Bio


From Wikipedia:

"Herbert H. Clark (Herb Clark) is a psycholinguist currently serving as Professor of Psychology at Stanford University. His focuses include cognitive and social processes in language use; interactive processes in conversation, from low-level disfluencies through acts of speaking and understanding to the emergence of discourse; and word meaning and word use. Clark is known for his theory of "common ground": individuals engaged in conversation must share knowledge in order to be understood and have a meaningful conversation (Clark, 1985). Together with Deanna Wilkes-Gibbs (1986), he also developed the collaborative model, a theory for explaining how people in conversation coordinate with one another to determine definite references. Clark's books include Semantics and Comprehension, Psychology and Language: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics, Arenas of Language Use and Using Language."

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Assistant Member of the Technical Staff, Bell Telephone, Laboratories Murray Hill, New Jersey (1963 - 1963)
  • Resident Visitor, Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey (1964 - 1965)
  • Post-doctoral Visitor, Linguistics Institute, UCLA, (1966 - 1966)
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Carnegie-­‐Mellon University (1966 - 1969)
  • Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Stanford University (1969 - 1975)
  • Professor, Department of Psychology, Stanford University (1975 - Present)
  • Chair, Department of Psychology, Stanford University (1987 - 1990)
  • Albert Ray Lang Professor of Psychology, Stanford University (2010 - Present)
  • Visiting Associate Professor, Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of California at Santa Cruz (1971 - 1971)
  • Honorary Research Fellow, University College London (1975 - 1976)
  • Honorary Research Fellow, University College London (2005 - 2006)
  • Sloan Visiting Scientist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1978 - 1978)
  • Visiting Scientist, Max-‐Planck-‐Institüt für Psycholinguistik, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (1979 - 1979)
  • Visiting Scientist, Max-‐Planck-‐Institüt für Psycholinguistik, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (1981 - 1981)
  • Visiting Scientist, Max-‐Planck-‐Institüt für Psycholinguistik, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (1983 - 1984)
  • Visiting Scientist, Max-‐Planck-‐Institüt für Psycholinguistik, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (1990 - 1991)
  • Visiting Scientist, Max-‐Planck-‐Institüt für Psycholinguistik, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (1997 - 1998)
  • Visiting Scientist, Max-‐Planck-‐Institüt für Psycholinguistik, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (2011 - 2011)
  • Honorary Visiting Scholar, City University, London (2005 - 2006)
  • Visiting Professor, Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1999 - 1999)
  • Visiting Professor, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Michigan State University (2003 - 2003)
  • Visiting Professor, Institute of Linguistics, Stanford University (2007 - 2007)
  • Visiting Professor, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria (2008 - 2008)

Honors & Awards


  • National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Fellowship, Johns Hopkins University (1963-1966)
  • John Simon Guggenheim Fellow, John Simon Guggenheim Foundation (1975-1976)
  • Fellow, Division 3, American Psychological Association (1978)
  • Fellow, Association for Psychological Science (1988)
  • Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (1978-1979)
  • Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1982)
  • Member, Society of Experimental Psychologists (1984)
  • Fellow, Cognitive Science Society (2004)
  • Recipient, James McKeen Cattell Sabbatical Fellowship (2005-2006)
  • Recipient, Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, Society for Text and Discourse (2009)
  • Foreign Member, Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen (Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences) (2000)
  • Albert Ray Lang Professor of Psychology, Stanford University (2010-)
  • Doctorat honoris causa (Honorary doctorate), University of Neuchatel (2012)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, Freiburg Institute for Advanced Study, Freiburg, Germany (2011 - 2011)
  • Member, Personality and Cognition Review Board, National Institute of Mental Health (1971 - 1974)
  • Member, Memory and Cognitive Processes Review Board, National Science Foundation (1976 - 1979)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Cognitive Psychology (1971 - 1981)
  • Consulting Editor, Journal of Experimental Psychology (1971 - 1974)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Memory and Language (1973 - 1996)
  • Advisory Editor, Contemporary Psychology (1974 - 1977)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Discourse Processes (1978 - Present)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Cognitive Science (1982 - Present)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Semantics (1982 - Present)
  • Associate Editor, Journal of Memory and Language (1982 - 1983)
  • Member, Editorial Advisory Board, Language and Cognitive Processes (1984 - Present)
  • Member, Editorial Advisory Board, Mind and Language (1986 - Present)
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Center for Language Behavior Research, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
  • Member, Social Science Research Council Committee on Cognition and Survey Research (1986 - 1989)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Papers in Pragmatics (1989 - Present)
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Center for Language Behavior Research, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (1990 - Present)
  • Member, Selection Panel, Presidential Faculty Fellows, National Science Foundation (1992 - 1992)
  • Member, Advisory Board, International Pragmatics Association (1995 - Present)
  • Member, External Review Committee, University of Chicago (1999 - 1999)
  • Member, Fachbeirat (Board of Advisors), Max-‐Planck-‐Institüt für Psycholinguistik, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (2001 - 2013)
  • Chair, Fachbeirat (Board of Advisors), Max-‐Planck-‐Institüt für Psycholinguistik, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (2009 - 2013)
  • Member, Advisory Board, Joint Action Science and Technology, European Science Foundation (2004 - 2004)
  • Member, Directorate Search Committee, Max Planck Gesellshaft, Munich, Germany (2007 - 2008)

Professional Education


  • Post-Doctoral, Linguistics Institute, UCLA (1966)
  • PhD, Johns Hopkins University (1966)
  • M.A, Johns Hopkins University (1964)
  • B.A., Stanford University (1962)

2016-17 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Depicting as a Method of Communication PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW Clark, H. H. 2016; 123 (3): 324-347

    View details for DOI 10.1037/rev0000026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372816100005

  • Coordinating with each other in a material world DISCOURSE STUDIES Clark, H. H. 2005; 7 (4-5): 507-525
  • Speaking while monitoring addressees for understanding JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE Clark, H. H., Krych, M. A. 2004; 50 (1): 62-81
  • Using uh and um in spontaneous speaking COGNITION Clark, H. H., Tree, J. E. 2002; 84 (1): 73-111

    Abstract

    The proposal examined here is that speakers use uh and um to announce that they are initiating what they expect to be a minor (uh), or major (um), delay in speaking. Speakers can use these announcements in turn to implicate, for example, that they are searching for a word, are deciding what to say next, want to keep the floor, or want to cede the floor. Evidence for the proposal comes from several large corpora of spontaneous speech. The evidence shows that speakers monitor their speech plans for upcoming delays worthy of comment. When they discover such a delay, they formulate where and how to suspend speaking, which item to produce (uh or um), whether to attach it as a clitic onto the previous word (as in "and-uh"), and whether to prolong it. The argument is that uh and um are conventional English words, and speakers plan for, formulate, and produce them just as they would any word.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175548600003

    View details for PubMedID 12062148

  • Speaking in time SPEECH COMMUNICATION Clark, H. H. 2002; 36 (1-2): 5-13
  • Repeating words in spontaneous speech COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Clark, H. H., Wasow, T. 1998; 37 (3): 201-242

    Abstract

    Speakers often repeat the first word of major constituents, as in, "I uh I wouldn't be surprised at that." Repeats like this divide into four stages: an initial commitment to the constituent (with "I"); the suspension of speech; a hiatus in speaking (filled with "uh"); and a restart of the constituent ("I wouldn't."). An analysis of all repeated articles and pronouns in two large corpora of spontaneous speech shows that the four stages reflect different principles. Speakers are more likely to make a premature commitment, immediately suspending their speech, as both the local constituent and the constituent containing it become more complex. They plan some of these suspensions from the start as preliminary commitments to what they are about to say. And they are more likely to restart a constituent the more their stopping has disrupted its delivery. We argue that the principles governing these stages are general and not specific to repeats.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077736900001

    View details for PubMedID 9892548

  • Pronouncing ''the'' as ''thee'' to signal problems in speaking COGNITION Fox Tree, J. E., Clark, H. H. 1997; 62 (2): 151-167

    Abstract

    In spontaneous speaking, the is normally pronounced as thuh, with the reduced vowel schwa (rhyming with the first syllable of about). But it is sometimes pronounced as thiy, with a nonreduced vowel (rhyming with see). In a large corpus of spontaneous English conversation, speakers were found to use thiy to signal an immediate suspension of speech to deal with a problem in production. Fully 81% of the instances of thiy in the corpus were followed by a suspension of speech, whereas only 7% of a matched sample of thuhs were followed by such suspensions. The problems people dealt with after thiy were at many levels of production, including articulation. word retrieval, and choice of message, but most were in the following nominal.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WV08900002

    View details for PubMedID 9141905

  • Conceptual pacts and lexical choice in conversation JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION Brennan, S. E., Clark, H. H. 1996; 22 (6): 1482-1493

    Abstract

    When people in conversation refer repeatedly to the same object, they come to use the same terms. This phenomenon, called lexical entrainment, has several possible explanations. Ahistorical accounts appeal only to the informativeness and availability of terms and to the current salience of the object's features. Historical accounts appeal in addition to the recency and frequency of past references and to partner-specific conceptualizations of the object that people achieve interactively. Evidence from 3 experiments favors a historical account and suggests that when speakers refer to an object, they are proposing a conceptualization of it, a proposal their addresses may or may not agree to. Once they do establish a shared conceptualization, a conceptual pact, they appeal to it in later references even when they could use simpler references. Over time, speakers simplify conceptual pacts and, when necessary, abandon them for new conceptualizations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VR35200010

    View details for PubMedID 8921603

  • ON THE COURSE OF ANSWERING QUESTIONS JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE Smith, V. L., Clark, H. H. 1993; 32 (1): 25-38
  • QUOTATIONS AS DEMONSTRATIONS LANGUAGE Clark, H. H., Gerrig, R. J. 1990; 66 (4): 764-805
  • OSTENSIBLE INVITATIONS LANGUAGE IN SOCIETY ISAACS, E. A., Clark, H. H. 1990; 19 (4): 493-509
  • CONTRIBUTING TO DISCOURSE COGNITIVE SCIENCE Clark, H. H., Schaefer, E. F. 1989; 13 (2): 259-294
  • UNDERSTANDING BY ADDRESSEES AND OVERHEARERS COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Schober, M. F., Clark, H. H. 1989; 21 (2): 211-232
  • Interpreting words in spatial descriptions Language and Cognitive Processes Morrow, D. G., Clark, H. H. 1988; 3: 275-292
  • CONCEALING ONES MEANING FROM OVERHEARERS JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE Clark, H. H., Schaefer, E. F. 1987; 26 (2): 209-225
  • REFERENCES IN CONVERSATION BETWEEN EXPERTS AND NOVICES JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL ISAACS, E. A., Clark, H. H. 1987; 116 (1): 26-37
  • References in conversations between experts and novices. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General Isaacs, E. A., Clark, H. H. 1987; 116: 26-37
  • REFERRING AS A COLLABORATIVE PROCESS COGNITION Clark, H. H., WilkesGibbs, D. 1986; 22 (1): 1-39

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C262700001

    View details for PubMedID 3709088

  • HOW TO MAKE REQUESTS THAT OVERCOME OBSTACLES TO COMPLIANCE JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE FRANCIK, E. P., Clark, H. H. 1985; 24 (5): 560-568
  • COMMON GROUND AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF DEMONSTRATIVE REFERENCE JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Clark, H. H., Schreuder, R., BUTTRICK, S. 1983; 22 (2): 245-258
  • UNDERSTANDING OLD WORDS WITH NEW MEANINGS JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Clark, H. H., Gerrig, R. J. 1983; 22 (5): 591-608
  • HEARERS AND SPEECH ACTS LANGUAGE Clark, H. H., CARLSON, T. B. 1982; 58 (2): 332-373
  • TELEPHONE GOODBYES LANGUAGE IN SOCIETY Clark, H. H., French, J. W. 1981; 10 (1): 1-19
  • WHEN NOUNS SURFACE AS VERBS LANGUAGE Clark, E. V., Clark, H. H. 1979; 55 (4): 767-811
  • RESPONDING TO INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Clark, H. H. 1979; 11 (4): 430-477
  • POSITION, DIRECTION, AND THEIR PERCEPTUAL INTEGRALITY PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS Clark, H. H., BROWNELL, H. H. 1976; 19 (4): 328-334
  • LOCUS OF SEMANTIC CONGRUITY EFFECT IN COMPARATIVE JUDGMENTS JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE BANKS, W. P., Clark, H. H., LUCY, P. 1975; 104 (1): 35-47
  • JUDGING UP AND DOWN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE Clark, H. H., BROWNELL, H. H. 1975; 1 (4): 339-352

    Abstract

    In Experiment I subjects were asked to judge whether an arrow was pointing up or pointing down at various heights inside a surrounding rectangle. They were faster on an arrow pointing up the higher it was in the rectangle, and they were faster on an arrow pointing down the lower it was in the rectangle. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 were designed to test sources for this"congruity effect." The intrusive height information for each arrow was assumed to facilitate or interfere with (a) the activation of the correct motor response; (b) the maintenance of the implicit instruction "Is it pointing up, or is it pointing down?"; or (c) the selection of the criterial perceptual information as a basis for the response. All three experiments were consistent with c, but not with a or b. Indeed, the results contrasted with previous demonstrations of the Stroop effect in certain critical features.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975AU28100004

    View details for PubMedID 1185121

  • UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS MEANT FROM WHAT IS SAID - STUDY IN CONVERSATIONALLY CONVEYED REQUESTS JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Clark, H. H., LUCY, P. 1975; 14 (1): 56-72
  • WHATS NEW - ACQUIRING NEW INFORMATION AS A PROCESS IN COMPREHENSION JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR HAVILAND, S. E., Clark, H. H. 1974; 13 (5): 512-521
  • LANGUAGE AS FIXED-EFFECT FALLACY - CRITIQUE OF LANGUAGE STATISTICS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Clark, H. H. 1973; 12 (4): 335-359
  • And and or, or the comprehension of pseudoimperatives. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Springston, F. J., Clark, H. H. 1973; 12: 258-272
  • PROCESS OF COMPARING SENTENCES AGAINST PICTURES COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Clark, H. H., CHASE, W. G. 1972; 3 (3): 472-517
  • The semantics of sentence subjects. Language and speech Clark, H. H., BEGUN, J. S. 1971; 14 (1): 34-46

    View details for PubMedID 5580469

  • LINGUISTIC PROCESSES IN DEDUCTIVE REASONING PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW Clark, H. H. 1969; 76 (4): 387-?
  • INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE ON SOLVING 3-TERM SERIES PROBLEMS JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Clark, H. H. 1969; 82 (2): 205-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1969E712800003

    View details for PubMedID 5379099

  • SEMANTIC DISTINCTIONS AND MEMORY FOR COMPLEX SENTENCES QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Clark, H. H., Clark, E. V. 1968; 20: 129-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1968B216600005

    View details for PubMedID 5653416

  • PREDICTION OF RECALL PATTERNS IN SIMPLE ACTIVE SENTENCES JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Clark, H. H. 1966; 5 (2): 99-?
  • SOME STRUCTURAL-PROPERTIES OF SIMPLE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SENTENCES JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Clark, H. H. 1965; 4 (5): 365-370
  • Spontaneous discourse Oxford Handbook of Language Production Clark, H. H. edited by Ferreira, V., Goldrick, M., Miazzo, M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2013
  • Unspoken questions, unspoken answers Questions: Formal, functional and interactional perspectives Clark, H. H. edited by Ruiter, J. d. 2012: 81-100
  • Spoken discourse and its emergence Cambridge handbook of psycholinguistics Clark, H. H. edited by Spivey, M. J., McRae, K., Joanisse, M. F. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. 2012: 541-557
  • Talking as if. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE international conference on Human Robot Interaction Clark, H. H. 2008
  • Context and common ground Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 2nd Edition. Clark, H. H. Oxford: Elsevier.. 2006
  • Pauses and hesitations: Psycholinguistic approach Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 2nd Edition Clark, H. H. Oxford: Elsevier. 2006
  • Changing conceptions of reference Experimental pragmatics. Clark, H. H., Bamngerter, A. edited by Noveck, I., Sperber, D. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. 2004: 25-49
  • Navigating joint projects in telephone conversations DISCOURSE PROCESSES Bangerter, A., Clark, H. H., Katz, A. R. 2004; 37 (1): 1-23
  • Variations on a ranarian theme Relating events in narrative: Typological and contextual perspectives Clark, H. H. edited by Strömqvist, S., Verhoeven, L. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2004: 457-476
  • Navigating joint projects with dialogue COGNITIVE SCIENCE Bangerter, A., Clark, H. H. 2003; 27 (2): 195-225
  • Language production. Oxford International Encyclopedia of Linguistics 2nd edition Clark, H. H. edited by Frawley, W. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2003
  • When nouns surface as verbs Critical concepts in linguistics Clark, E. V., Clark, H. H. edited by Katamba, F. London: Routledge. 2003: 128-183
  • Psycholinguistics Stevens’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology, Third Edition: Cognition Clark, H. H., Wege, M. V. edited by Medin, D. L. New York: John Wiley.. 2002: 209-259
  • Conversation, structure of Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science Clark, H. H. edited by Nadel, L. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan. 2002
  • Conversation International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences. Clark, H. H. edited by Smelser, N. J., Baltes, P. B. London: Elsevier. 2001
  • Imagination in discourse Handbook of discourse analysis Clark, H. H., Wege, M. D. edited by Schiffrin, D., Tannen, D., Hamilton, H. E. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 2001
  • Preface Samenhang in diversiteit: Opstellen voor Leo Noordman Clark, H. H. Tilburg NL: Katholieke Universiteit Brabant. 2000
  • O uso da linguagem Cadernos de Traduçao, Clark, H. H. 2000; 9: 49-74
  • Everyone can write better (and you are no exception). Social Psychology of Gender, Race, and Ethnicity Clark, H. H. edited by Keough, K. A., Garcia, J. New York: McGraw-­‐Hill.. 2000
  • On the origins of conversation Verbum Clark, H. H. 1999; 21: 147-161
  • How do real people communicate with virtual partners? Proceedings of 1999 AAAI Fall Symposium, Psychological Models of Communication in Collaborative Systems Clark, H. H. 1999
  • Passing time in conversation Proceedings of the workshop on the structure of spoken and written texts Clark, H. H. 1999
  • Speaking in time. Proceedings of the ESCA workshop on dialogue and prosody Clark, H. H. 1999
  • Psycholinguistics. MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences Clark, H. H. MIT Press.. 1999
  • Psycholinguistics. MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science Clark, H. H. MIT Press.. 1998
  • Coordinating hands, eyes, and voice PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINETEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE COGNITIVE SCIENCE SOCIETY Krych, M., Clark, H. H. 1997: 975-975
  • Dogmas of understanding DISCOURSE PROCESSES Clark, H. H. 1997; 23 (3): 567-598
  • From comprehension to understanding Advanced psycholinguistics: A Bressanone retrospective for Giovanni B. Flores d’Arcais Clark, H. H. edited by Levelt, W. J. Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. 1996
  • Communities, commonalities, and communication Rethinking linguistic relativity Clark, H. H. edited by Gumperz, J., Levinson, S. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1996: 324-355
  • Pragmatics and discourse Handbook of Perception and Cognition Clark, H. H., Bly, B. edited by Miller, J. L., Eimas, P. D. New York: Academic Press. 1995
  • MANAGING PROBLEMS IN SPEAKING SPEECH COMMUNICATION Clark, H. H. 1994; 15 (3-4): 243-250
  • REPRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION IN QUOTATIONS JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE Wade, E., Clark, H. H. 1993; 32 (6): 805-819
  • Managing problems in speaking Proceedings of International Symposium on Spoken Dialogue Clark, H. H. edited by Shirai, K., Kobayashi, T., Harada, Y. 1993
  • Prepositions aren’t places Brain and Behavioral Sciences Tversky, B., Clark, H. H. 1993; 16 (2): 252-253
  • COORDINATING BELIEFS IN CONVERSATION JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE WilkesGibbs, D., Clark, H. H. 1992; 31 (2): 183-194
  • Speech acts and hearers’ beliefs Pragmatics: A reader Clark, H. H., Carlson, T. B. edited by Davis, S. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1991
  • Pragmatics of language The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology Clark, H. H. edited by Eysenck, M. W. Oxford: Blackwell. 1991: 197-198
  • Coordinating activity: An analysis of interaction in computer-­‐supported cooperative work Proceedings, CHI ‘91, Human Factors in Computing Systems Whittaker, S. J., Brennan, S. E., Clark, H. H. 1991
  • GROUNDING IN COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVES ON SOCIALLY SHARED COGNITION Clark, H. H., Brennan, S. E. 1991: 127-149
  • COLLABORATION IN COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PILOTS AND AIR-TRAFFIC-CONTROLLERS BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Morrow, D. G., Clark, H. H., Lee, A. T., RODVOLD, M. 1990; 28 (6): 494-494
  • Language production International encyclopedia of linguistics Clark, H. H. edited by Bright, W. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1990: 278-281
  • Commentary on Mosteller and Youtz “Quantifying probabilistic expressions.” Statistical Science Clark, H. H. 1990; 5: 2-34
  • Four dimensions of language use. The pragmatic perspective Clark, H. H., Verschueren, J. edited by Bertuccelli-­‐Papi, M. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 1987: 9-25
  • Collaborating on contributions to conversation Language processing in a social context Clark, H. H., Schaefer, E. F. edited by Dietrich, R., Graumann, C. F. Amsterdam: North Holland. 1987
  • Relevance to what? Behavioral and Brain Sciences Clark, H. H. 1987; 10: 714-715
  • Concealing one’s meaning from overhearers Journal of Memory and Language Clark, H. H., Schaefer, E. F. 1987: 209-225
  • Collaborating on contributions to conversation Language and Cognitive Processes Clark, H. H., Schaefer, E. F. 1987; 2: 19-41
  • Psychology and language: An introduction to psycholinguistics. (Japanese Translation) Clark, H. H., Clark, E. V. 1987
  • WHAT IS SAID TO WHOM - A REJOINDER TO ALLAN LANGUAGE Clark, H. H. 1986; 62 (3): 518-529
  • Is philosophy of language empirical? Mind and Language Clark, H. H. 1986; 1: 15-17
  • Inferences in comprehension Functionalism in Linguistics (Linguistic and Literary Studies in Eastern Europe). Clark, H. H. edited by Driven, R., Fried, V. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 1985
  • SPEECH, PLACE, AND ACTION - STUDIES IN DEIXIS AND RELATED TOPICS - JARVELLA,RJ, KLEIN,W (Book Review) APPLIED PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Book Review Authored by: Clark, E. V. 1984; 5 (2): 182-184
  • ON THE PRETENSE THEORY OF IRONY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL Clark, H. H., Gerrig, R. J. 1984; 113 (1): 121-126

    Abstract

    We propose a pretense theory of irony based on suggestions by Grice and Fowler. In being ironic, the theory goes, a speaker is pretending to be an injudicious person speaking to an uninitiated audience; the speaker intends the addresses of the irony to discover the pretense and thereby see his or her attitude toward the speaker, the audience, and the utterance. The pretense theory, we argue, is superior to the mention theory of irony proposed by Sperber and Wilson.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SF64600010

    View details for PubMedID 6242407

  • Psychological constraints on language: A commentary on Bresnan and Kaplan and on Givon Method and tactics in cognitive science Clark, H. H. edited by Malt, B. C., Kintsch, W., Miller, J. R., Polson, P. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 1984: 191-214
  • Audience design in meaning and reference Language and comprehension Clark, H. H., Murphy, G. L. edited by LeNy, J. F., Kintsch, W. Amsterdam: North-­‐Holland Publishing Co. 1983: 287-299
  • Psychology and language: An introduction to psycholinguistics. (Japanese Translation) Clark, H. H., Clark, E. V. 1982
  • Critics’ beliefs about hearers’ beliefs: A rejoinder to Johnson-­‐Laird, Sperber, and Wilks Mutual Knowledge Clark, H. H., Carlson, T. B. edited by Smith, N. V. New York: Academic Press. 1982: 52-59
  • La visée vers l’auditoire dans la signification et le référence. Bulletin de Psychologie Clark, H. H., Murphy, G. L. 1982; 35: 767-776
  • Speech acts and hearers’ beliefs Mutual knowledge Clark, H. H., Carlson, T. B. edited by Smith, N. V. New York: Academic Press. 1982: 1-36
  • The relevance of common ground: Comments on Sperber and Wilson Mutual knowledge Clark, H. H. edited by Smith, N. V. New York: Academic Press. 1982: 124-127
  • POLITENESS IN REQUESTS - REJOINDER COGNITION Clark, H. H., SCHUNK, D. H. 1981; 9 (3): 311-315

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MD20700004

    View details for PubMedID 7197606

  • POLITE RESPONSES TO POLITE REQUESTS COGNITION Clark, H. H., SCHUNK, D. H. 1980; 8 (2): 111-143

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980JV12700001

    View details for PubMedID 7389285

  • Preface Inferring from language Clark, H. H., Noordman, L. G. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.. 1979
  • IN SEARCH OF REFERENTS FOR NOUNS AND PRONOUNS MEMORY & COGNITION Clark, H. H., SENGUL, C. J. 1979; 7 (1): 35-41
  • Inferring what is meant. Studies in the perception of language Clark, H. H. edited by M.Levelt, W. J., Flores d’Arcais, G. B. London: Wiley. 1978: 295-321
  • WORDS AND STATISTICS BRITISH JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL & STATISTICAL PSYCHOLOGY Clark, H. H. 1977; 30 (NOV): 242-242
  • Universals, relativity and language processing Universals of language: Method and theory Clark, H. H., Clark, E. V. edited by Greenberg, J. H. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1977: 225-278
  • Research methods in psycholinguistics. Handbook of perception: Language and speech Olson, G. M., Clark, H. H. edited by Carterette, E. C., Friedman, M. P. New York: Academic Press. 1976: 25-74
  • Discussion of Wike and Church’s comments Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Clark, H. H., Cohen, J., Smith, J. E., Keppel, G. 1976; 15: 257-266
  • Perceptual coding strategies in the formation and verification of descriptions. Memory & cognition Clark, H. H., CHASE, W. G. 1974; 2 (1): 101-111

    Abstract

    Three experiments were carried out to study the "picture coding" process implicit both in making up descriptions of pictures and in verifying descriptions against pictures. In the first experiment, Ss were asked simply to describe pictures of one object above another; some pictures were symmetrical vertically and some were not. In the other two experiments, other Ss were timed as they judged whether sentences likeStar isn't below line were true or false of such pictures. According to the results, Ss comply to three ordered "preference" rules in describing the two objects, rules that are conditional on characteristics of the picture and demands of the task. Furthermore, Ss in the verification task comply to the same three rules when they view and encode the picturebefore they read the sentence to be verified, but to only one of the rules when they view the pictureafter they read the sentence. The results also reconfirm two recently proposed models for the process of verifying sentences against pictures.

    View details for DOI 10.3758/BF03197499

    View details for PubMedID 24214706

  • PERCEPTUAL CODING STRATEGIES IN FORMATION AND VERIFICATION OF DESCRIPTIONS MEMORY & COGNITION Clark, H. H., CHASE, W. G. 1974; 2 (1A): 101-111
  • Review of Understanding natural language by Terry Winograd American Scientist Clark, H. H. 1974; 62: 118-119
  • Clark, H. H. Processus linguistiques dans le raisonnement deductif. Textes pour une psycholinguistique Clark, H. H. edited by Mehler, J., Noizet, G. Paris: Mouton. 1974: 565-602
  • POWER OF POSITIVE SPEAKING - IT TAKES LONGER TO UNDERSTAND PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Clark, H. H. 1974; 8 (4): 102-?
  • Semantics and comprehension. Ed.), Current trends in linguistics Clark, H. H. edited by Sebeok, T. A. The Hague: Mouton. 1974: 1291-1428
  • A sometimes rocky marriage: Review of Psycholinguistics: Chomsky and psychology by Judith Greene Contemporary Psychology Clark, H. H. 1974; 19: 277-278
  • The chronometric study of meaning components Problems actuels en psycholinguistique Clark, H. H. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. 1974: 489-505
  • Psychological processes in linguistic explanation Explaining linguistic phenomena Clark, H. H., Haviland, S. E. edited by Cohen, D. Washington: Hemisphere Publication Corporation. 1974
  • DRAWING INFERENCES FROM PRESUPPOSITIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Just, M. A., Clark, H. H. 1973; 12 (1): 21-31
  • DIFFICULTIES PEOPLE HAVE IN ANSWERING QUESTION WHERE-IS-IT JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Clark, H. H. 1972; 11 (3): 265-?
  • EVIDENCE CONCERNING HUTTENLOCHER,J AND HIGGINS,ET THEORY OF REASONING - SECOND REPLY PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW Clark, H. H. 1972; 79 (5): 428-?
  • Les processus de la comprehension des phrases La Psycholinguistique: Lectures Clark, H. H. edited by Slama-­‐Cazacu, T. Paris: Klincksieck. 1972: 180-182
  • Semantics in the perception of verticality. British journal of psychology CHASE, W. G., Clark, H. H. 1971; 62 (3): 311-326

    View details for PubMedID 5160435

  • The importance of linguistics for the study of speech hesitations The perception of language Clark, H. H. edited by Horton, D. L., Jenkins, J. J. Columbus: Charles Merrill.. 1971: 69-78
  • SEMANTICS IN PERCEPTION OF VERTICALITY BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY CHASE, W. G., Clark, H. H. 1971; 62 (AUG): 311-?
  • ADJECTIVES, COMPARATIVES, AND SYLLOGISMS PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW Clark, H. H. 1971; 78 (6): 505-?
  • SEMANTICS OF SENTENCE SUBJECTS LANGUAGE AND SPEECH Clark, H. H., BEGUN, J. S. 1971; 14 (JAN-M): 34-?
  • Remembering sentences as semantic features Clark, H. H. edited by Linhart, J. 1970
  • Comprehending comparatives Advances in psycholinguistics Clark, H. H. edited by Flores d’Arcais, G. B., Levelt, W. J. Amsterdam: North Holland Press.. 1970: 294-306
  • The primitive nature of children’s relational concepts Cognition and the development of language Clark, H. H. edited by Hayes, J. R. New York: Wiley.. 1970: 269-278
  • Linguistic processes in deductive reasoning. Series in Psychology Clark, H. H., Merrill, B. 1969: 730
  • ROLE OF SEMANTICS IN REMEMBERING COMPARATIVE SENTENCES JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Clark, H. H., CARD, S. K. 1969; 82 (3): 545-?
  • Memory for semantic features in the verb Journal of Experimental Psychology Clark, H. H., Stafford, R. A. 1969; 80: 326-334
  • ON USE AND MEANING OF PREPOSITIONS JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Clark, H. H. 1968; 7 (2): 421-?
  • Review of Psycholinguistics Papers Journal of Linguistics Clark, H. H. 1968; 4: 139-140
  • USE OF SYNTAX IN UNDERSTANDING SENTENCES BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Clark, H. H., BEGUN, J. S. 1968; 59: 219-?