Bio


Professor Kroo's research involves work in three general areas: multidisciplinary optimization and aircraft synthesis, unconventional aircraft, and low-speed aerodynamics. Current research in the field of aircraft synthesis, sponsored by NASA and industry, includes the development of a new computational architecture for aircraft design, and its integration with numerical optimization. Studies of unconventional configurations employ rapid turnaround analysis methods in the design of efficient subsonic and supersonic commercial aircraft. Recent research has included investigation of configurations such as joined wings, oblique wings, and tailless aircraft. Nonlinear low-speed aerodynamics studies have focused on vortex wake roll-up, refined computation of induced drag, the design of wing tips, and the aerodynamics of maneuvering aircraft.

Academic Appointments


  • Professor, Aeronautics and Astronautics

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Elected Member, National Academy of Engineering (2013 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Stanford University (1983)

All Publications


  • A Quasi-Procedural Method for Aircraft Design AIAA 88-6502 Kroo, I., Takai, M.
  • Oblique Wing Bibliography Kroo, I.
  • Control of Multiple UAVs for Persistent Surveillance: Algorithm and Flight Test Results IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY Nigam, N., Bieniawski, S., Kroo, I., Vian, J. 2012; 20 (5): 1236-1251
  • Metric for Comparing Lifetime Average Climate Impact of Aircraft AIAA JOURNAL Dallara, E. S., Kroo, I. M., Waitz, I. A. 2011; 49 (8): 1600-1613

    View details for DOI 10.2514/1.J050763

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293679900003

  • Aerodynamic Performance of Extended Formation Flight Ning, S. A., Flanzer, T. C., Kroo, I. M. AMER INST AERONAUT ASTRONAUT. 2011: 855-865

    View details for DOI 10.2514/1.C031046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291574700014

  • Multidisciplinary Considerations in the Design of Wings and Wing Tip Devices Ning, S. A., Kroo, I. AMER INST AERONAUT ASTRONAUT. 2010: 534-543

    View details for DOI 10.2514/1.41833

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276565300017

  • Two-Level Multifidelity Design Optimization Studies for Supersonic Jets Choi, S., Alonso, J. J., Kroo, I. M. AMER INST AERONAUT ASTRONAUT. 2009: 776-790

    View details for DOI 10.2514/1.34362

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266894200005

  • ENHANCED COLLABORATIVE OPTIMIZATION: A DECOMPOSITION-BASED METHOD FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN DETC 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNICAL CONFERENCES AND COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION IN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, VOL 1, PTS A AND B Roth, B. D., Kroo, I. M. 2009: 927-936
  • Persistent surveillance using multiple unmanned air vehicles 2008 IEEE AEROSPACE CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-9 Nigam, N., Kroo, I. 2008: 88-101
  • A Multifidelity Gradient-Free Optimization Method and Application to Aerodynamic Design Rajnarayan, D., Haas, A., Kroo, I. 2008
  • Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Energy Extraction from Atmospheric Turbulence Patel, C., Kroo, I. 2008
  • Control and Design of Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles for a Persistent Surveillance Task Nigam, N., Kroo, I. 2008
  • Tip Extensions, Winglets, and C-wings: Conceptual Design and Optimization Ning, S., A., Kroo, I. 2008
  • Multi-Objective Aircraft Optimization for Minimum Cost and Emissions over Specific Route Networks Geoffrey, C., Bower, Kroo, Ilan, M. 2008
  • Enhanced Collaborative Optimization: Application to an Analytic Test Problem and Aircraft Design Roth, B., D., Kroo, I., M. 2008
  • Multifidelity Optimization Methodology for Incorporating Advanced Technologies into Conceptual Design Fidkowski, K., Kroo, I., Willcox, K. 2008
  • Multifidelity Design Optimization of Low-Boom Supersonic Jets Journal of Aircraft 0021-8669 Choi, S., Alonso, J., J., Kroo, I., M., Wintzer, M. 2008; 45 (1): 106-118
  • Multifidelity design optimization of low-boom supersonic sets Choi, S., Alonso, J. J., Kroo, I. M., Wintzer, M. AMER INST AERONAUT ASTRONAUT. 2008: 106-118

    View details for DOI 10.2514/1.28948

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252820400013

  • Extracting Energy from Atmospheric Turbulence Patel, C., Lee, H., Kroo, I. 2008
  • Stanford University, Stanford, CA, Neutral Energy Cycles for a Vehicle in Sinusoidal and Turbulent Vertical Gusts Kroo, I., Lissaman, P., Ventures, D. V., Santa Fe, N. M., Patel, C. 2007
  • NASA Ames Research Center, Probability Collectives for Optimization of Computer Simulations Rajnarayan, D., Kroo, I. 2007
  • Aircraft Family Design Using Decomposition-based Methods Allison, J., Roth, B., Kokkolaras, M., Kroo, I., Papalambros, P. Y. 2006
  • Control Law Design for Improving UAV Performance Using Wind Turbulence Patel, C. K., Kroo 2006
  • Optimization Under Uncertainty Using Probability Collectives Rajnarayan, D., Wolpert, D., Kroo, I. 2006
  • Robust Objective Functions for Sonic-Boom Minimization Journal of Aircraft, 0021-8669 Makino, Y., Kroo, Ilan, M. 2006; 43 (5): 1301-1306
  • Conceptual Design of Conventional and Oblique Wing Configurations for Small Supersonic Aircraft Wintzer, M., Sturdza, P., Kroo, I. 2006
  • Two Dimensional Unsteady Aerodynamics of Miniature Trailing Edge Effectors Lee, H., Kroo, I. M. 2006
  • Framework for aircraft conceptual design and environmental performance studies Antoine, N. E., Kroo, I. M. AMER INST AERONAUT ASTRONAUT. 2005: 2100-2109
  • Unconventional Configurations for Efficient Supersonic Flight Kroo, I. 2005
  • Flight Control with Distributed Effectors Bieniawski, S., Kroo, I., Wolpert, D. 2005
  • Nonplanar Wing Concepts for Increased Aircraft Efficiency Kroo, I. 2005
  • Two-Level Multi-Fidelity Design Optimization Studies for Supersonic Jets Choi, S., Alonso, J. J., Kim, S., Kroo, I. M., Wintzer, M. 2005
  • Aircraft optimization for minimal environmental impact Antoine, N. E., Kroo, I. M. AMER INST AERONAUT ASTRONAUT. 2004: 790-797
  • Aeronautical Applications of Evolutionary Design Kroo, I. 2004
  • Computational Investigation of Airfoils with Miniature Trailing Edge Control Surfaces Lee, H., Kroo, I. 2004
  • Innovations in Aeronautics – Dryden Lectureship in Research Kroo, I. 2004
  • Computational Investigation of Wings with Miniature Trailing Edge Control Surfaces Lee, H., Kroo, I. 2004
  • A Framework for Aircraft Conceptual Design and Environmental Performance Studies Antoine, N., Kroo, I. 2004
  • Discrete, Continuous, and Constrained Optimization Using Collectives Bieniawski, S., Kroo, I. 2004
  • Multi-fidelity Design Optimization of Low-boom Supersonic Business Jets Choi, S., Alonso, J., Kroo, I. 2004
  • Distributed Multidisciplinary Design and Collaborative Optimization Kroo, I. 2004
  • Collectives and Complex System Design Kroo, I. 2004
  • Optimizing Aircraft Design and Fleet Composition for Environmental Compliance Antoine, N., Kroo, I. 2004
  • Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence Antoine, N., Bieniawski, S., Kroo, I. 2004
  • NATO Course in Novel Aircraft Design Concepts for the 21st Century Instituto Superior Técnico Centro de Congressos, Lisbon PORTUGAL Kroo, I. 2003
  • Design-Oriented Aerodynamic Analysis for Supersonic Laminar Flow Wings Kroo, I., Sturdza, P. 2003
  • Development and Testing of an Experimental Aeroelastic Model with Micro-Trailing Edge Effectors Bieniawski, S., Kroo, I. 2003
  • Aeroelastic design optimization of a two-spar flexible wind-tunnel model JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Borglund, D., Kroo, I. M. 2002; 39 (6): 1074-1076
  • Mesoscale flight and miniature rotorcraft development FIXED AND FLAPPING WING AERODYNAMICS FOR MICRO AIR VEHICLE APPLICATIONS Kroo, I., Kunz, P. 2002; 195: 503-517
  • Optimizing Aircraft and Operations for Minimum Noise Antoine, N., Kroo, I. 2002
  • Aircraft Optimization for Minimal Environmental Impact Antoine, N., Kroo, I. 2002
  • Flutter Suppression for High Aspect Ratio Flexible Wings Using Microflaps Lee, H., Kroo, I., Bieniawski, S. 2002
  • Analysis and design of airfoils for use at ultra-low Reynolds numbers FIXED AND FLAPPING WING AERODYNAMICS FOR MICRO AIR VEHICLE APPLICATIONS Kunz, P. J., Kroo, I. 2002; 195: 35-60
  • Drag due to lift: Concepts for prediction and reduction ANNUAL REVIEW OF FLUID MECHANICS Kroo, I. 2001; 33: 587-617
  • Collaborative optimization using response surface estimation AIAA JOURNAL Sobieski, I. P., Kroo, I. M. 2000; 38 (10): 1931-1938
  • Design and Development of the SWIFT - A Foot-Launched Sailplane Kroo, I. 2000
  • Supersonic Civil Transport Design Using Collaborative Optimization Kroo, I. 2000
  • Aeroservoelastic Control Using Redundant Microactuators Kroo, I., Prinz, F., Eaton, J. 2000
  • Development of the Mesicopter - A miniature autonomous rotorcraft Kroo, I. 2000
  • A 2D multidisciplinary design method for boundary layer ingesting inlets Rodriguez David, L., Kroo, Ilan, M. 1999
  • Multidisciplinary optimization of a natural laminar flow supersonic aircraft Manning Valerie, M., Kroo, I. 1999
  • Boundary layer calculations for preliminary design of wings in supersonic flow Sturdza, Peter, Manning Valerie, M., Kroo, I., Tracy, M., Richard, R. 1999
  • Aerodynamic Concepts For Future Aircraft Kroo, I. 1999
  • The Challenge and Promise of Blended Wing Body Optimization AIAA 98-4736 Wakayama, S., Kroo, I. 1998
  • Advanced Configurations for Very Large Transport Airplanes AIAA 98-0439 McMasters, J., Kroo, I. 1998
  • Small-Scale UAV’s for Flight Research Kroo, I., Tigner, B. 1998
  • Aeroelastic Design and Control Gain Scheduling of the Blended Wing Using a Collocation Method AIAA 98-4831 Holden, M., Tigner, B., Kroo, I. 1998
  • UAV Aeroelastic Control Using Redundant Microactuators Kroo, I., Prinz, F., Eaton, J. 1998
  • Concurrent Wing Design and Flight Path Optimization Using Optimizer-Based Decomposition AIAA 98-4920 Altus, S., Kroo, I. 1998
  • Response Surface Estimation and Refinement in Collaborative Optimization AIAA 98-4753 Sobieski, I., Manning, V., Kroo, I. 1998
  • Test Techniques for Small-Scale Research Aircraft AIAA 98-2726 Tigner, B., Kroo et. al., I. 1998
  • Collaborative approach to launch vehicle design Braun, R. D., Moore, A. A., Kroo, I. M. AMER INST AERONAUT ASTRONAUT. 1997: 478-486
  • Induced drag computations on wings with accurately modeled wakes JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Smith, S. C., Kroo, I. M. 1997; 34 (2): 253-255
  • MDO for large-scale design Kroo, I. SIAM. 1997: 22-44
  • Induced Drag Computations on Wings with Accurately-Modeled Wakes AIAA Journal of Aircraft Smith, S., C., Kroo, I. 1997; 34 (2): 253-255
  • Multidisciplinary optimization applications in preliminary design - Status and directions Kroo, I. 1997
  • A genetic algorithm for scheduling and decomposition of multidisciplinary design problems JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN Altus, S. S., Kroo, I. M., Gage, P. J. 1996; 118 (4): 486-489
  • Decomposition and Collaborative Optimization for Large Scale Aerospace Design In Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: State of the Art Kroo, I. edited by Alexandrov, N., Hussaini, M., Y. SIAM. 1996: 1
  • Aerodynamic and structural analysis and optimization for conceptual design of supersonic transports Omukai, T., Kroo, I. 1996
  • Development and Application of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture in a Multidisciplinary Design Environment In Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: State of the Art Braun, R., D., Kroo, I., M. edited by Alexandrov, N., Hussaini, M., Y. SIAM. 1996: 1
  • Using Collocation Methods for Aeroelastic Optimization Holden, M., Kroo, I. 1996
  • Using Automatic Differentiation with the Quasi-Procedrual Method for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Hovland, P., Altus, S., Kroo, I., Bischof, C. 1996
  • Structural Optimization for Joined Wing Synthesis Journal of Aircraft Gallman, J., Kroo, I. 1996; 33 (1): 214-223
  • A Collocation Method for Aeroelastic Optimization Holden, M., Kroo, I. 1996
  • Use of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture for Launch Vehicle Design Braun, R., D., Kroo, I., M., Moore, A., A. 1996
  • Implementation and Performance Issues in Collaborative Optimization Braun, R., Gage, P., Kroo, I., Sobieski, I. 1996
  • Highly Nonplanar Lifting Systems a hypertext version of a paper presented at the Transportation Beyond 2000 workshop at NASA Langley Research Center Kroo, I., McMasters, J., Smith, S., C. NASA CP. 1996: 331-370
  • Aircraft Design Using Collaborative Optimization Sobieski, I., P., Kroo, I., M. 1996
  • VARIABLE-COMPLEXITY GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR TOPOLOGICAL DESIGN AIAA JOURNAL Gage, P. J., Kroo, I. M., Sobieski, I. P. 1995; 33 (11): 2212-2217
  • SUBSONIC WING PLANFORM DESIGN USING MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Wakayama, S., Kroo, I. 1995; 32 (4): 746-753
  • COMPARISON OF 2 MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION STRATEGIES FOR LAUNCH-VEHICLE DESIGN JOURNAL OF SPACECRAFT AND ROCKETS Braun, R. D., POWELL, R. W., Lepsch, R. A., STANLEY, D. O., Kroo, I. M. 1995; 32 (3): 404-410
  • INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION USING A GENETIC ALGORITHM JOURNAL OF THE ASTRONAUTICAL SCIENCES Gage, P. J., Braun, R. D., Kroo, I. M. 1995; 43 (1): 59-75
  • Comparison of Two Multidisciplinary Optimization Strategies for Launch Vehicle Design Journal of Spacecraft & Rockets Braun, R., D., Powell, R., W., Lepsch, R., A., Stanley, D., O., Kroo, I., M. 1995; 32 (3): 404-410
  • Use of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture in a Multidisciplinary Design Environment Braun, R., D., Kroo, I., M. 1995
  • A Collaborative Approach to Trajectory Optimization Braun, R., D., Kroo, I., M. 1995
  • Representation issues for design topological optimization by genetic methods Gage, P. J., Kroo, I. M. GORDON AND BREACH SCIENCE PUBL. 1995: 383-388
  • Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Aircraft Preliminary Design Kroo, I., Altus, S., Braun, R., Gage, P., Sobieski, I. 1994
  • Multidisciplinary Optimization for Aircraft Preliminary Design AIAA 94-4325 Kroo, I., Altus, S., Braun, R., Gage, P., Sobieski, I. 1994
  • Multidisciplinary Optimization Strategies for Launch Vehicle Design Braun, R., D., Powell, R., W., Lepsch, R., A., Stanley, D., O., Kroo, I., M. 1994
  • Interplanetary Trajectory Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm Gage, P., J., Braun, R., D., Kroo, I., M. 1994
  • Post-Optimality Analysis in Aircraft Design Braun, R., D., Kroo, I., M., Gage, P., J. 1993
  • A Role for Genetic Algorithms in a Preliminary Design Environment Gage, P., Kroo, I. 1993
  • An Interactive System for Aircraft Design and Optimization AIAA Paper #92-1190 Kroo, I. 1992
  • Development of the Quasi-Procedural Method for Use in Aircraft Configuration Optimization Gage, P., Kroo, I. 1992
  • AERODYNAMIC AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF JOINED-WING AIRCRAFT JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Kroo, I., GALLMAN, J., Smith, S. 1991; 28 (1): 74-81
  • Development of the SWIFT Hang Gliding Kroo, I., Beckman, E., Robbins, B., Morris, S., Porter, B. 1991
  • AIRCRAFT DESIGN OPTIMIZATION WITH DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE CONSTRAINTS JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Morris, S. J., Kroo, I. 1990; 27 (12): 1060-1067
  • A Quasi-Procedural, Knowledge Based System for Aircraft Synthesis Kroo, I., Takai, M. 1988
  • PROPELLER-WING INTEGRATION FOR MINIMUM INDUCED LOSS JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Kroo, I. 1986; 23 (7): 561-565
  • Design and Analysis of Optimally-Loaded Lifting Systems an updated version of "A General Approach to Multiple Lifting Surface Analysis and Design," AIAA 84-2507 Kroo, I. 1984
  • A FUNDAMENTAL COMPARISON OF CANARD AND CONVENTIONAL CONFIGURATIONS JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT MCGEER, T., Kroo, I. 1983; 20 (11): 983-992