Education & Certifications

  • Ph.D., Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Molecular and Cell Biology (2007)

All Publications

  • The role of vesicle trafficking genes in osteoblast differentiation and function. Scientific reports Zhu, H., Su, Y., Wang, J., Wu, J. Y. 2023; 13 (1): 16079


    Using Col2.3GFP transgenic mice expressing GFP in maturing osteoblasts, we isolated Col2.3GFP+enriched osteoblasts from 3 sources. We performed RNA-sequencing, identified 593 overlapping genes and confirmed these genes are highly enriched in osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization annotation categories. The top 3 annotations are all associated with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicle transport. We selected 22 trafficking genes that have not been well characterized in bone for functional validation in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Transient siRNA knockdown of trafficking genes including Sec24d, Gosr2, Rab2a, Stx5a, Bet1, Preb, Arf4, Ramp1, Cog6 and Pacs1 significantly increased mineralized nodule formation and expression of osteoblast markers. Increased mineralized nodule formation was suppressed by concurrent knockdown of P4ha1 and/or P4ha2, encoding collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase isoenzymes. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts with knockdown of Cog6, Gosr2, Pacs1 or Arf4 formed more and larger ectopic mineralized bone nodules in vivo, which was attenuated by concurrent knockdown P4ha2. Permanent knockdown of Cog6 and Pacs1 by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts recapitulated increased mineralized nodule formation and osteoblast differentiation. In summary, we have identified several vesicle trafficking genes with roles in osteoblast function. Our findings provide potential targets for regulating bone formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-023-43116-8

    View details for PubMedID 37752218

  • Parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) signaling mediates breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice. JCI insight Swami, S., Zhu, H., Nisco, A., Kimura, T., Kim, M. J., Nair, V., Wu, J. Y. 2023


    Bone metastases are a common complication of breast cancer. We have demonstrated that intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH [1-34]) reduces the incidence of bone metastases in murine models of breast cancer by acting on osteoblasts to alter the bone microenvironment. Here, we examined the role of PTH receptor (PTH1R)-mediated signaling in both osteoblasts and breast cancer cells in influencing bone metastases. In mice with impaired PTH1R signaling in osteoblasts, intermittent PTH did not reduce bone metastasis. Intermittent PTH also failed to reduce bone metastasis when expression of PTH1R was knocked down in 4T1 murine breast cancer cells by shRNA. In 4T1 breast cancer cells, PTH decreased expression of PTH-related protein (PTHrP), implicated in the vicious cycle of bone metastases. Knockdown of PTHrP in 4T1 cells significantly reduced migration towards MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, and migration was further inhibited by treatment with intermittent PTH. Conversely, overexpression of PTHrP in 4T1 cells increased migration towards MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and this was not inhibited by PTH. In conclusion, PTH1R expression is crucial in both osteoblasts and breast cancer cells for PTH to reduce bone metastases and in breast cancer cells this may be mediated in part by suppression of PTHrP.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.157390

    View details for PubMedID 36692956

  • Histopathology of osteogenesis imperfecta bone. Supramolecular assessment of cells and matrices in the context of woven and lamellar bone formation using light, polarization and ultrastructural microscopy. Bone reports Shapiro, F., Maguire, K., Swami, S., Zhu, H., Flynn, E., Wang, J., Wu, J. Y. 2021; 14: 100734


    Diaphyseal long bone cortical tissue from 30 patients with lethal perinatal Sillence II and progressively deforming Sillence III osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) has been studied at multiple levels of structural resolution. Interpretation in the context of woven to lamellar bone formation by mesenchymal osteoblasts (MOBLs) and surface osteoblasts (SOBLs) respectively demonstrates lamellar on woven bone synthesis as an obligate self-assembly mechanism and bone synthesis following the normal developmental pattern but showing variable delay in maturation caused by structurally abnormal or insufficient amounts of collagen matrix. The more severe the variant of OI is, the greater the persistence of woven bone and the more immature the structural pattern; the pattern shifts to a structurally stronger lamellar arrangement once a threshold accumulation for an adequate scaffold of woven bone has been reached. Woven bone alone characterizes lethal perinatal variants; variable amounts of woven and lamellar bone occur in progressively deforming variants; and lamellar bone increasingly forms rudimentary and then partially compacted osteons not reaching full compaction. At differing levels of microscopic resolution: lamellar bone is characterized by short, obliquely oriented lamellae with a mosaic appearance in progressively deforming forms; polarization defines tissue conformations and localizes initiation of lamellar formation; ultrastructure of bone forming cells shows markedly dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and prominent Golgi bodies with disorganized cisternae and swollen dispersed tubules and vesicles, structural indications of storage disorder/stress responses and mitochondrial swelling in cells with massively dilated RER indicating apoptosis; ultrastructural matrix assessments in woven bone show randomly oriented individual fibrils but also short pericellular bundles of parallel oriented fibrils positioned obliquely and oriented randomly to one another and in lamellar bone show unidirectional fibrils that deviate at slight angles to adjacent bundles and obliquely oriented fibril groups consistent with twisted plywood fibril organization. Histomorphometric indices, designed specifically to document woven and lamellar conformations in normal and OI bone, establish ratios for: i) cell area/total area X 100 indicating the percentage of an area occupied by cells (cellularity index) and ii) total area/number of cells (pericellular matrix domains). Woven bone is more cellular than lamellar bone and OI bone is more cellular than normal bone, but these findings occur in a highly specific fashion with values (high to low) encompassing OI woven, normal woven, OI lamellar and normal lamellar conformations. Conversely, for the total area/number of cells ratio, pericellular matrix accumulations in OI woven are smallest and normal lamellar largest. Since genotype-phenotype correlation is not definitive, interposing histologic/structural analysis allowing for a genotype-histopathologic-phenotype correlation will greatly enhance understanding and clinical management of OI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100734

    View details for PubMedID 33665234

  • Induction of Osteoblasts by Direct Reprogramming of Mouse Fibroblasts. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Zhu, H. n., Wu, J. Y. 2020; 2155: 201–12


    In the tissue culture dish, osteoblast cells can be derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, differentiation of osteoblasts from PSCs is time-consuming and low yield. In contrast, we identified four osteogenic transcription factors, Runx2, Osx, Dlx5, and ATF4, that rapidly and efficiently reprogram mouse fibroblasts derived from 2.3 kb type I collagen promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (Col2.3GFP) transgenic mice into induced osteoblast cells (iOBs). iOBs exhibit osteoblast morphology, form mineralized nodules, and express Col2.3GFP and gene markers of osteoblast differentiation. Our method provides a robust system to rapidly generate appropriate and abundant osteoblast cells for osteogenesis and bone regeneration study.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-0716-0655-1_17

    View details for PubMedID 32474879

  • Direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts into functional osteoblasts. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Zhu, H., Swami, S., Yang, P., Shapiro, F., Wu, J. 2019


    While induced pluripotent stem cells hold promise as a potential source of osteoblasts for skeletal regeneration, the induction of pluripotency followed by directed differentiation into osteoblasts is time-consuming and low yield. In contrast, direct lineage reprogramming without an intervening stem/progenitor cell stage would be a more efficient approach to generate osteoblasts. We screened combinations of osteogenic transcription factors and identified four factors, Runx2, Osx, Dlx5, and ATF4, that rapidly and efficiently reprogram mouse fibroblasts derived from 2.3 kb type I collagen promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (Col2.3GFP) transgenic mice into induced osteoblast cells (iOBs). iOBs exhibit osteoblast morphology, form mineralized nodules, and express Col2.3GFP and gene markers of osteoblast differentiation. The global transcriptome profiles validated that iOBs resemble primary osteoblasts. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis demonstrates that within differentially methylated loci, the methylation status of iOBs more closely resembles primary osteoblasts than mouse fibroblasts. We further demonstrate that Col2.3GFP+ iOBs have transcriptome profiles similar to GFP+ cells harvested from Col2.3GFP mouse bone chips. Functionally, Col2.3GFP+ iOBs form mineralized bone structures after subcutaneous implantation in immunodeficient mice and contribute to bone healing in a tibia bone fracture model. These findings provide an approach to derive and study osteoblasts for skeletal regeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbmr.3929

    View details for PubMedID 31793059

  • Pluripotent stem cells as a source of osteoblasts for bone tissue regeneration. Biomaterials Zhu, H. n., Kimura, T. n., Swami, S. n., Wu, J. Y. 2018


    Appropriate and abundant sources of bone-forming osteoblasts are essential for bone tissue engineering. Pluripotent stem cells can self-renew and thereby offer a potentially unlimited supply of osteoblasts, a significant advantage over other cell sources. We generated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from transgenic mice expressing rat 2.3 kb type I collagen promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (Col2.3GFP), a reporter of the osteoblast lineage. We demonstrated that Col2.3GFP ESCs and iPSCs can be successfully differentiated to osteoblast lineage cells that express Col2.3GFP in vitro. We harvested GFP+osteoblasts differentiated from ESCs. Genome wide gene expression profiles validated that ESC- and iPSC-derived osteoblasts resemble calvarial osteoblasts, and that Col2.3GFP expression serves as a marker for mature osteoblasts. Our results confirm the cell identity of ESC- and iPSC-derived osteoblasts and highlight the potential of pluripotent stem cells as a source of osteoblasts for regenerative medicine.

    View details for PubMedID 29456164

  • Prevention of breast cancer skeletal metastases with parathyroid hormone. JCI insight Swami, S. n., Johnson, J. n., Bettinson, L. A., Kimura, T. n., Zhu, H. n., Albertelli, M. A., Johnson, R. W., Wu, J. Y. 2017; 2 (17)


    Advanced breast cancer is frequently associated with skeletal metastases and accelerated bone loss. Recombinant parathyroid hormone [teriparatide, PTH(1-34)] is the first anabolic agent approved in the US for treatment of osteoporosis. While signaling through the PTH receptor in the osteoblast lineage regulates bone marrow hematopoietic niches, the effects of anabolic PTH on the skeletal metastatic niche are unknown. Here, we demonstrate, using orthotopic and intratibial models of 4T1 murine and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer tumors, that anabolic PTH decreases both tumor engraftment and the incidence of spontaneous skeletal metastasis in mice. Microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric analyses revealed that PTH increases bone volume and reduces tumor engraftment and volume. Transwell migration assays with murine and human breast cancer cells revealed that PTH alters the gene expression profile of the metastatic niche, in particular VCAM-1, to inhibit recruitment of cancer cells. While PTH did not affect growth or migration of the primary tumor, it elicited several changes in the tumor gene expression profile resulting in a less metastatic phenotype. In conclusion, PTH treatment in mice alters the bone microenvironment, resulting in decreased cancer cell engraftment, reduced incidence of metastases, preservation of bone microarchitecture and prolonged survival.

    View details for PubMedID 28878134

  • Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines with Lesions in FOXP3 and NF1 PLOS ONE Zhu, H., Behr, B., Reddy, V. V., Hughes, M., Pan, Y., Baker, J. 2016; 11 (3)


    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst staged embryos. Spare blastocyst staged embryos were obtained by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and donated for research purposes. hESCs carrying specific mutations can be used as a powerful cell system in modeling human genetic disorders. We obtained preimplantation genetic diagnosed (PGD) blastocyst staged embryos with genetic mutations that cause human disorders and derived hESCs from these embryos. We applied laser assisted micromanipulation to isolate the inner cell mass from the blastocysts and plated the ICM onto the mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Two hESC lines with lesions in FOXP3 and NF1 were established. Both lines maintain a typical undifferentiated hESCs phenotype and present a normal karyotype. The two lines express a panel of pluripotency markers and have the potential to differentiate to the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. The hESC lines with lesions in FOXP3 and NF1 are available for the scientific community and may serve as an important resource for research into these disease states.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0151836

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372582800106

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4798423

  • JMJD5 Regulates Cell Cycle and Pluripotency in Human Embryonic Stem Cells. Stem cells Zhu, H., Hu, S., Baker, J. 2014; 32 (8): 2098-2110


    In mammalian embryos, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent cells, a shortened G1 phase is correlated with the pluripotent state. To molecularly define this phase, we compared transcripts from the shortened G1 of human ESCs (hESCs) with those from the longer G1 of derived endoderm. We identified JMJD5, a JmjC (Jumonji C) domain containing protein that, when depleted in hESCs, causes the accumulation of cells in G1 phase, loss of pluripotency, and subsequent differentiation into multiple lineages, most prominently ectoderm and trophectoderm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the JMJD5 phenotype is caused by the upregulation of CDKN1A (p21), as depleting both JMJD5 and CDKN1A (p21) in hESCs restores the rapid G1 phase and rescues the pluripotent state. Overall, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that the JMJD5/CDKN1A (p21) axis is essential to maintaining the short G1 phase which is critical for pluripotency in hESCs. Stem Cells 2014;32:2098-2110.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/stem.1724

    View details for PubMedID 24740926

  • FAM29A, a target of Plk1 regulation, controls the partitioning of NEDD1 between the mitotic spindle and the centrosomes JOURNAL OF CELL SCIENCE Zhu, H., Fang, K., Fang, G. 2009; 122 (15): 2750-2759


    We previously showed that FAM29A, a spindle-associated protein, promotes microtubule-dependent microtubule amplification through its interaction with and recruitment of NEDD1, the targeting subunit of the gamma-tubulin ring complex. We report here that FAM29A is regulated by Plk1, a kinase essential for spindle assembly and its bipolarity. Plk1, FAM29A and NEDD1 form three separate complexes in vivo, not one single complex. Plk1 recruits FAM29A to spindle microtubules, which, in turn, targets NEDD1 to the spindle. Plk1 also recruits NEDD1 to the centrosomes, probably through a Plk1-NEDD1 interaction, but this interaction does not contribute to targeting NEDD1 to the spindle. Altering intracellular levels of FAM29A changes the distribution of NEDD1 between the centrosomes and the spindle, indicating that FAM29A controls the partition of NEDD1 between these two mitotic structures. Thus, Plk1 promotes microtubule nucleation from the centrosomes through a FAM29A-independent pathway and from the spindle through a FAM29A-dependent pathway. FAM29A controls the relative contributions of these two pathways to microtubule polymerization during mitosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1242/jcs.048223

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268179400019

    View details for PubMedID 19596795

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2909321

  • Calcium signaling-induced Smad3 nuclear accumulation induces acetylcholinesterase transcription in apoptotic HeLa cells CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES Gao, W., Zhu, H., Zhang, J., Zhang, X. 2009; 66 (13): 2181-2193


    Recently, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been studied as an important apoptosis regulator. We previously showed that cellular calcium mobilization upregulated AChE expression by modulating promoter activity and mRNA stability. In this study, we have identified a potential Smad3/4 binding element, TGCCAGACA, located within the -601 to -571 bp fragment of the AChE promoter, as an important calcium response motif. Smad2/3 and Smad4 were shown to bind this element. Overexpression of human Smad3 increased AChE transcription activity in a dose-dependent manner in HeLa cells, whereas dominant-negative Smad3 blocked this activation. Upon A23187 and thapsigargin treatment, nuclear Smad3 accumulation was observed, an effect that was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM. Calcium-induced AChE transcriptional activation was significantly blocked when the nuclear localization signal of Smad3 was destroyed. Taken together, our data suggest Smad3 can regulate AChE transcriptional activation following calcium-induced nuclear accumulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00018-009-0037-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267680500014

    View details for PubMedID 19468687

  • Microtubule amplification in the assembly of mitotic spindle and the maturation of kinetochore fibers. Communicative & integrative biology Zhu, H., Fang, K., Fang, G. 2009; 2 (3): 208-210


    Efficient assembly of a mitotic spindle and stable attachment of microtubules (k-fibers) to kinetochores are essential for the high fidelity of chromosome segregation. Both spindle assembly and k-fiber formation require robust nucleation and polymerization of microtubules mediated by the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC). It has been well established that centrosomes and chromatin are the two centers for microtubule nucleation. We recently demonstrate a third mechanism for microtubule nucleation and polymerization, in which the existing microtubules in the spindle act as templates to promote the formation of new microtubules. We showed that a novel spindle-associated protein, FAM29A, plays a critical role in this microtubule-dependent microtubule amplification. FAM29A associates with spindle microtubules and directly interacts with and recruits NEDD1, the targeting subunit of gammaTuRC. Spindle-associated gammaTuRC then promotes microtubule nucleation required for spindle assembly and k-fiber formation. This novel microtubule amplification pathway provides a powerful mechanism to control the local cytoskeleton structures independent of centrosomes and chromatin. We speculate that microtubule amplification not only functions in mitosis, but may also act in other physiological processes to re-enforce existing cytoskeleton structures.

    View details for PubMedID 19641730

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2717520

  • Mechanism, Function and Regulation of Microtubule-Dependent Microtubule Amplification in Mitosis MOLECULES AND CELLS Zhu, H., Fang, K., Fang, G. 2009; 27 (1): 1-3


    Mitotic spindle mediates the segregation of chromosomes in the cell cycle and the proper function of the spindle is crucial to the high fidelity of chromosome segregation and to the stability of the genome. Nucleation of microtubules (MTs) from centrosomes and chromatin represents two well-characterized pathways essential for the assembly of a dynamic spindle in mitosis. Recently, we identified a third MT nucleation pathway, in which existing MTs in the spindle act as a template to promote the nucleation and polymerization of MTs, thereby efficiently amplifying MTs in the spindle. We will review here our current understanding on the molecular mechanism, the physiological function and the cell-cycle regulation of MT amplification.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10059-009-0014-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263383200001

    View details for PubMedID 19214428

  • FAM29A promotes microtubule amplification via recruitment of the NEDD1-gamma-tubulin complex to the mitotic spindle JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY Zhu, H., Coppinger, J. A., Jang, C., Yates, J. R., Fang, G. 2008; 183 (5): 835-848


    Microtubules (MTs) are nucleated from centrosomes and chromatin. In addition, MTs can be generated from preexiting MTs in a gamma-tubulin-dependent manner in yeast, plant, and Drosophila cells, although the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we show the spindle-associated protein FAM29A promotes MT-dependent MT amplification and is required for efficient chromosome congression and segregation in mammalian cells. Depletion of FAM29A reduces spindle MT density. FAM29A is not involved in the nucleation of MTs from centrosomes and chromatin, but is required for a subsequent increase in MT mass in cells released from nocodazole. FAM29A interacts with the NEDD1-gamma-tubulin complex and recruits this complex to the spindle, which, in turn, promotes MT polymerization. FAM29A preferentially associates with kinetochore MTs and knockdown of FAM29A reduces the number of MTs in a kinetochore fiber, activates the spindle checkpoint, and delays the mitotic progression. Our study provides a biochemical mechanism for MT-dependent MT amplification and for the maturation of kinetochore fibers in mammalian cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.200807046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261232000010

    View details for PubMedID 19029337

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2592839

  • The CCAAT-binding factor CBF/NF-Y regulates the human acetylcholinesterase promoter activity during calcium ionophore A23187-induced cell apoptosis BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-GENERAL SUBJECTS Zhu, H., Gao, W., Shi, Y., Zhang, X. 2007; 1770 (10): 1475-1482


    We previously reported that the expression of acetylcholinesterase during A23187-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells is regulated by Ca(2+) mobilization through the modulation of mRNA stability and acetylcholinesterase promoter activity. Transactivation of the human acetylcholinesterase promoter by A23187 was partially mediated by the distal CCAAT motif within the -1270 to -1248 fragment of the human acetylcholinesterase promoter, which was bound by the CCAAT binding factor (CBF/NF-Y). In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CBF/NF-Y regulates A23187-induced activation of the human acetylcholinesterase promoter. The results indicate that CBF/NF-Y binding to the distal CCAAT motif suppresses the promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated that binding of CBF/NF-Y to the distal CCAAT motif decreased after A23187 treatment. Our results suggest that acetylcholinesterase promoter activation during A23187-induced HeLa cell apoptosis may result partly from the dissociation of CBF/NF-Y from the distal CCAAT motif in the acetylcholinesterase promoter, reversing this suppression.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbagen.2007.07.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250187600006

    View details for PubMedID 17728068

  • Calcineurin mediates acetylcholinesterase expression during calcium ionophore A23187-induced HeLa cell apoptosis BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH Zhu, H., Gao, W., Jiang, H., Wu, J., Shi, Y., Zhang, X. 2007; 1773 (4): 593-602


    We previously reported that acetylcholinesterase plays a critical role in apoptosis and its expression is regulated by Ca(2+) mobilization. In the present study, we show that activated calpain, a cytosolic calcium-activated cysteine protease, and calcineurin, a calcium-dependent protein phosphatase, regulate acetylcholinesterase expression during A23187-induced apoptosis. The calpain inhibitor, calpeptin, and the calcineurin inhibitors, FK506 and cyclosporine A, inhibited acetylcholinesterase expression at both mRNA and protein levels and suppressed the activity of the human acetylcholinesterase promoter. In contrast, overexpression of constitutively active calcineurin significantly activated the acetylcholinesterase promoter. Furthermore, we identify a role for the transcription factor NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), a calcineurin target, in regulating the acetylcholinesterase promoter during ionophore-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of human NFATc3 and NFATc4 greatly increased the acetylcholinesterase promoter activity in HeLa cells treated with A23187. Overexpression of constitutive nuclear NFATc4 activated the acetylcholinesterase promoter independent of A23187, whereas overexpression of dominant-negative NFAT blocked A23187-induced acetylcholinesterase promoter activation. These results indicate that calcineurin mediates acetylcholinesterase expression during apoptosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2007.01.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245784700014

    View details for PubMedID 17320203

  • Nerve growth factor prevents the apoptosis-associated increase in acetylcholinesterase activity after hydrogen peroxide treatment by activating Akt ACTA BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA SINICA Jiang, H., Zhang, J., Zhu, H., Li, H., Zhang, X. 2007; 39 (1): 46-56


    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is thought to play an important role during apoptosis. Our results showed that H2O2 induced AChE activity, a functional marker in apoptosis, increases in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Glutathione, which is involved in cellular redox homeostasis, inhibited the increase of AChE activity, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in this process. Further investigation showed that the elevation of AChE was observed after the degradation of Akt, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, and activation of caspase family members. When nerve growth factor (NGF) was present, with the maintenance of Akt level, the elevation of AChE, the cytochrome c diffusion, as well as apoptosis were markedly attenuated in H2O2-treated PC12 cells. However, wortmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt pathway, accelerated the apoptosis and increased the AChE activity. The overexpression of constitutively activated Akt, which is a downstream signalling element of the NGF receptor TrkA, delayed mitochondrial collapse and inhibited elevation of AChE activity. Thus, NGF prevented apoptosis and elevation of AChE activity by activating the Akt pathway and stabilizing the function of mitochondria.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1745-7270.2007.00247.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243881000007

    View details for PubMedID 17213958

  • Regulation of acetylcholinesterase expression by calcium signaling during calcium ionophore A23187-and thapsigargin-induced apoptosis INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY Zhu, H., Gao, W., Jiang, H., Jin, Q., Shi, Y., Tsim, K. W., Zhang, X. 2007; 39 (1): 93-108


    We have recently reported that acetylcholinesterase expression was induced during apoptosis in various cell types. In the current study we provide evidence to suggest that the induction of acetylcholinesterase expression during apoptosis is regulated by the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+). During apoptosis, treatment of HeLa and MDA-MB-435s cells with the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase mRNA and protein levels. Chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) by BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester), an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, inhibited acetylcholinesterase expression. A23187 also enhanced the stability of acetylcholinesterase mRNA and increased the activity of acetylcholinesterase promoter, effects that were blocked by BAPTA-AM. Perturbations of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis by thapsigargin resulted in the increase of acetylcholinesterase expression as well as acetylcholinesterase promoter activity during thapsigargin induced apoptosis in HeLa and MDA-MB-435s cells, effects that were also inhibited by BAPTA-AM. We further demonstrated that the transactivation of the human acetylcholinesterase promoter by A23187 and thapsigargin was partially mediated by a CCAAT motif within the -1270 to -1248 fragment of the human acetylcholinesterase promoter. This motif was able to bind to CCAAT binding factor (CBF/NF-Y). These results strongly suggest that cytosolic Ca(2+) plays a key role in acetylcholinesterase regulation during apoptosis induced by A23187 and thapsigargin.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biocel.2006.06.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241963000009

    View details for PubMedID 17000130