided an explanation for each patient. Six randomized controlled trials (10.3 percent) conducted intention-to-treat analysis. The mean Jadad score was 2.14 ± 1.26, with no significant improvement over time (p = 0.245).CONCLUSIONS: Despite the significant increase in the number of randomized controlled trials published studying surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome over time, a mean Jadad score of 2.14 with no change over time indicates a need for improvement in quality. Proper study design is key to avoiding introduction of bias and ensuring the validity of conclusions drawn.

    View details for PubMedID 30822284

  • Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials for Surgical Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Long, C., Azad, A. D., desJardins-Park, H. E., Fox, P. M. 2019; 143 (3): 791-799
  • The Spectrum of Scarring in Craniofacial Wound Repair. Frontiers in physiology desJardins-Park, H. E., Mascharak, S. n., Chinta, M. S., Wan, D. C., Longaker, M. T. 2019; 10: 322

    Abstract

    Fibrosis is intimately linked to wound healing and is one of the largest causes of wound-related morbidity. While scar formation is the normal and inevitable outcome of adult mammalian cutaneous wound healing, scarring varies widely between different anatomical sites. The spectrum of craniofacial wound healing spans a particularly diverse range of outcomes. While most craniofacial wounds heal by scarring, which can be functionally and aesthetically devastating, healing of the oral mucosa represents a rare example of nearly scarless postnatal healing in humans. In this review, we describe the typical wound healing process in both skin and the oral cavity. We present clinical correlates and current therapies and discuss the current state of research into mechanisms of scarless healing, toward the ultimate goal of achieving scarless adult skin healing.

    View details for PubMedID 30984020

  • Doxycycline Reduces Scar Thickness and Improves Collagen Architecture. Annals of surgery Moore, A. L., desJardins-Park, H. E., Duoto, B. A., Mascharak, S., Murphy, M. P., Irizarry, D. M., Foster, D. S., Jones, R. E., Barnes, L. A., Marshall, C. D., Ransom, R. C., Wernig, G., Longaker, M. T. 2018

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of local doxycycline administration on skin scarring.BACKGROUND: Skin scarring represents a major source of morbidity for surgical patients. Doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with off-target effects on the extracellular matrix, has demonstrated antifibrotic effects in multiple organs. However, doxycycline's potential effects on skin scarring have not been explored in vivo.METHODS: Female C57BL/6J mice underwent dorsal wounding following an established splinted excisional skin wounding model. Doxycycline was administered by local injection into the wound base following injury. Wounds were harvested upon complete wound closure (postoperative day 15) for histological examination and biomechanical testing of scar tissue.RESULTS: A one-time dose of 3.90 mM doxycycline (2 mg/mL) within 12 hours of injury was found to significantly reduce scar thickness by 24.8% (P < 0.0001) without compromising tensile strength. The same effect could not be achieved by oral dosing. In doxycycline-treated scar matrices, collagen I content was significantly reduced (P = 0.0317) and fibers were favorably arranged with significantly increased fiber randomness (P = 0.0115). Common culprits of altered wound healing mechanics, including angiogenesis and inflammation, were not impacted by doxycycline treatment. However, engrailed1 profibrotic fibroblasts, responsible for scar extracellular matrix deposition, were significantly reduced with doxycycline treatment (P = 0.0005).CONCLUSIONS: Due to the substantial improvement in skin scarring and well-established clinical safety profile, locally administered doxycycline represents a promising vulnerary agent. As such, we favor rapid translation to human patients as an antiscarring therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 30585822

  • Quality of surgical randomized controlled trials in hand surgery: a systematic review JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-EUROPEAN VOLUME Long, C., desJardins-Park, H. E., Popat, R., Fox, P. M. 2018; 43 (8): 801-807
  • Fibroblasts and wound healing: an update. Regenerative medicine des Jardins-Park, H. E., Foster, D. S., Longaker, M. T. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 30062921

  • Fibroblasts and wound healing: an update REGENERATIVE MEDICINE desJardins-Park, H. E., Foster, D. S., Longaker, M. T. 2018; 13 (5): 491–95
  • Quality of surgical randomized controlled trials in hand surgery: a systematic review. The Journal of hand surgery, European volume Long, C., desJardins-Park, H. E., Popat, R., Fox, P. M. 2018: 1753193418780184

    Abstract

    We assessed the quantity, quality and trends of randomized controlled trials comparing hand surgical interventions. Study characteristics were collected for 125 randomized controlled trials comparing hand surgical interventions. The Jadad scale (0-5), which assesses methodological quality of trials, was calculated. Logistic regressions were conducted to determine associations with the Jadad score. The studies were published between 1981 and 2015, with an increase over time, most often in Journal of Hand Surgery (European). Mean study size was 68 patients. Mean Jadad score was 2.1, without improvement over time. Thirty percent conducted a power analysis and 8% an intention-to-treat analysis. Studies conducted in the United Kingdom and with smaller sample sizes, power analysis and intention-to-treat analysis were associated with a higher Jadad score. The quantity of trials has increased over time while methodological quality has remained low, indicating a need to improve quality of trials in hand surgery literature.

    View details for PubMedID 29896997