Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Director, Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine (2003 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • National Academy of Sciences Council, National Academy of Sciences (2011)
  • Honorary Investigator, State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, China (2010)
  • Honorary Professor, Peking Union Medical College, China (2010)
  • Simon M. Shubitz Award for Excellence in the Field of Cancer Research, University of Chicago (2010)
  • The Cockrell Foundation Award in Clinical or Translational Research, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute (2009)
  • Honorary Director, Center for Biotech/BioMedicine and Shenzhen Key Lab of Gene & Antibody Therapy, Graduate School of Shenzhen, Tsinghau University, China (2009)
  • Passano Award, The Passano Foundation (2009)
  • Rosentiel Award, Brandeis University (2009)
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (2008)
  • Robert Koch Award, Koch Foundation (2008)
  • Honoree of the Arthritis Foundation of Northern California Chapter's 2007 Tribute Dinner, Arthritis Foundation (2007)
  • I & H Wachter Award, I & H Wachter Foundation (2007)
  • Honorary Doctorate, Mount Sinai School of Medicine (2007)
  • John Scott Award, City of Philadelphia (2006)
  • American-Italian Cancer Foundation Prize for Scientific Excellence in Medicine, American-Italian Cancer Foundation (2006)
  • Honorary Doctorate, Columbia University (2006)
  • The Commonwealth Club of California 18th Annual Distinguished Citizen Award, Commonwealth Club of California (2006)
  • Jeffrey Modell "Dare to Dream" Award, Jeffrey Modell Foundation (2005)
  • The Linus Pauling Medal for Outstanding Contributions to Science, Stanford University (2005)
  • Rabbi Shai Shacknai Memorial Prize in Immunology and Cancer Research, The Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology (2004)
  • Medal for Distinguished Contributions to Biomedical Research, New York Academy of Medicine (2004)
  • Alan Cranston Awardee, Alliance for Aging Research (2004)
  • Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal, National Academy of Sciences Council (2004)
  • Bass Award, Society of Neurological Surgeons (2003)
  • Award for Outstanding Contribution to Cancer Biology, Pasarow Foundation (1989)
  • Election to the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences (1989)

Professional Education

  • MD, Stanford University, Medicine (1965)
  • BS, Montana State College, Pre-med (1961)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Weissman directs a research group consisting of graduate students, medical student-scientists, and postdoctoral fellows, all of whom study stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. He has trained and supervised hundreds of students and fellows, authored more than 750 scientific articles and has numerous awards and honorary degrees for his research accomplishments. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Amerian Philosophical Society, and many other societies. He is past president of the American Association of Immunologists [1994] and the International Society of Stem Cell Research [2009]. Dr. Weissman is an expert in the field of hematopoiesis, leukemia, and hematopoietic stem cells [HSC], and most recently, the clonal events leading from HSC to leukemia stem cells.. His research also encompasses the phylogeny and developmental biology of the cells that make up the blood-forming and immune systems. He has a laboratory at Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, where he studies the histocompatibility systems in colonial protochordate, a system which he proposed evolved to prevent predatory germline stem cell lineages from passing from one individual to another in multi-individual colonies that share a common extracorporeal blood vascular system; only histocompatible stem cells can colonize allogeneic natural parabionts. His laboratory was first to identify and isolate the blood-forming stem cell [HSC] from mice, and has defined, by lineage analysis, the stages of development between the stem cells and mature progeny. His laboratories have also discovered the human HSC, a human brain-forming stem cell population, mouse skeletal muscle stem cells, and an osteochondral stem cell in mice. He has worked in the area of cancer since 1977, and is a leader in the field of cancer stem cell biology. In recent years his work has included studying the potential of CD47 as a cancer therapeutic and identifying cancer stem cells from a variety of blood and solid cancers. He and his colleagues have found that CD47, a ‘don’t eat me signal’ is highly expressed beginning in the latter stages of progression of cancer stem cells from the benign to the highly malignant state, and this counteracts ‘eat me’ signals on preneoplastic and highly malignant cancer cells, presumably as part of the evolution of cancer clones driven by self-renewing subsets of cells in the cancer. This research brings into focus the primary role of phagocytic cells such as macrophages of the innate immune system, in tumor surveillance. Dr. Weissman was a founder of three companies, SyStemix, Cellerant, and Stem Cells, Inc., all focused on bringing stem cell therapies into the clinic, and earlier was on the founding SABs of Amgen, DNAX, and T Cell Sciences.

Clinical Trials

  • A Comprehensive Study to Isolate Tumor-initiating Cells From Human Epithelial Malignancies Not Recruiting

    We hypothesize that all human malignancies harbour a subpopulation of tumor initiating cells/cancer stem cells (CSCs) that drives tumor development and potentially recurrence or metastasis of the disease. The primary aim of this study is to develop strategies for prospective isolation/enrichment of CSCs from human tumors of different tissue origins. In addition, we will characterize the signaling pathways and/or tumor specific antigens that are specific for CSCs, in order to specifically target these CSCs as the endpoint of this study.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Linda Quinn, 650-723-6520.

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  • Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression and Identification of Progenitor Cells in Lung Carcinoma Recruiting

    This study will investigate gene expression profiles in normal human lung tissue, lung carcinoma and metastatic tumor to the lung. The expression of up to 20,000 genes in a given lung tissue sample will be examined by cDNA microarray analysis and compared to normal lung tissue. In addition, we hope to identify a particular subset of lung cancer cells with an enhanced capacity for proliferation and self-renewal , analogous to the stem cells recently identified for certain types of leukemia, breast cancer and brain tumors.

    View full details

2014-15 Courses

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

Journal Articles

  • Clonal precursor of bone, cartilage, and hematopoietic niche stromal cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Chan, C. K., Lindau, P., Jiang, W., Chen, J. Y., Zhang, L. F., Chen, C., Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Kim, J., Lee, A., Park, S., Nag, D., Gong, Y., Kulkarni, S., Luppen, C. A., Theologis, A. A., Wan, D. C., DeBoer, A., Seo, E. Y., Vincent-Tompkins, J. D., Loh, K., Walmsley, G. G., Kraft, D. L., Wu, J. C., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 110 (31): 12643-12648


    Organs are composites of tissue types with diverse developmental origins, and they rely on distinct stem and progenitor cells to meet physiological demands for cellular production and homeostasis. How diverse stem cell activity is coordinated within organs is not well understood. Here we describe a lineage-restricted, self-renewing common skeletal progenitor (bone, cartilage, stromal progenitor; BCSP) isolated from limb bones and bone marrow tissue of fetal, neonatal, and adult mice. The BCSP clonally produces chondrocytes (cartilage-forming) and osteogenic (bone-forming) cells and at least three subsets of stromal cells that exhibit differential expression of cell surface markers, including CD105 (or endoglin), Thy1 [or CD90 (cluster of differentiation 90)], and 6C3 [ENPEP glutamyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase A)]. These three stromal subsets exhibit differential capacities to support hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem and progenitor cells. Although the 6C3-expressing subset demonstrates functional stem cell niche activity by maintaining primitive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) renewal in vitro, the other stromal populations promote HSC differentiation to more committed lines of hematopoiesis, such as the B-cell lineage. Gene expression analysis and microscopic studies further reveal a microenvironment in which CD105-, Thy1-, and 6C3-expressing marrow stroma collaborate to provide cytokine signaling to HSCs and more committed hematopoietic progenitors. As a result, within the context of bone as a blood-forming organ, the BCSP plays a critical role in supporting hematopoiesis through its generation of diverse osteogenic and hematopoietic-promoting stroma, including HSC supportive 6C3(+) niche cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1310212110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322441500042

    View details for PubMedID 23858471

  • Identification of a colonial chordate histocompatibility gene. Science Voskoboynik, A., Newman, A. M., Corey, D. M., Sahoo, D., Pushkarev, D., Neff, N. F., Passarelli, B., Koh, W., Ishizuka, K. J., Palmeri, K. J., Dimov, I. K., Keasar, C., Fan, H. C., Mantalas, G. L., Sinha, R., Penland, L., Quake, S. R., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 341 (6144): 384-387


    Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from nonself. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self-nonself and determines "graft" outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly up-regulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion and/or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1238036

    View details for PubMedID 23888037

  • Engineered SIRPa variants as immunotherapeutic adjuvants to anticancer antibodies. Science Weiskopf, K., Ring, A. M., Ho, C. C., Volkmer, J., Levin, A. M., Volkmer, A. K., Ozkan, E., Fernhoff, N. B., van de Rijn, M., Weissman, I. L., Garcia, K. C. 2013; 341 (6141): 88-91


    CD47 is an antiphagocytic signal that cancer cells employ to inhibit macrophage-mediated destruction. Here, we modified the binding domain of human SIRPα, the receptor for CD47, for use as a CD47 antagonist. We engineered high-affinity SIRPα variants with approximately 50,000-fold increased affinity for human CD47 relative to wild-type SIRPα. As high-affinity SIRPα monomers, they potently antagonized CD47 on cancer cells but did not induce macrophage phagocytosis on their own. Instead, they exhibited remarkable synergy with all tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies tested by increasing phagocytosis in vitro and enhancing antitumor responses in vivo. This "one-two punch" directs immune responses against tumor cells while lowering the threshold for macrophage activation, thereby providing a universal method for augmenting the efficacy of therapeutic anticancer antibodies.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1238856

    View details for PubMedID 23722425

  • Anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer by macrophages primes an effective antitumor T-cell response PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Tseng, D., Volkmer, J., Willingham, S. B., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Fathman, J. W., Fernhoff, N. B., Seita, J., Inlay, M. A., Weiskopf, K., Miyanishi, M., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 110 (27): 11103-11108


    Mobilization of the T-cell response against cancer has the potential to achieve long-lasting cures. However, it is not known how to harness antigen-presenting cells optimally to achieve an effective antitumor T-cell response. In this study, we show that anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer by macrophages can initiate an antitumor T-cell immune response. Using the ovalbumin model antigen system, anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer cells by macrophages resulted in increased priming of OT-I T cells [cluster of differentiation 8-positive (CD8(+))] but decreased priming of OT-II T cells (CD4(+)). The CD4(+) T-cell response was characterized by a reduction in forkhead box P3-positive (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells. Macrophages following anti-CD47-mediated phagocytosis primed CD8(+) T cells to exhibit cytotoxic function in vivo. This response protected animals from tumor challenge. We conclude that anti-CD47 antibody treatment not only enables macrophage phagocytosis of cancer but also can initiate an antitumor cytotoxic T-cell immune response.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1305569110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321978000057

  • Anti-KIT monoclonal antibody inhibits imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor growth PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Edris, B., Willingham, S. B., Weiskopf, K., Volkmer, A. K., Volkmer, J., Muehlenberg, T., Montgomery, K. D., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Czechowicz, A., Fletcher, J. A., West, R. B., Weissman, I. L., van de Rijn, M. 2013; 110 (9): 3501-3506


    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and arises from the interstitial cells of Cajal. It is characterized by expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase CD117 (KIT). In 70-80% of GIST cases, oncogenic mutations in KIT are present, leading to constitutive activation of the receptor, which drives the proliferation of these tumors. Treatment of GIST with imatinib, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits KIT-mediated signaling and initially results in disease control in 70-85% of patients with KIT-positive GIST. However, the vast majority of patients eventually develop resistance to imatinib treatment, leading to disease progression and posing a significant challenge in the clinical management of these tumors. Here, we show that an anti-KIT monoclonal antibody (mAb), SR1, is able to slow the growth of three human GIST cell lines in vitro. Importantly, these reductions in cell growth were equivalent between imatinib-resistant and imatinib-sensitive GIST cell lines. Treatment of GIST cell lines with SR1 reduces cell-surface KIT expression, suggesting that mAb-induced KIT down-regulation may be a mechanism by which SR1 inhibits GIST growth. Furthermore, we also show that SR1 treatment enhances phagocytosis of GIST cells by macrophages, indicating that treatment with SR1 may enhance immune cell-mediated tumor clearance. Finally, using two xenotransplantation models of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant GIST, we demonstrate that SR1 is able to strongly inhibit tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest that treatment with mAbs targeting KIT may represent an alternative, or complementary, approach for treating GIST.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1222893110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315841900062

  • Hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell mechanisms in myelodysplastic syndromes PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Pang, W. W., Pluvinage, J. V., Price, E. A., Sridhar, K., Arber, D. A., Greenberg, P. L., Schrier, S. L., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 110 (8): 3011-3016


    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by variable cytopenias and ineffective hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors in MDS have not been extensively characterized. We transplanted purified human HSCs from MDS samples into immunodeficient mice and show that HSCs are the disease-initiating cells in MDS. We identify a recurrent loss of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) in the bone marrow of low risk MDS patients that can distinguish low risk MDS from clinical mimics, thus providing a simple diagnostic tool. The loss of GMPs is likely due to increased apoptosis and increased phagocytosis, the latter due to the up-regulation of cell surface calreticulin, a prophagocytic marker. Blocking calreticulin on low risk MDS myeloid progenitors rescues them from phagocytosis in vitro. However, in the high-risk refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) stages of MDS, the GMP population is increased in frequency compared with normal, and myeloid progenitors evade phagocytosis due to up-regulation of CD47, an antiphagocytic marker. Blocking CD47 leads to the selective phagocytosis of this population. We propose that MDS HSCs compete with normal HSCs in the patients by increasing their frequency at the expense of normal hematopoiesis, that the loss of MDS myeloid progenitors by programmed cell death and programmed cell removal are, in part, responsible for the cytopenias, and that up-regulation of the "don't eat me" signal CD47 on MDS myeloid progenitors is an important transition step leading from low risk MDS to high risk MDS and, possibly, to acute myeloid leukemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1222861110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315954400082

  • Repeated, Long-Term Cycling of Putative Stem Cells between Niches in a Basal Chordate DEVELOPMENTAL CELL Rinkevich, Y., Voskoboynik, A., Rosner, A., Rabinowitz, C., Paz, G., Oren, M., Douek, J., Alfassi, G., Moiseeva, E., Ishizuka, K. J., Palmeri, K. J., Weissman, I. L., Rinkevich, B. 2013; 24 (1): 76-88


    The mechanisms that sustain stem cells are fundamental to tissue maintenance. Here, we identify "cell islands" (CIs) as a niche for putative germ and somatic stem cells in Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial chordate that undergoes weekly cycles of death and regeneration. Cells within CIs express markers associated with germ and somatic stem cells and gene products that implicate CIs as signaling centers for stem cells. Transplantation of CIs induced long-term germline and somatic chimerism, demonstrating self-renewal and pluripotency of CI cells. Cell labeling and in vivo time-lapse imaging of CI cells reveal waves of migrations from degrading CIs into developing buds, contributing to soma and germline development. Knockdown of cadherin, which is highly expressed within CIs, elicited the migration of CI cells to circulation. Piwi knockdown resulted in regeneration arrest. We suggest that repeated trafficking of stem cells allows them to escape constraints imposed by the niche, enabling self-preservation throughout life.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2012.11.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316305200007

  • The genome sequence of the colonial chordate, Botryllus schlosseri. eLife Voskoboynik, A., Neff, N. F., Sahoo, D., Newman, A. M., Pushkarev, D., Koh, W., Passarelli, B., Fan, H. C., Mantalas, G. L., Palmeri, K. J., Ishizuka, K. J., Gissi, C., Griggio, F., Ben-Shlomo, R., Corey, D. M., Penland, L., White, R. A., Weissman, I. L., Quake, S. R. 2013; 2


    Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate that follows the chordate plan of development following sexual reproduction, but invokes a stem cell-mediated budding program during subsequent rounds of asexual reproduction. As urochordates are considered to be the closest living invertebrate relatives of vertebrates, they are ideal subjects for whole genome sequence analyses. Using a novel method for high-throughput sequencing of eukaryotic genomes, we sequenced and assembled 580 Mbp of the B. schlosseri genome. The genome assembly is comprised of nearly 14,000 intron-containing predicted genes, and 13,500 intron-less predicted genes, 40% of which could be confidently parceled into 13 (of 16 haploid) chromosomes. A comparison of homologous genes between B. schlosseri and other diverse taxonomic groups revealed genomic events underlying the evolution of vertebrates and lymphoid-mediated immunity. The B. schlosseri genome is a community resource for studying alternative modes of reproduction, natural transplantation reactions, and stem cell-mediated regeneration. DOI:

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.00569

    View details for PubMedID 23840927

  • Immunogenicity of in vitro maintained and matured populations: potential barriers to engraftment of human pluripotent stem cell derivatives. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Tang, C., Weissman, I. L., Drukker, M. 2013; 1029: 17-31


    The potential to develop into any cell type makes human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) one of the most promising sources for regenerative treatments. Hurdles to their clinical applications include (1) formation of heterogeneously differentiated cultures, (2) the risk of teratoma formation from residual undifferentiated cells, and (3) immune rejection of engrafted cells. The recent production of human isogenic (genetically identical) induced PSCs (hiPSCs) has been proposed as a "solution" to the histocompatibility barrier. In theory, differentiated cells derived from patient-specific hiPSC lines should be histocompatible to their donor/recipient. However, propagation, maintenance, and non-physiologic differentiation of hPSCs in vitro may produce other, likely less powerful, immune responses. In light of recent progress towards the clinical application of hPSCs, this review focuses on two antigen presentation phenomena that may lead to rejection of isogenic hPSC derivates: namely, the expression of aberrant antigens as a result of long-term in vitro maintenance conditions or incomplete somatic cell reprogramming, and the unbalanced presentation of receptors and ligands involved in immune recognition due to accelerated differentiation. Finally, we discuss immunosuppressive approaches that could potentially address these immunological concerns.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-62703-478-4_2

    View details for PubMedID 23756939

  • E. Donnall Thomas (1920-2012) PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Blume, K. G., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 109 (51): 20777-20778

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1218913109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313123700017

    View details for PubMedID 23197829

  • In vivo directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells for skeletal regeneration PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Levi, B., Hyun, J. S., Montoro, D. T., Lo, D. D., Chan, C. K., Hu, S., Sun, N., Lee, M., Grova, M., Connolly, A. J., Wu, J. C., Gurtner, G. C., Weissman, I. L., Wan, D. C., Longaker, M. T. 2012; 109 (50): 20379-20384


    Pluripotent cells represent a powerful tool for tissue regeneration, but their clinical utility is limited by their propensity to form teratomas. Little is known about their interaction with the surrounding niche following implantation and how this may be applied to promote survival and functional engraftment. In this study, we evaluated the ability of an osteogenic microniche consisting of a hydroxyapatite-coated, bone morphogenetic protein-2-releasing poly-L-lactic acid scaffold placed within the context of a macroenvironmental skeletal defect to guide in vivo differentiation of both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. In this setting, we found de novo bone formation and participation by implanted cells in skeletal regeneration without the formation of a teratoma. This finding suggests that local cues from both the implanted scaffold/cell micro- and surrounding macroniche may act in concert to promote cellular survival and the in vivo acquisition of a terminal cell fate, thereby allowing for functional engraftment of pluripotent cells into regenerating tissue.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1218052109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312605600055

    View details for PubMedID 23169671

  • Identification and prospective isolation of a mesothelial precursor lineage giving rise to smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts for mammalian internal organs, and their vasculature NATURE CELL BIOLOGY Rinkevich, Y., Mori, T., Sahoo, D., Xu, P., Bermingham, J. R., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 14 (12): 1251-?


    Fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (FSMCs) are principal cell types of connective and adventitial tissues that participate in the development, physiology and pathology of internal organs, with incompletely defined cellular origins. Here, we identify and prospectively isolate from the mesothelium a mouse cell lineage that is committed to FSMCs. The mesothelium is an epithelial monolayer covering the vertebrate thoracic and abdominal cavities and internal organs. Time-lapse imaging and transplantation experiments reveal robust generation of FSMCs from the mesothelium. By targeting mesothelin (MSLN), a surface marker expressed on mesothelial cells, we identify and isolate precursors capable of clonally generating FSMCs. Using a genetic lineage tracing approach, we show that embryonic and adult mesothelium represents a common lineage to trunk FSMCs, and trunk vasculature, with minimal contributions from neural crest, or circulating cells. The isolation of FSMC precursors enables the examination of multiple aspects of smooth muscle and fibroblast biology as well as the prospective isolation of these precursors for potential regenerative medicine purposes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncb2610

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311890300007

    View details for PubMedID 23143399

  • CD19(-)CD45(low/-)CD38(high)/CD138(+) plasma cells enrich for human tumorigenic myeloma cells LEUKEMIA Kim, D., Park, C. Y., Medeiros, B. C., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 26 (12): 2530-2537


    Multiple myeloma is a hematological neoplasm characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Its frequent relapse following achievement of clinical remissions implicates the existence of therapy-resistant myeloma-initiating cells. To date, results on the identity of myeloma-initiating cells have differed. Here, we prospectively identified a myeloma-initiating population by fractionating and transplanting patient bone marrow cells into human bone-bearing immunocompromised mice. Xenotransplantation of fractionated CD138(+)/CD38(high) cells from 40% of patients (8/20) led to a repopulation of CD19(+)CD38(low) or CD138(+)CD38(+) B-lineage cells in human bone grafts; and these grafts were clonally derived from patient myeloma cells. Meanwhile, CD19(+)CD38(low) xenografts were detected in human bone-bearing mice transplanted with CD19(+)CD38(low/-) B cells from 8 of 22 samples but were not clonally related to patient myeloma cells. Further fractionation and xenotransplantation of CD138(+)CD38(high) cells demonstrated that (CD45(low/-) or CD19(-)) CD38(high)/CD138(+) plasma cells, but not (CD45(high) or CD19(+)) CD38(high)/CD138(+) plasmablasts enrich for myeloma-initiating cells. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of two serially transplantable xenografts, which were CD19(-)CD138(+), revealed that they were Pax5 (a B-cell-specific transactivator)-negative. These results suggest that CD19(-)CD45(low/-) fully differentiated plasma cells enrich for long-lived and tumor-initiating cells whereas B cells or plasmablasts do not.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2012.140

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312186000012

    View details for PubMedID 22733078

  • Anti-CD47 antibodies promote phagocytosis and inhibit the growth of human myeloma cells LEUKEMIA Kim, D., Wang, J., Willingham, S. B., Martin, R., Wernig, G., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 26 (12): 2538-2545


    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm residing in bone marrow. Despite advances in myeloma therapies, novel therapies are required to improve patient outcomes. CD47 is highly expressed on myeloma cells and a potential therapeutic candidate for myeloma therapies. Flow cytometric analysis of patient bone marrow cells revealed that myeloma cells overexpress CD47 when compared with non-myeloma cells in 73% of patients (27/37). CD47 expression protects cells from phagocytosis by transmitting an inhibitory signal to macrophages. Here we show that blocking CD47 with an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody increased phagocytosis of myeloma cells in vitro. In xenotransplantation models, anti-CD47 antibodies inhibited the growth of RPMI 8226 myeloma cells and led to tumor regression (42/57 mice), implicating the eradication of myeloma-initiating cells. Moreover, anti-CD47 antibodies retarded the growth of patient myeloma cells and alleviated bone resorption in human bone-bearing mice. Irradiation of mice before myeloma cell xenotransplantation abolished the therapeutic efficacy of anti-CD47 antibodies delivered 2 weeks after radiation, and coincided with a reduction of myelomonocytic cells in spleen, bone marrow and liver. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that anti-CD47 blocking antibodies inhibit myeloma growth, in part, by increasing phagocytosis of myeloma cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2012.141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312186000013

    View details for PubMedID 22648449

  • Remodeling of Endogenous Mammary Epithelium by Breast Cancer Stem Cells STEM CELLS Parashurama, N., Lobo, N. A., Ito, K., Mosley, A. R., Habte, F. G., Zabala, M., Smith, B. R., Lam, J., Weissman, I. L., Clarke, M. F., Gambhir, S. S. 2012; 30 (10): 2114-2127


    Poorly regulated tissue remodeling results in increased breast cancer risk, yet how breast cancer stem cells (CSC) participate in remodeling is unknown. We performed in vivo imaging of changes in fluorescent, endogenous duct architecture as a metric for remodeling. First, we quantitatively imaged physiologic remodeling of primary branches of the developing and regenerating mammary tree. To assess CSC-specific remodeling events, we isolated CSC from MMTV-Wnt1 (mouse mammary tumor virus long-term repeat enhancer driving Wnt1 oncogene) breast tumors, a well studied model in which tissue remodeling affects tumorigenesis. We confirm that CSC drive tumorigenesis, suggesting a link between CSC and remodeling. We find that normal, regenerating, and developing gland maintain a specific branching pattern. In contrast, transplantation of CSC results in changes in the branching patterns of endogenous ducts while non-CSC do not. Specifically, in the presence of CSC, we identified an increased number of branches, branch points, ducts which have greater than 40 branches (5/33 for CSC and 0/39 for non-CSC), and histological evidence of increased branching. Moreover, we demonstrate that only CSC implants invade into surrounding stroma with structures similar to developing mammary ducts (nine for CSC and one for non-CSC). Overall, we demonstrate a novel approach for imaging physiologic and pathological remodeling. Furthermore, we identify unique, CSC-specific, remodeling events. Our data suggest that CSC interact with the microenvironment differently than non-CSC, and that this could eventually be a therapeutic approach for targeting CSC.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/stem.1205

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308928300005

    View details for PubMedID 22899386

  • The road to purified hematopoietic stem cell transplants is paved with antibodies. Current opinion in immunology Logan, A. C., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2012; 24 (5): 640-648


    Hematopoietic progenitor cell replacement therapy remains a surprisingly unrefined process. In general, unmanipulated bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) grafts which carry potentially harmful passenger cells are administered after treating recipients with high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to eradicate malignant disease, eliminate immunologic barriers to allogeneic cell engraftment, and to 'make space' for rare donor stem cells within the stem cell niche. The sequalae of such treatments are substantial, including direct organ toxicity and nonspecific inflammation that contribute to the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and poor immune reconstitution. Passenger tumor cells that contaminate autologous hematopoietic grafts may contribute to relapse post-transplant. Use of antibodies to rid grafts of unwanted cell populations, and to eliminate or minimize the need for nonspecifically cytotoxic therapies used to condition transplant recipients, will dramatically improve the safety profile of allogeneic and gene-modified autologous hematopoietic stem cell therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.coi.2012.08.002

    View details for PubMedID 22939368

  • Flipping the script on macrophages in leiomyosarcoma ONCOIMMUNOLOGY Edris, B., Weiskopf, K., Weissman, I. L., van de Rijn, M. 2012; 1 (7): 1202-1204


    Macrophages promote the growth of leiomyosarcoma (LMS), a malignant soft-tissue tumor. CD47 on tumor cells binds to the macrophagic receptor signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP?) and prevents phagocytosis. We showed that anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) allow macrophages to engulf LMS cells and prevent tumor growth and metastases. Therefore, anti-CD47 mAbs represent a promising targeted immunotherapy for LMS.

    View details for DOI 10.4161/onci.20799

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316279900033

    View details for PubMedID 23170280

  • Endogenous Wnt signalling in human embryonic stem cells generates an equilibrium of distinct lineage-specified progenitors NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Blauwkamp, T. A., Nigam, S., Ardehali, R., Weissman, I. L., Nusse, R. 2012; 3


    The pluripotent nature of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) makes them convenient for deriving therapeutically relevant cells. Here we show using Wnt reporter hESC lines that the cells are heterogeneous with respect to endogenous Wnt signalling activity. Moreover, the level of Wnt signalling activity in individual cells correlates with differences in clonogenic potential and lineage-specific differentiation propensity. The addition of Wnt protein or, conversely, a small-molecule Wnt inhibitor (IWP2) reduces heterogeneity, allowing stable expansion of Wnt(high) or Wnt(low) hESC populations, respectively. On differentiation, the Wnt(high) hESCs predominantly form endodermal and cardiac cells, whereas the Wnt(low) hESCs generate primarily neuroectodermal cells. Thus, heterogeneity with respect to endogenous Wnt signalling underlies much of the inefficiency in directing hESCs towards specific cell types. The relatively uniform differentiation potential of the Wnt(high) and Wnt(low) hESCs leads to faster and more efficient derivation of targeted cell types from these populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2064

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309338100037

    View details for PubMedID 22990866

  • Clonal Evolution of Preleukemic Hematopoietic Stem Cells Precedes Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Jan, M., Snyder, T. M., Corces-Zimmerman, M. R., Vyas, P., Weissman, I. L., Quake, S. R., Majeti, R. 2012; 4 (149)


    Given that most bone marrow cells are short-lived, the accumulation of multiple leukemogenic mutations in a single clonal lineage has been difficult to explain. We propose that serial acquisition of mutations occurs in self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We investigated this model through genomic analysis of HSCs from six patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using exome sequencing, we identified mutations present in individual AML patients harboring the FLT3-ITD (internal tandem duplication) mutation. We then screened the residual HSCs and detected some of these mutations including mutations in the NPM1, TET2, and SMC1A genes. Finally, through single-cell analysis, we determined that a clonal progression of multiple mutations occurred in the HSCs of some AML patients. These preleukemic HSCs suggest the clonal evolution of AML genomes from founder mutations, revealing a potential mechanism contributing to relapse. Such preleukemic HSCs may constitute a cellular reservoir that should be targeted therapeutically for more durable remissions.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3004315

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308491600005

    View details for PubMedID 22932223

  • Gene Expression Commons: An Open Platform for Absolute Gene Expression Profiling PLOS ONE Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Rossi, D. J., Bhattacharya, D., Serwold, T., Inlay, M. A., Ehrlich, L. I., Fathman, J. W., Dill, D. L., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 7 (7)


    Gene expression profiling using microarrays has been limited to comparisons of gene expression between small numbers of samples within individual experiments. However, the unknown and variable sensitivities of each probeset have rendered the absolute expression of any given gene nearly impossible to estimate. We have overcome this limitation by using a very large number (>10,000) of varied microarray data as a common reference, so that statistical attributes of each probeset, such as the dynamic range and threshold between low and high expression, can be reliably discovered through meta-analysis. This strategy is implemented in a web-based platform named "Gene Expression Commons" ( which contains data of 39 distinct highly purified mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor/differentiated cell populations covering almost the entire hematopoietic system. Since the Gene Expression Commons is designed as an open platform, investigators can explore the expression level of any gene, search by expression patterns of interest, submit their own microarray data, and design their own working models representing biological relationship among samples.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0040321

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306548900020

    View details for PubMedID 22815738

  • Janus-like opposing roles of CD47 in autoimmune brain inflammation in humans and mice JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Han, M. H., Lundgren, D. H., Jaiswal, S., Chao, M., Graham, K. L., Garris, C. S., Axtell, R. C., Ho, P. P., Lock, C. B., Woodard, J. I., Brownell, S. E., Zoudilova, M., Hunt, J. F., Baranzini, S. E., Butcher, E. C., Raine, C. S., Sobel, R. A., Han, D. K., Weissman, I., Steinman, L. 2012; 209 (7): 1325-1334


    Comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from pathologically similar multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions reveals down-regulation of CD47 at the messenger RNA level and low abundance at the protein level. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that CD47 is expressed in normal myelin and in foamy macrophages and reactive astrocytes within active MS lesions. We demonstrate that CD47(-/-) mice are refractory to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), primarily as the result of failure of immune cell activation after immunization with myelin antigen. In contrast, blocking with a monoclonal antibody against CD47 in mice at the peak of paralysis worsens EAE severity and enhances immune activation in the peripheral immune system. In vitro assays demonstrate that blocking CD47 also promotes phagocytosis of myelin and that this effect is dependent on signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP-?). Immune regulation and phagocytosis are mechanisms for CD47 signaling in autoimmune neuroinflammation. Depending on the cell type, location, and disease stage, CD47 has Janus-like roles, with opposing effects on EAE pathogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20101974

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306174300008

    View details for PubMedID 22734047

  • Stem Cell Therapies Could Change Medicine ... If They Get the Chance CELL STEM CELL Weissman, I. 2012; 10 (6): 663-665


    Stem cell therapies have the potential to revolutionize the way we practice medicine. However, in the current climate several barriers and false assumptions stand in the way of achieving that goal.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2012.05.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305768400011

    View details for PubMedID 22704505

  • Isolation of primitive endoderm, mesoderm, vascular endothelial and trophoblast progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Drukker, M., Tang, C., Ardehali, R., Rinkevich, Y., Seita, J., Lee, A. S., Mosley, A. R., Weissman, I. L., Soen, Y. 2012; 30 (6): 531-?


    To identify early populations of committed progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we screened self-renewing, BMP4-treated and retinoic acid-treated cultures with >400 antibodies recognizing cell-surface antigens. Sorting of >30 subpopulations followed by transcriptional analysis of developmental genes identified four distinct candidate progenitor groups. Subsets detected in self-renewing cultures, including CXCR4(+) cells, expressed primitive endoderm genes. Expression of Cxcr4 in primitive endoderm was confirmed in visceral endoderm of mouse embryos. BMP4-induced progenitors exhibited gene signatures of mesoderm, trophoblast and vascular endothelium, suggesting correspondence to gastrulation-stage primitive streak, chorion and allantois precursors, respectively. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo confirmed that ROR2(+) cells produce mesoderm progeny, APA(+) cells generate syncytiotrophoblasts and CD87(+) cells give rise to vasculature. The same progenitor classes emerged during the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). These markers and progenitors provide tools for purifying human tissue-regenerating progenitors and for studying the commitment of pluripotent stem cells to lineage progenitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.2239

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305158600023

    View details for PubMedID 22634564

  • The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Willingham, S. B., Volkmer, J., Gentles, A. J., Sahoo, D., Dalerba, P., Mitra, S. S., Wang, J., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Martin, R., Cohen, J. D., Lovelace, P., Scheeren, F. A., Chao, M. P., Weiskopf, K., Tang, C., Volkmer, A. K., Naik, T. J., Storm, T. A., Mosley, A. R., Edris, B., Schmid, S. M., Sun, C. K., Chua, M., Murillo, O., Rajendran, P., Cha, A. C., Chin, R. K., Kim, D., Adorno, M., Raveh, T., Tseng, D., Jaiswal, S., Enger, P. O., Steinberg, G. K., Li, G., So, S. K., Majeti, R., Harsh, G. R., van de Rijn, M., Teng, N. N., Sunwoo, J. B., Alizadeh, A. A., Clarke, M. F., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 109 (17): 6662-6667


    CD47, a "don't eat me" signal for phagocytic cells, is expressed on the surface of all human solid tumor cells. Analysis of patient tumor and matched adjacent normal (nontumor) tissue revealed that CD47 is overexpressed on cancer cells. CD47 mRNA expression levels correlated with a decreased probability of survival for multiple types of cancer. CD47 is a ligand for SIRP?, a protein expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. In vitro, blockade of CD47 signaling using targeted monoclonal antibodies enabled macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells that were otherwise protected. Administration of anti-CD47 antibodies inhibited tumor growth in orthotopic immunodeficient mouse xenotransplantation models established with patient tumor cells and increased the survival of the mice over time. Anti-CD47 antibody therapy initiated on larger tumors inhibited tumor growth and prevented or treated metastasis, but initiation of the therapy on smaller tumors was potentially curative. The safety and efficacy of targeting CD47 was further tested and validated in immune competent hosts using an orthotopic mouse breast cancer model. These results suggest all human solid tumor cells require CD47 expression to suppress phagocytic innate immune surveillance and elimination. These data, taken together with similar findings with other human neoplasms, show that CD47 is a commonly expressed molecule on all cancers, its function to block phagocytosis is known, and blockade of its function leads to tumor cell phagocytosis and elimination. CD47 is therefore a validated target for cancer therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1121623109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303249100065

    View details for PubMedID 22451913

  • Antibody therapy targeting the CD47 protein is effective in a model of aggressive metastatic leiomyosarcoma PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Edris, B., Weiskopf, K., Volkmer, A. K., Volkmer, J., Willingham, S. B., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Liu, J., Majeti, R., West, R. B., Fletcher, J. A., Beck, A. H., Weissman, I. L., van de Rijn, M. 2012; 109 (17): 6656-6661


    Antibodies against CD47, which block tumor cell CD47 interactions with macrophage signal regulatory protein-?, have been shown to decrease tumor size in hematological and epithelial tumor models by interfering with the protection from phagocytosis by macrophages that intact CD47 bestows upon tumor cells. Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a tumor of smooth muscle that can express varying levels of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF1), the expression of which correlates with the numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that are found in these tumors. We have previously shown that the presence of TAMs in LMS is associated with poor clinical outcome and the overall effect of TAMs in LMS therefore appears to be protumorigenic. However, the use of inhibitory antibodies against CD47 offers an opportunity to turn TAMs against LMS cells by allowing the phagocytic behavior of resident macrophages to predominate. Here we show that interference with CD47 increases phagocytosis of two human LMS cell lines, LMS04 and LMS05, in vitro. In addition, treatment of mice bearing subcutaneous LMS04 and LMS05 tumors with a novel, humanized anti-CD47 antibody resulted in significant reductions in tumor size. Mice bearing LMS04 tumors develop large numbers of lymph node and lung metastases. In a unique model for neoadjuvant treatment, mice were treated with anti-CD47 antibody starting 1 wk before resection of established primary tumors and subsequently showed a striking decrease in the size and number of metastases. These data suggest that treatment with anti-CD47 antibodies not only reduces primary tumor size but can also be used to inhibit the development of, or to eliminate, metastatic disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1121629109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303249100064

    View details for PubMedID 22451919

  • Effect of nucleophosmin1 haploinsufficiency on hematopoietic stem cells LEUKEMIA Raval, A., Kusler, B., Pang, W. W., Weissman, I. L., Mitchell, B. S., Park, C. Y. 2012; 26 (4): 853-855

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2011.270

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302788300040

    View details for PubMedID 21979879

  • The CD47-SIRP alpha pathway in cancer immune evasion and potential therapeutic implications CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY Chao, M. P., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2012; 24 (2): 225-232


    Multiple lines of investigation have demonstrated that the immune system plays an important role in preventing tumor initiation and controlling tumor growth. Accordingly, many cancers have evolved diverse mechanisms to evade such monitoring. While multiple immune cell types mediate tumor surveillance, recent evidence demonstrates that macrophages, and other phagocytic cells, play a key role in regulating tumor growth through phagocytic clearance. In this review we highlight the role of tumor immune evasion through the inhibition of phagocytosis, specifically through the CD47-signal-regulatory protein-? pathway, and discuss how targeting this pathway might lead to more effective cancer immunotherapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.coi.2012.01.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303187600017

    View details for PubMedID 22310103

  • Three differentiation states risk-stratify bladder cancer into distinct subtypes PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Volkmer, J., Sahoo, D., Chin, R. K., Ho, P. L., Tang, C., Kurtova, A. V., Willingham, S. B., Pazhanisamy, S. K., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Storm, T. A., Lotan, Y., Beck, A. H., Chung, B. I., Alizadeh, A. A., Godoy, G., Lerner, S. P., van de Rijng, M., Shortliffe, L. D., Weissman, I. L., Chan, K. S. 2012; 109 (6): 2078-2083


    Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically supervised computational model to predict markers that correspond with BC differentiation. To provide mechanistic insight, we assessed relative tumorigenicity and differentiation potential via xenotransplantation. We then correlated the prognostic utility of the identified markers to outcomes within gene expression and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue datasets. Our data indicate that BC can be subclassified into three subtypes, on the basis of their differentiation states: basal, intermediate, and differentiated, where only the most primitive tumor cell subpopulation within each subtype is capable of generating xenograft tumors and recapitulating downstream populations. We found that keratin 14 (KRT14) marks the most primitive differentiation state that precedes KRT5 and KRT20 expression. Furthermore, KRT14 expression is consistently associated with worse prognosis in both univariate and multivariate analyses. We identify here three distinct BC subtypes on the basis of their differentiation states, each harboring a unique tumor-initiating population.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1120605109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299925000058

    View details for PubMedID 22308455

  • Programmed cell removal: a new obstacle in the road to developing cancer NATURE REVIEWS CANCER Chao, M. P., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 12 (1): 58-67


    The development of cancer involves mechanisms by which aberrant cells overcome normal regulatory pathways that limit their numbers and their migration. The evasion of programmed cell death is one of several key early events that need to be overcome in the progression from normal cellular homeostasis to malignant transformation. Recently, we provided evidence in mouse and human cancers that successful cancer clones must also overcome programmed cell removal. In this Opinion article, we explore the role of programmed cell removal in both normal and neoplastic cells, and we place this pathway in the context of the initiation of programmed cell death.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nrc3171

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298369300014



    We previously identified by flow cytometry a Lineage-CD44+ (Lin-CD44+) subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell properties in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We now correlate clinical and histologic factors with Lin-CD44+ cell frequency.The study included 31 patients with HNSCC, of whom 87% had stage IV disease. The frequency of Lin-CD44+ cells and the success of xenografting patient tumors in mice were correlated with clinical and pathologic data.The mean frequency of Lin-CD44+ cells was 25% (0.4%-81%). It was 36% in patients who had recurrence versus 15% for those without recurrence (p = .04). Successful xenograft implantation occurred in 53%. Seventy-five percent of patients with successful xenografts had recurrence versus 21% of patients with unsuccessful xenografts (p = .003).Successful xenograft implantation and a high frequency of Lin-CD44+ cells correlate with known poor prognostic factors such as advanced T classification and recurrence. These findings may support the stem cell concept in HNSCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hed.21699

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301972600006

    View details for PubMedID 21322081

  • The Safety of Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy Relies on Teratoma Removal ONCOTARGET Tang, C., Weissman, I. L., Drukker, M. 2012; 3 (1): 7-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303914000004

    View details for PubMedID 22294556

  • Long-Term Outcome of Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer Treated with High-Dose Chemotherapy and Transplantation of Purified Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Mueller, A. M., Kohrt, H. E., Cha, S., Laport, G., Klein, J., Guardino, A. E., Johnston, L. J., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Hanania, E., Juttner, C., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2012; 18 (1): 125-133


    Metastatic breast cancer remains a major treatment challenge. The use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with rescue by autologous mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) is controversial, in part because of contamination of MPB by circulating tumor cells. CD34(+)Thy-1(+) selected hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) represent a graft source with a greater than 250,000-fold reduction in cancer cells. Here, we present the long-term outcome of a pilot study to determine feasibility and engraftment using HDCT and purified HSC in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Twenty-two patients who had been treated with standard chemotherapy were enrolled into a phase I/II trial between December 1996 and February 1998, and underwent HDCT followed by rescue with CD34(+)Thy-1(+) HSC isolated from autologous MPB. More than 12 years after the end of the study, 23% (5 of 22) of HSC recipients are alive, and 18% (4 of 22) are free of recurrence with normal hematopoietic function. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16 months, and median overall survival (OS) was 60 months. Retrospective comparison with 74 patients transplanted between February 1995 and June 1999 with the identical HDCT regimen but rescue with unmanipulated MPB indicated that 9% of patients are alive, and 7% are without disease. Median PFS was 10 months, and median OS was 28 months. In conclusion, cancer-depleted HSC following HDCT resulted in better than expected 12- to 14-year PFS and OS in a cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients. These data prompt us to look once again at purified HSC transplantation in a protocol powered to test for efficacy in advanced-stage breast cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.07.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303140200015

    View details for PubMedID 21767515

  • Human bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells are increased in frequency and myeloid-biased with age PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Pang, W. W., Price, E. A., Sahoo, D., Beerman, I., Maloney, W. J., Rossi, D. J., Schrier, S. L., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 108 (50): 20012-20017


    In the human hematopoietic system, aging is associated with decreased bone marrow cellularity, decreased adaptive immune system function, and increased incidence of anemia and other hematological disorders and malignancies. Recent studies in mice suggest that changes within the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population during aging contribute significantly to the manifestation of these age-associated hematopoietic pathologies. Though the mouse HSC population has been shown to change both quantitatively and functionally with age, changes in the human HSC and progenitor cell populations during aging have been incompletely characterized. To elucidate the properties of an aged human hematopoietic system that may predispose to age-associated hematopoietic dysfunction, we evaluated immunophenotypic HSC and other hematopoietic progenitor populations from healthy, hematologically normal young and elderly human bone marrow samples. We found that aged immunophenotypic human HSC increase in frequency, are less quiescent, and exhibit myeloid-biased differentiation potential compared with young HSC. Gene expression profiling revealed that aged immunophenotypic human HSC transcriptionally up-regulate genes associated with cell cycle, myeloid lineage specification, and myeloid malignancies. These age-associated alterations in the frequency, developmental potential, and gene expression profile of human HSC are similar to those changes observed in mouse HSC, suggesting that hematopoietic aging is an evolutionarily conserved process.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1116110108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298034800040

    View details for PubMedID 22123971

  • Identification of the earliest natural killer cell-committed progenitor in murine bone marrow BLOOD Fathman, J. W., Bhattacharya, D., Inlay, M. A., Seita, J., Karsunky, H., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 118 (20): 5439-5447


    Natural killer (NK) cells develop in the bone marrow and are known to gradually acquire the ability to eliminate infected and malignant cells, yet the cellular stages of NK lineage commitment and maturation are incompletely understood. Using 12-color flow cytometry, we identified a novel NK-committed progenitor (pre-NKP) that is a developmental intermediate between the upstream common lymphoid progenitor and the downstream NKP, previously assumed to represent the first stage of NK lineage commitment. Our analysis also refined the purity of NKPs (rNKP) by 6-fold such that 50% of both pre-NKP and rNKP cells gave rise to NKp46+ NK cells at the single-cell level. On transplantation into unconditioned Rag2-/-Il2r?c-/- recipients, both pre-NKPs and rNKPs generated mature NK cells expressing a repertoire of Ly49 family members that degranulated on stimulation ex vivo. Intrathymic injection of these progenitors, however, yielded no NK cells, suggesting a separate origin of thymic NK cells. Unlike the rNKP, the pre-NKP does not express IL-2R? (CD122), yet it is lineage committed toward the NK cell fate, adding support to the theory that IL-15 signaling is not required for NK commitment. Taken together, our data provide a high-resolution in vivo analysis of the earliest steps of NK cell commitment and maturation.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-04-348912

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297265400014

    View details for PubMedID 21931117

  • Extranodal dissemination of non-Hodgkin lymphoma requires CD47 and is inhibited by anti-CD47 antibody therapy BLOOD Chao, M. P., Tang, C., Pachynski, R. K., Chin, R., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 118 (18): 4890-4901


    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) presents as both localized and disseminated disease with spread to secondary sites carrying a worse prognosis. Although pathways driving NHL dissemination have been identified, there are few therapies capable of inhibiting them. Here, we report a novel role for the immunomodulatory protein CD47 in NHL dissemination, and we demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of CD47 can prevent such spread. We developed 2 in vivo lymphoma metastasis models using Raji cells, a human NHL cell line, and primary cells from a lymphoma patient. CD47 expression was required for Raji cell dissemination to the liver in mouse xenotransplants. Targeting of CD47 with a blocking antibody inhibited Raji cell dissemination to major organs, including the central nervous system, and inhibited hematogenous dissemination of primary lymphoma cells. We hypothesized that anti-CD47 antibody-mediated elimination of circulating tumor cells occurred through phagocytosis, a previously described mechanism for blocking anti-CD47 antibodies. As predicted, inhibition of dissemination by anti-CD47 antibodies was dependent on blockade of phagocyte SIRP? and required macrophage effector cells. These results demonstrate that CD47 is required for NHL dissemination, which can be therapeutically targeted with a blocking anti-CD47 antibody. Ultimately, these findings are potentially applicable to the dissemination and metastasis of other solid tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-02-338020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296714500018

    View details for PubMedID 21828138

  • In vivo Molecular MRI of Cell Survival and Teratoma Formation Following Embryonic Stem Cell Transplantation Into the Injured Murine Myocardium MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Chung, J., Kee, K., Barral, J. K., Dash, R., Kosuge, H., Wang, X., Weissman, I., Robbins, R. C., Nishimura, D., Quertermous, T., Reijo-Pera, R. A., Yang, P. C. 2011; 66 (5): 1374-1381


    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have shown the potential to restore cardiac function after myocardial injury. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) have been widely employed to label ESCs for cellular MRI. However, nonspecific intracellular accumulation of SPIO limits long-term in vivo assessment of the transplanted cells. To overcome this limitation, a novel reporter gene (RG) has been developed to express antigens on the ESC surface. By employing SPIO-conjugated monoclonal antibody against these antigens (SPIO-MAb), the viability of transplanted ESCs can be detected in vivo. This study aims to develop a new molecular MRI method to assess in vivo ESC viability, proliferation, and teratoma formation. The RG is designed to express 2 antigens (hemagglutinin A and myc) and luciferase on the ESC surface. The two antigens serve as the molecular targets for SPIO-MAb. The human and mouse ESCs were transduced with the RG (ESC-RGs) and transplanted into the peri-infarct area using the murine myocardial injury model. In vivo MRI was performed following serial intravenous administration of SPIO-MAb. Significant hypointense signal was generated from the viable and proliferating ESCs and subsequent teratoma. This novel molecular MRI technique enabled in vivo detection of early ESC-derived teratoma formation in the injured murine myocardium.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.22929

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296389800019

    View details for PubMedID 21604295

  • Novel Hematopoietic Progenitor Populations Revealed by Direct Assessment of GATA1 Protein Expression and cMPL Signaling Events STEM CELLS Heffner, G. C., Clutter, M. R., Nolan, G. P., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 29 (11): 1774-1782


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must exhibit tight regulation of both self-renewal and differentiation to maintain homeostasis of the hematopoietic system as well as to avoid aberrations in growth that may result in leukemias or other disorders. In this study, we sought to understand the molecular basis of lineage determination, with particular focus on factors that influence megakaryocyte/erythrocyte-lineage commitment, in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We used intracellular flow cytometry to identify two novel hematopoietic progenitor populations within the mouse bone-marrow cKit(+) Lineage (-) Sca1(+) (KLS) Flk2 (+) compartment that differ in their protein-level expression of GATA1, a critical megakaryocyte/erythrocyte-promoting transcription factor. GATA1-high repopulating cells exhibited the cell surface phenotype KLS Flk2(+ to int), CD150(int), CD105(+), cMPL(+), and were termed "FSE cells." GATA1-low progenitors were identified as KLS Flk2(+), CD150(-), and cMPL(-), and were termed "Flk(+) CD150(-) cells." FSE cells had increased megakaryocyte/platelet potential in culture and transplant settings and exhibited a higher clonal frequency of colony-forming unit-spleen activity compared with Flk(+) CD150(-) cells, suggesting functional consequences of GATA1 upregulation in promoting megakaryocyte and erythroid lineage priming. Activation of ERK and AKT signal-transduction cascades was observed by intracellular flow cytometry in long-term HSCs and FSE cells, but not in Flk(+) CD150(-) cells in response to stimulation with thrombopoietin, an important megakaryocyte-promoting cytokine. We provide a mechanistic rationale for megakaryocyte/erythroid bias within KLS Flk2(+) cells, and demonstrate how assessment of intracellular factors and signaling events can be used to refine our understanding of lineage commitment during early definitive hematopoiesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/stem.719

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296565500014

    View details for PubMedID 21898686

  • Tracking single hematopoietic stem cells in vivo using high-throughput sequencing in conjunction with viral genetic barcoding NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Lu, R., Neff, N. F., Quake, S. R., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 29 (10): 928-U229


    Disentangling cellular heterogeneity is a challenge in many fields, particularly in the stem cell and cancer biology fields. Here we demonstrate how to combine viral genetic barcoding with high-throughput sequencing to track single cells in a heterogeneous population. We use this technique to track the in vivo differentiation of unitary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The results are consistent with single-cell transplantation studies but require two orders of magnitude fewer mice. In addition to its high throughput, the high sensitivity of the technique allows for a direct examination of the clonality of sparse cell populations such as HSCs. We show how these capabilities offer a clonal perspective of the HSC differentiation process. In particular, our data suggest that HSCs do not equally contribute to blood cells after irradiation-mediated transplantation, and that two distinct HSC differentiation patterns co-exist in the same recipient mouse after irradiation. This technique can be applied to any virus-accessible cell type for both in vitro and in vivo processes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1977

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296273000020

    View details for PubMedID 21964413

  • Reduced ribosomal protein gene dosage and p53 activation in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome BLOOD McGowan, K. A., Pang, W. W., Bhardwaj, R., Perez, M. G., Pluvinage, J. V., Glader, B. E., Malek, R., Mendrysa, S. M., Weissman, I. L., Park, C. Y., Barsh, G. S. 2011; 118 (13): 3622-3633


    Reduced gene dosage of ribosomal protein subunits has been implicated in 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome and Diamond Blackfan anemia, but the cellular and pathophysiologic defects associated with these conditions are enigmatic. Using conditional inactivation of the ribosomal protein S6 gene in laboratory mice, we found that reduced ribosomal protein gene dosage recapitulates cardinal features of the 5q- syndrome, including macrocytic anemia, erythroid hypoplasia, and megakaryocytic dysplasia with thrombocytosis, and that p53 plays a critical role in manifestation of these phenotypes. The blood cell abnormalities are accompanied by a reduction in the number of HSCs, a specific defect in late erythrocyte development, and suggest a disease-specific ontogenetic pathway for megakaryocyte development. Further studies of highly purified HSCs from healthy patients and from those with myelodysplastic syndrome link reduced expression of ribosomal protein genes to decreased RBC maturation and suggest an underlying and common pathophysiologic pathway for additional subtypes of myelodysplastic syndrome.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-11-318584

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295359300028

    View details for PubMedID 21788341

  • An antibody against SSEA-5 glycan on human pluripotent stem cells enables removal of teratoma-forming cells NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Tang, C., Lee, A. S., Volkmer, J., Sahoo, D., Nag, D., Mosley, A. R., Inlay, M. A., Ardehali, R., Chavez, S. L., Pera, R. R., Behr, B., Wu, J. C., Weissman, I. L., Drukker, M. 2011; 29 (9): 829-U86


    An important risk in the clinical application of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs), is teratoma formation by residual undifferentiated cells. We raised a monoclonal antibody against hESCs, designated anti-stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-5, which binds a previously unidentified antigen highly and specifically expressed on hPSCs--the H type-1 glycan. Separation based on SSEA-5 expression through fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) greatly reduced teratoma-formation potential of heterogeneously differentiated cultures. To ensure complete removal of teratoma-forming cells, we identified additional pluripotency surface markers (PSMs) exhibiting a large dynamic expression range during differentiation: CD9, CD30, CD50, CD90 and CD200. Immunohistochemistry studies of human fetal tissues and bioinformatics analysis of a microarray database revealed that concurrent expression of these markers is both common and specific to hPSCs. Immunodepletion with antibodies against SSEA-5 and two additional PSMs completely removed teratoma-formation potential from incompletely differentiated hESC cultures.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1947

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294718400024

    View details for PubMedID 21841799

  • Germ-layer and lineage-restricted stem/progenitors regenerate the mouse digit tip NATURE Rinkevich, Y., Lindau, P., Ueno, H., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 476 (7361): 409-U53


    The regrowth of amputated limbs and the distal tips of digits represent models of tissue regeneration in amphibians, fish and mice. For decades it had been assumed that limb regeneration derived from the blastema, an undifferentiated pluripotent cell population thought to be derived from mature cells via dedifferentiation. Here we show that a wide range of tissue stem/progenitor cells contribute towards the restoration of the mouse distal digit. Genetic fate mapping and clonal analysis of individual cells revealed that these stem cells are lineage restricted, mimicking digit growth during development. Transplantation of cyan-fluorescent-protein-expressing haematopoietic stem cells, and parabiosis between genetically marked mice, confirmed that the stem/progenitor cells are tissue resident, including the cells involved in angiogenesis. These results, combined with those from appendage regeneration in other vertebrate subphyla, collectively demonstrate that tissue stem cells rather than pluripotent blastema cells are an evolutionarily conserved cellular mode for limb regeneration after amputation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature10346

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294209400027

    View details for PubMedID 21866153

  • Enhanced survival of pluripotent stem cells under stressful conditions CELL CYCLE Ardehali, R., Ali, S. R., Inlay, M. A., Mosley, A. R., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 10 (16): 2610-2611

    View details for DOI 10.4161/cc.10.16.16527

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294155600003

    View details for PubMedID 21791974

  • Single-cell phospho-specific flow cytometric analysis demonstrates biochemical and functional heterogeneity in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor compartments BLOOD Gibbs, K. D., Gilbert, P. M., Sachs, K., Zhao, F., Blau, H. M., Weissman, I. L., Nolan, G. P., Majeti, R. 2011; 117 (16): 4226-4233


    The low frequency of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in human BM has precluded analysis of the direct biochemical effects elicited by cytokines in these populations, and their functional consequences. Here, single-cell phospho-specific flow cytometry was used to define the signaling networks active in 5 previously defined human HSPC subsets. This analysis revealed that the currently defined HSC compartment is composed of biochemically distinct subsets with the ability to respond rapidly and directly in vitro to a broader array of cytokines than previously appreciated, including G-CSF. The G-CSF response was physiologically relevant-driving cell-cycle entry and increased proliferation in a subset of single cells within the HSC compartment. The heterogeneity in the single-cell signaling and proliferation responses prompted subfractionation of the adult BM HSC compartment by expression of CD114 (G-CSF receptor). Xenotransplantation assays revealed that HSC activity is significantly enriched in the CD114(neg/lo) compartment, and almost completely absent in the CD114(pos) subfraction. The single-cell analyses used here can be adapted for further refinement of HSPC surface immunophenotypes, and for examining the direct regulatory effects of other factors on the homeostasis of stem and progenitor populations in normal or diseased states.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-07-298232

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289807600012

    View details for PubMedID 21357764

  • Prospective separation of normal and leukemic stem cells based on differential expression of TIM3, a human acute myeloid leukemia stem cell marker PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Jan, M., Chao, M. P., Cha, A. C., Alizadeh, A. A., Gentles, A. J., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2011; 108 (12): 5009-5014


    Hematopoietic tissues in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients contain both leukemia stem cells (LSC) and residual normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). The ability to prospectively separate residual HSC from LSC would enable important scientific and clinical investigation including the possibility of purged autologous hematopoietic cell transplants. We report here the identification of TIM3 as an AML stem cell surface marker more highly expressed on multiple specimens of AML LSC than on normal bone marrow HSC. TIM3 expression was detected in all cytogenetic subgroups of AML, but was significantly higher in AML-associated with core binding factor translocations or mutations in CEBPA. By assessing engraftment in NOD/SCID/IL2R?-null mice, we determined that HSC function resides predominantly in the TIM3-negative fraction of normal bone marrow, whereas LSC function from multiple AML specimens resides predominantly in the TIM3-positive compartment. Significantly, differential TIM3 expression enabled the prospective separation of HSC from LSC in the majority of AML specimens with detectable residual HSC function.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1100551108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288712200061

    View details for PubMedID 21383193

  • Hedgehog-responsive candidate cell of origin for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Monje, M., Mitra, S. S., Freret, M. E., Raveh, T. B., Kim, J., Masek, M., Attema, J. L., Li, G., Haddix, T., Edwards, M. S., Fisher, P. G., Weissman, I. L., Rowitch, D. H., Vogel, H., Wong, A. J., Beachy, P. A. 2011; 108 (11): 4453-4458


    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are highly aggressive tumors of childhood that are almost universally fatal. Our understanding of this devastating cancer is limited by a dearth of available tissue for study and by the lack of a faithful animal model. Intriguingly, DIPGs are restricted to the ventral pons and occur during a narrow window of middle childhood, suggesting dysregulation of a postnatal neurodevelopmental process. Here, we report the identification of a previously undescribed population of immunophenotypic neural precursor cells in the human and murine brainstem whose temporal and spatial distributions correlate closely with the incidence of DIPG and highlight a candidate cell of origin. Using early postmortem DIPG tumor tissue, we have established in vitro and xenograft models and find that the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway implicated in many developmental and oncogenic processes is active in DIPG tumor cells. Modulation of Hh pathway activity has functional consequences for DIPG self-renewal capacity in neurosphere culture. The Hh pathway also appears to be active in normal ventral pontine precursor-like cells of the mouse, and unregulated pathway activity results in hypertrophy of the ventral pons. Together, these findings provide a foundation for understanding the cellular and molecular origins of DIPG, and suggest that the Hh pathway represents a potential therapeutic target in this devastating pediatric tumor.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1101657108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288450900040

    View details for PubMedID 21368213

  • In vitro assays misrepresent in vivo lineage potentials of murine lymphoid progenitors BLOOD Ehrlich, L. I., Serwold, T., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 117 (9): 2618-2624


    The identity of T-cell progenitors that seed the thymus has remained controversial, largely because many studies differ over whether these progenitors retain myeloid potential. Contradictory reports diverge in their use of various in vitro and in vivo assays. To consolidate these discordant findings, we compared the myeloid potential of 2 putative thymus seeding populations, common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and multipotent progenitors (MPPs), and the earliest intrathymic progenitor (DN1), using 2 in vitro assays and in vivo readouts. These assays gave contradictory results: CLP and DN1 displayed surprisingly robust myeloid potential on OP9-DL1 in vitro stromal cocultures but displayed little myeloid potential in vivo, as well as in methylcellulose cultures. MPP, on the other hand, displayed robust myeloid potential in all settings. We conclude that stromal cocultures reveal cryptic, but nonphysiologic, myeloid potentials of lymphoid progenitors, providing an explanation for contradictory findings in the field and underscoring the importance of using in vivo assays for the determination of physiologic lineage potentials.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-05-287102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288207400014

    View details for PubMedID 21163922

  • Overexpression of BCL2 enhances survival of human embryonic stem cells during stress and obviates the requirement for serum factors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ardehali, R., Inlay, M. A., Ali, S. R., Tang, C., Drukker, M., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 108 (8): 3282-3287


    The promise of pluripotent stem cells as a research and therapeutic tool is partly undermined by the technical challenges of generating and maintaining these cells in culture. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are exquisitely sensitive to culture conditions, and require constant signaling by growth factors and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions to prevent apoptosis, senescence, and differentiation. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that overexpression of the prosurvival gene BCL2 in mouse embryonic stem cells overrode the requirement of serum factors and feeder cells to maintain mESCs in culture. To determine whether this prosurvival gene could similarly protect hESCs, we generated hESC lines that constitutively or inducibly express BCL2. We find that BCL2 overexpression significantly decreases dissociation-induced apoptosis, resulting in enhanced colony formation from sorted single cells, and enhanced embryoid body formation. In addition, BCL2-hESCs exhibit normal growth in the absence of serum, but require basic fibroblast growth factor to remain undifferentiated. Furthermore, they maintain their pluripotency markers, form teratomas in vivo, and differentiate into all three germ layers. Our data suggest that the BCL2 signaling pathway plays an important role in inhibiting hESC apoptosis, such that its overexpression in hESCs offers both a survival benefit in conditions of stress by resisting apoptosis and obviates the requirement for serum or a feeder layer for maintenance.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1019047108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287580400041

    View details for PubMedID 21300885

  • Therapeutic Antibody Targeting of CD47 Eliminates Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia CANCER RESEARCH Chao, M. P., Alizadeh, A. A., Tang, C., Jan, M., Weissman-Tsukamoto, R., Zhao, F., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2011; 71 (4): 1374-1384


    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric malignancy and constitutes 15% of adult leukemias. Although overall prognosis for pediatric ALL is favorable, high-risk pediatric patients and most adult patients have significantly worse outcomes. Multiagent chemotherapy is standard of care for both pediatric and adult ALL, but is associated with systemic toxicity and long-term side effects and is relatively ineffective against certain ALL subtypes. Recent efforts have focused on the development of targeted therapies for ALL including monoclonal antibodies. Here, we report the identification of CD47, a protein that inhibits phagocytosis, as an antibody target in standard and high-risk ALL. CD47 was found to be more highly expressed on a subset of human ALL patient samples compared with normal cell counterparts and to be an independent predictor of survival and disease refractoriness in several ALL patient cohorts. In addition, a blocking monoclonal antibody against CD47 enabled phagocytosis of ALL cells by macrophages in vitro and inhibited tumor engraftment in vivo. Significantly, anti-CD47 antibody eliminated ALL in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, and liver of mice engrafted with primary human ALL. These data provide preclinical support for the development of an anti-CD47 antibody therapy for treatment of human ALL.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2238

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287352600020

    View details for PubMedID 21177380

  • Purified Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The Next Generation of Blood and Immune Replacement HEMATOLOGY-ONCOLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Czechowicz, A., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 25 (1): 75-?


    Replacement of disease-causing stem cells with healthy ones has been achieved clinically via hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for the last 40 years, as a treatment modality for a variety of cancers and immunodeficiencies with moderate, but increasing, success. This procedure has traditionally included transplantation of mixed hematopoietic populations that include hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and other cells, such as T cells. This article explores and delineates the potential expansion of this technique to treat a variety of inherited diseases of immune function, the current barriers in HCT and pure HSC transplantation, and the up-and-coming strategies to combat these obstacles.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hoc.2010.11.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287333600007

    View details for PubMedID 21236391

  • VHL loss in renal cell carcinoma leads to up-regulation of CUB domain-containing protein 1 to stimulate PKC delta-driven migration PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Razorenova, O. V., Finger, E. C., Colavitti, R., Chernikova, S. B., Boiko, A. D., Chan, C. K., Krieg, A., Bedogni, B., LaGory, E., Weissman, I. L., Broome-Powell, M., Giaccia, A. J. 2011; 108 (5): 1931-1936


    A common genetic mutation found in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) is the loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, which results in stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), and contributes to cancer progression and metastasis. CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) was shown to promote metastasis in scirrhous and lung adenocarcinomas as well as in prostate cancer. In this study, we established a molecular mechanism linking VHL loss to induction of the CDCP1 gene through the HIF-1/2 pathway in renal cancer. Also, we report that Fyn, which forms a complex with CDCP1 and mediates its signaling to PKC?, is a HIF-1 target gene. Mechanistically, we found that CDCP1 specifically regulates phosphorylation of PKC?, but not of focal adhesion kinase or Crk-associated substrate. Signal transduction from CDCP1 to PKC? leads to its activation, increasing migration of CC-RCC. Furthermore, patient survival can be stratified by CDCP1 expression at the cell surface of the tumor. Taken together, our data indicates that CDCP1 protein might serve as a therapeutic target for CC-RCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1011777108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286804700036

    View details for PubMedID 21233420

  • 50 Years Later: Remembering the Paper RADIATION RESEARCH Weissman, I. L. 2011; 175 (2): 143-144

    View details for DOI 10.1667/RRXX29.1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287113500001

    View details for PubMedID 21268706

  • Human Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Stem Cells Revisited: There's More Than Meets the Eye CANCER CELL Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 19 (1): 9-10


    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Goardon et al. revise earlier conclusions regarding acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) stem cells by demonstrating that in the majority of patients, they reside in two hierarchically related populations most similar to normal hematopoietic progenitors. These findings have implications for therapeutic targeting of these cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2011.01.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287290300005

    View details for PubMedID 21251611

  • Calreticulin Is the Dominant Pro-Phagocytic Signal on Multiple Human Cancers and Is Counterbalanced by CD47 SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Chao, M. P., Jaiswal, S., Weissman-Tsukamoto, R., Alizadeh, A. A., Gentles, A. J., Volkmer, J., Weiskopf, K., Willingham, S. B., Raveh, T., Park, C. Y., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 2 (63)


    Under normal physiological conditions, cellular homeostasis is partly regulated by a balance of pro- and anti-phagocytic signals. CD47, which prevents cancer cell phagocytosis by the innate immune system, is highly expressed on several human cancers including acute myeloid leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and bladder cancer. Blocking CD47 with a monoclonal antibody results in phagocytosis of cancer cells and leads to in vivo tumor elimination, yet normal cells remain mostly unaffected. Thus, we postulated that cancer cells must also display a potent pro-phagocytic signal. Here, we identified calreticulin as a pro-phagocytic signal that was highly expressed on the surface of several human cancers, but was minimally expressed on most normal cells. Increased CD47 expression correlated with high amounts of calreticulin on cancer cells and was necessary for protection from calreticulin-mediated phagocytosis. Blocking the interaction of target cell calreticulin with its receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, on phagocytic cells prevented anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis. Furthermore, increased calreticulin expression was an adverse prognostic factor in diverse tumors including neuroblastoma, bladder cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These findings identify calreticulin as the dominant pro-phagocytic signal on several human cancers, provide an explanation for the selective targeting of tumor cells by anti-CD47 antibody, and highlight the balance between pro- and anti-phagocytic signals in the immune evasion of cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001375

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288444900003

    View details for PubMedID 21178137

  • MicroRNA-125b expands hematopoietic stem cells and enriches for the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased subsets PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ooi, A. G., Sahoo, D., Adorno, M., Wang, Y., Weissman, I. L., Park, C. Y. 2010; 107 (50): 21505-21510


    MicroRNAs profoundly impact hematopoietic cells by regulating progenitor cell-fate decisions, as well as mature immune effector function. However to date, microRNAs that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function have been less well characterized. Here we show that microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is highly expressed in HSCs and its expression decreases in committed progenitors. Overexpression of miR-125b in mouse HSC enhances their function, demonstrated through serial transplantation of highly purified HSC, and enriches for the previously described Slamf1(lo)CD34(-) lymphoid-balanced and the Slamf1(neg)CD34(-) lymphoid-biased cell subsets within the multipotent HSC (CD34-KLS) fraction. Mature peripheral blood cells derived from the miR-125b-overexpressing HSC are skewed toward the lymphoid lineage. Consistent with this observation, miR-125b overexpression significantly increases the number of early B-progenitor cells within the spleen and induces the expansion and enrichment of the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC subset via an antiapoptotic mechanism, reducing the mRNA expression levels of two proapoptotic targets, Bmf and KLF13. The antiapoptotic effect of miR-125b is more pronounced in the lymphoid-biased HSC subset because of their intrinsic higher baseline levels of apoptosis. These effects of miR-125b are associated with the development of lymphoproliferative disease, marked by expansion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Taken together, these data reveal that miR-125b regulates HSC survival and can promote lymphoid-fate decisions at the level of the HSC by preferentially expanding lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1016218107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285521500053

    View details for PubMedID 21118986

  • Lymphocytes, Jim Gowans and in vivo veritas NATURE IMMUNOLOGY Weissman, I. 2010; 11 (12): 1073-1075

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ni1210-1073

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284262200003

    View details for PubMedID 21079628

  • Hematopoietic stem cell: self-renewal versus differentiation WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-SYSTEMS BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE Seita, J., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 2 (6): 640-653


    The mammalian blood system, containing more than 10 distinct mature cell types, stands on one specific cell type, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). Within the system, only HSCs possess the ability of both multipotency and self-renewal. Multipotency is the ability to differentiate into all functional blood cells. Self-renewal is the ability to give rise to HSC itself without differentiation. Since mature blood cells (MBCs) are predominantly short-lived, HSCs continuously provide more differentiated progenitors while properly maintaining the HSC pool size throughout life by precisely balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of self-renewal and differentiation of HSC has been a central issue. In this review, we focus on the hierarchical structure of the hematopoietic system, the current understanding of microenvironment and molecular cues regulating self-renewal and differentiation of adult HSCs, and the currently emerging systems approaches to understand HSC biology.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/wsbm.86

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283713500002

    View details for PubMedID 20890962

  • Cholinergic activation of hematopoietic stem cells: role in tobacco-related disease? VASCULAR MEDICINE Chang, E., Forsberg, E. C., Wu, J., Wang, B., Prohaska, S. S., Allsopp, R., Weissman, I. L., Cooke, J. P. 2010; 15 (5): 375-385


    Tobacco use is associated with an increase in the white blood cell (WBC) count. This association has been attributed to bronchopulmonary inflammation and/or infection. It is not known if nicotine itself may play a role. The objective of this study was to determine whether nicotine itself could affect the WBC count, and to determine whether this was due to a direct effect on hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). C57Bl6J mice received nicotine orally, and measurements of the WBC count, bone marrow and spleen cellularity, and HSC count were made. To determine the functionality of HSCs, irradiated animals received bone marrow transplants from vehicle or nicotine-treated mice. Nicotine increased leukocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and spleen. The peripheral red cell and platelet count were unaffected. Nicotine increased the frequency of HSC in the bone marrow. Isolated long-term HSCs from nicotine-treated mice transplanted into irradiated mice regenerated all hematopoietic cell lineages, demonstrating the functional competence of those HSCs. HSCs expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), as documented by FITC-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin binding. Nicotine increased soluble Kit ligand, consistent with stem cell activation. In conclusion, the data suggest a new mechanism for the increased WBC associated with tobacco use. The effect of nicotine to activate hematopoiesis may contribute to tobacco-related diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1358863X10378377

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282582300004

    View details for PubMedID 20926497

  • Anti-CD47 Antibody Synergizes with Rituximab to Promote Phagocytosis and Eradicate Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma CELL Chao, M. P., Alizadeh, A. A., Tang, C., Myklebust, J. H., Varghese, B., Gill, S., Jan, M., Cha, A. C., Chan, C. K., Tan, B. T., Park, C. Y., Zhao, F., Kohrt, H. E., Malumbres, R., Briones, J., Gascoyne, R. D., Lossos, I. S., Levy, R., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2010; 142 (5): 699-713


    Monoclonal antibodies are standard therapeutics for several cancers including the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab for B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab and other antibodies are not curative and must be combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy for clinical benefit. Here we report the eradication of human NHL solely with a monoclonal antibody therapy combining rituximab with a blocking anti-CD47 antibody. We identified increased expression of CD47 on human NHL cells and determined that higher CD47 expression independently predicted adverse clinical outcomes in multiple NHL subtypes. Blocking anti-CD47 antibodies preferentially enabled phagocytosis of NHL cells and synergized with rituximab. Treatment of human NHL-engrafted mice with anti-CD47 antibody reduced lymphoma burden and improved survival, while combination treatment with rituximab led to elimination of lymphoma and cure. These antibodies synergized through a mechanism combining Fc receptor (FcR)-dependent and FcR-independent stimulation of phagocytosis that might be applicable to many other cancers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.044

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281523200014

    View details for PubMedID 20813259

  • Cancer stem cells in bladder cancer: a revisited and evolving concept CURRENT OPINION IN UROLOGY Chan, K. S., Volkmer, J., Weissman, I. 2010; 20 (5): 393-397


    Recently, the prospective isolation and characterization of cancer stem cells (CSCs) from various human malignancies revealed that they are resistant to radiation and chemotherapies. Therefore, CSCs may be the 'roots' and ideal target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we will focus on reviewing the historical perspective, recent literatures on bladder cancer stem cells and their clinical implications.CSCs have been prospectively isolated from bladder cancer tissues from patient specimens, established cancer cell lines and xenografts, based on the expression of a combination of cell surface receptors, cytokeratin markers, drug transporters and the efficient efflux of the Hoechst 33,342 dye (side population). Further, global gene expression profiling of CSCs revealed an activated gene signature of CSCs similar to that of aggressive bladder cancer, supporting the concept that a tumor cell subpopulation is contributing to bladder cancer progression. Finally, our studies on the preclinical targeting of bladder CSCs in vitro and in xenografts using a blocking antibody for CD47 reveal promising efficacy.Functionally distinct CSCs exist in human bladder cancer and can be prospectively isolated. Continuing research will be important to identify their cell of origin, programs balancing self-renewal and differentiation and to identify additional therapeutic options to target bladder CSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MOU.0b013e32833cc9df

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280552100009

    View details for PubMedID 20657288

  • Differential DNA Damage Response in Stem and Progenitor Cells CELL STEM CELL Seita, J., Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 7 (2): 145-147


    The long lifespan of tissue-specific stem cells suggests that they may respond differently to DNA damage than downstream cells. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, two groups address this hypothesis by examining DNA damage responses in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (Milyavsky et al., 2010; Mohrin et al., 2010).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.07.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281107400006

    View details for PubMedID 20682442

  • Human melanoma-initiating cells express neural crest nerve growth factor receptor CD271 NATURE Boiko, A. D., Razorenova, O. V., van de Rijn, M., Swetter, S. M., Johnson, D. L., Ly, D. P., Butler, P. D., Yang, G. P., Joshua, B., Kaplan, M. J., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 466 (7302): 133-U155


    The question of whether tumorigenic cancer stem cells exist in human melanomas has arisen in the last few years. Here we show that in melanomas, tumour stem cells (MTSCs, for melanoma tumour stem cells) can be isolated prospectively as a highly enriched CD271(+) MTSC population using a process that maximizes viable cell transplantation. The tumours sampled in this study were taken from a broad spectrum of sites and stages. High-viability cells isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and re-suspended in a matrigel vehicle were implanted into T-, B- and natural-killer-deficient Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) mice. The CD271(+) subset of cells was the tumour-initiating population in 90% (nine out of ten) of melanomas tested. Transplantation of isolated CD271(+) melanoma cells into engrafted human skin or bone in Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) mice resulted in melanoma; however, melanoma did not develop after transplantation of isolated CD271(-) cells. We also show that in mice, tumours derived from transplanted human CD271(+) melanoma cells were capable of metastatsis in vivo. CD271(+) melanoma cells lacked expression of TYR, MART1 and MAGE in 86%, 69% and 68% of melanoma patients, respectively, which helps to explain why T-cell therapies directed at these antigens usually result in only temporary tumour shrinkage.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature09161

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279343800049

    View details for PubMedID 20596026

  • Macrophages as mediators of tumor immunosurveillance TRENDS IN IMMUNOLOGY Jaiswal, S., Chao, M. P., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 31 (6): 212-219


    Tumor immunosurveillance is a well-established mechanism for regulation of tumor growth. In this regard, most studies have focused on the role of T- and NK-cells as the critical immune effector cells. However, macrophages play a major role in the recognition and clearance of foreign, aged, and damaged cells. Macrophage phagocytosis is negatively regulated via the receptor SIRPalpha upon binding to CD47, a ubiquitously expressed protein. We recently showed that CD47 is up-regulated in myeloid leukemia and migrating hematopoietic progenitors, and that the level of protein expression correlates with the ability to evade phagocytosis. These results implicate macrophages in the immunosurveillance of hematopoietic cells and leukemias. The ability of macrophages to phagocytose tumor cells might be exploited therapeutically by blocking the CD47-SIRPalpha interaction.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279427000002

    View details for PubMedID 20452821

  • Purified Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The Next Generation of Blood and Immune Replacement IMMUNOLOGY AND ALLERGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Czechowicz, A., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 30 (2): 159-?


    Replacement of disease-causing stem cells with healthy ones has been achieved clinically via hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for the last 40 years, as a treatment modality for a variety of cancers and immunodeficiencies with moderate, but increasing, success. This procedure has traditionally included transplantation of mixed hematopoietic populations that include hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and other cells, such as T cells. This article explores and delineates the potential expansion of this technique to treat a variety of inherited diseases of immune function, the current barriers in HCT and pure HSC transplantation, and the up-and-coming strategies to combat these obstacles.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.iac.2010.03.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279115200003

    View details for PubMedID 20493393

  • Distinguishing Mast Cell and Granulocyte Differentiation at the Single-Cell Level CELL STEM CELL Franco, C. B., Chen, C., Drukker, M., Weissman, I. L., Galli, S. J. 2010; 6 (4): 361-368


    The lineage restriction of prospectively isolated hematopoietic progenitors has been traditionally assessed by bulk in vitro culture and transplantation of large number of cells in vivo. These methods, however, cannot distinguish between homogenous multipotent or heterogeneous lineage-restricted populations. Using clonal assays of 1 or 5 cells in vitro, single-cell quantitative gene expression analyses, and transplantation of mice with low numbers of cells, we show that a common myeloid progenitor (CMP) is Sca-1(lo)lin(-)c-Kit(+)CD27(+)Flk-2(-) (SL-CMP; Sca-1(lo) CMP) and a granulocyte/macrophage progenitor (GMP) is Sca-1(lo)lin(-)c-Kit(+)CD27(+)Flk-2(+)CD150(-/lo) (SL-GMP; Sca-1(lo) GMP). We found that mast cell progenitor potential is present in the SL-CMP fraction, but not in the more differentiated SL-GMP population, and is more closely related to megakaryocyte/erythrocyte specification. Our data provide criteria for the prospective isolation of SL-CMP and SL-GMP and support the conclusion that mast cells are specified during hematopoiesis earlier than and independently from granulocytes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.02.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276823300014

    View details for PubMedID 20362540

  • MiDReG: A method of mining developmentally regulated genes using Boolean implications PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sahoo, D., Seita, J., Bhattacharya, D., Inlay, M. A., Weissman, I. L., Plevritis, S. K., Dill, D. L. 2010; 107 (13): 5732-5737


    We present a method termed mining developmentally regulated genes (MiDReG) to predict genes whose expression is either activated or repressed as precursor cells differentiate. MiDReG does not require gene expression data from intermediate stages of development. MiDReG is based on the gene expression patterns between the initial and terminal stages of the differentiation pathway, coupled with "if-then" rules (Boolean implications) mined from large-scale microarray databases. MiDReG uses two gene expression-based seed conditions that mark the initial and the terminal stages of a given differentiation pathway and combines the statistically inferred Boolean implications from these seed conditions to identify the relevant genes. The method was validated by applying it to B-cell development. The algorithm predicted 62 genes that are expressed after the KIT+ progenitor cell stage and remain expressed through CD19+ and AICDA+ germinal center B cells. qRT-PCR of 14 of these genes on sorted B-cell progenitors confirmed that the expression of 10 genes is indeed stably established during B-cell differentiation. Review of the published literature of knockout mice revealed that of the predicted genes, 63.4% have defects in B-cell differentiation and function and 22% have a role in the B cell according to other experiments, and the remaining 14.6% are not characterized. Therefore, our method identified novel gene candidates for future examination of their role in B-cell development. These data demonstrate the power of MiDReG in predicting functionally important intermediate genes in a given developmental pathway that is defined by a mutually exclusive gene expression pattern.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0913635107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276159500010

    View details for PubMedID 20231483

  • Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells NATURE Red-Horse, K., Ueno, H., Weissman, I. L., Krasnow, M. A. 2010; 464 (7288): 549-U100


    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Determining the coronary artery developmental program could aid understanding of the disease and lead to new treatments, but many aspects of the process, including their developmental origin, remain obscure. Here we show, using histological and clonal analysis in mice and cardiac organ culture, that coronary vessels arise from angiogenic sprouts of the sinus venosus-the vein that returns blood to the embryonic heart. Sprouting venous endothelial cells dedifferentiate as they migrate over and invade the myocardium. Invading cells differentiate into arteries and capillaries; cells on the surface redifferentiate into veins. These results show that some differentiated venous cells retain developmental plasticity, and indicate that position-specific cardiac signals trigger their dedifferentiation and conversion into coronary arteries, capillaries and veins. Understanding this new reprogramming process and identifying the endogenous signals should suggest more natural ways of engineering coronary bypass grafts and revascularizing the heart.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature08873

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275974200039

    View details for PubMedID 20336138

  • The origin and fate of yolk sac hematopoiesis: application of chimera analyses to developmental studies INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Ueno, H., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 54 (6-7): 1019-1031


    During mammalian development, as exemplified by mice, hematopoietic cells first appear in the yolk sac blood islands, then in the dorsal aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region and the placenta, eventually seeding into liver, spleen and then bone marrow. The formation of hematopoietic stem cells from mesodermal precursors has finished by mid-fetal life. Once established, the hematopoietic system must supply blood cells to host circulation and tissues for the entire life of the animal. Easy access to hematopoietic cells has enabled a vast number of studies over the last several decades, and much is now understood about the different hematopoietic lineages, how they differentiate, and their derivation from immature progenitors. Yet to be elucidated are the following two intriguing questions: do yolk sac and AGM hematopoietic cells arise from a common precursor or from distinct precursor cells?; and what is the lineage relationship between blood and endothelial cells. In this review, we will survey the state of our current knowledge in these areas, and discuss the potential use of multicolor chimera analyses to elucidate unresolved questions.

    View details for DOI 10.1387/ijdb.093039hu

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282481100008

    View details for PubMedID 20711980

  • Functional and Transcriptional Characterization of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells for Treatment of Myocardial Infarction PLOS ONE Li, Z., Wilson, K. D., Smith, B., Kraft, D. L., Jia, F., Huang, M., Xie, X., Robbins, R. C., Gambhir, S. S., Weissman, I. L., Wu, J. C. 2009; 4 (12)


    Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells (hESC-ECs) has the potential to provide an unlimited source of cells for novel transplantation therapies of ischemic diseases by supporting angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. However, the endothelial differentiation efficiency of the conventional embryoid body (EB) method is low while the 2-dimensional method of co-culturing with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) require animal product, both of which can limit the future clinical application of hESC-ECs. Moreover, to fully understand the beneficial effects of stem cell therapy, investigators must be able to track the functional biology and physiology of transplanted cells in living subjects over time.In this study, we developed an extracellular matrix (ECM) culture system for increasing endothelial differentiation and free from contaminating animal cells. We investigated the transcriptional changes that occur during endothelial differentiation of hESCs using whole genome microarray, and compared to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We also showed functional vascular formation by hESC-ECs in a mouse dorsal window model. Moreover, our study is the first so far to transplant hESC-ECs in a myocardial infarction model and monitor cell fate using molecular imaging methods.Taken together, we report a more efficient method for derivation of hESC-ECs that express appropriate patterns of endothelial genes, form functional vessels in vivo, and improve cardiac function. These studies suggest that hESC-ECs may provide a novel therapy for ischemic heart disease in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0008443

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273180200002

    View details for PubMedID 20046878

  • Differential Contribution of Chemotaxis and Substrate Restriction to Segregation of Immature and Mature Thymocytes IMMUNITY Ehrlich, L. I., Oh, D. Y., Weissman, I. L., Lewis, R. S. 2009; 31 (6): 986-998


    T cell development requires sequential localization of thymocyte subsets to distinct thymic microenvironments. To address mechanisms governing this segregation, we used two-photon microscopy to visualize migration of purified thymocyte subsets in defined microenvironments within thymic slices. Double-negative (CD4(-)8(-)) and double-positive (CD4(+)8(+)) thymocytes were confined to cortex where they moved slowly without directional bias. DP cells accumulated and migrated more rapidly in a specialized inner-cortical microenvironment, but were unable to migrate on medullary substrates. In contrast, CD4 single positive (SP) thymocytes migrated directionally toward the medulla, where they accumulated and moved very rapidly. Our results revealed a requisite two-step process governing CD4 SP cell medullary localization: the chemokine receptor CCR7 mediated chemotaxis of CD4 SP cells towards medulla, whereas a distinct pertussis-toxin sensitive pathway was required for medullary entry. These findings suggest that developmentally regulated responses to both chemotactic signals and specific migratory substrates guide thymocytes to specific locations in the thymus.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2009.09.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273616400018

    View details for PubMedID 19962328

  • Self-Renewal of the Long-Term Reconstituting Subset of Hematopoietic Stem Cells is Regulated by Ikaros STEM CELLS Papathanasiou, P., Attema, J. L., Karsunky, H., Hosen, N., Sontani, Y., Hoyne, G. F., Tunningley, R., Smale, S. T., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 27 (12): 3082-3092


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare, ancestral cells that underlie the development, homeostasis, aging, and regeneration of the blood. Here we show that the chromatin-associated protein Ikaros is a crucial self-renewal regulator of the long-term (LT) reconstituting subset of HSCs. Ikaros, and associated family member proteins, are highly expressed in self-renewing populations of stem cells. Ikaros point mutant mice initially develop LT-HSCs with the surface phenotype cKit+Thy1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca1+Flk2-CD150+ during fetal ontogeny but are unable to maintain this pool, rapidly losing it within two days of embryonic development. A synchronous loss of megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitors results, along with a fatal, fetal anemia. At this time, mutation of Ikaros exerts a differentiation defect upon common lymphoid progenitors that cannot be rescued with an ectopic Notch signal in vitro, with hematopoietic cells preferentially committing to the NK lineage. Althoughdispensable for the initial embryonic development of blood, Ikaros is clearly needed for maintenance of this tissue. Achieving successful clinical tissue regeneration necessitates understanding degeneration, and these data provide a striking example by a discrete genetic lesion in the cells underpinning tissue integrity during a pivotal timeframe of organogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/stem.232

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273569800021

    View details for PubMedID 19816952

  • Niche recycling through division-independent egress of hematopoietic stem cells JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Bhattacharya, D., Czechowicz, A., Ooi, A. G., Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 206 (12): 2837-2850


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are thought to reside in discrete niches through stable adhesion, yet previous studies have suggested that host HSCs can be replaced by transplanted donor HSCs, even in the absence of cytoreductive conditioning. To explain this apparent paradox, we calculated, through cell surface phenotyping and transplantation of unfractionated blood, that approximately 1-5% of the total pool of HSCs enters into the circulation each day. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) feeding experiments demonstrated that HSCs in the peripheral blood incorporate BrdU at the same rate as do HSCs in the bone marrow, suggesting that egress from the bone marrow to the blood can occur without cell division and can leave behind vacant HSC niches. Consistent with this, repetitive daily transplantations of small numbers of HSCs administered as new niches became available over the course of 7 d led to significantly higher levels of engraftment than did large, single-bolus transplantations of the same total number of HSCs. These data provide insight as to how HSC replacement can occur despite the residence of endogenous HSCs in niches, and suggest therapeutic interventions that capitalize upon physiological HSC egress.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20090778

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272079300020

    View details for PubMedID 19887396

  • Ly6d marks the earliest stage of B-cell specification and identifies the branchpoint between B-cell and T-cell development GENES & DEVELOPMENT Inlay, M. A., Bhattacharya, D., Sahoo, D., Serwold, T., Seita, J., Karsunky, H., Plevritis, S. K., Dill, D. L., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 23 (20): 2376-2381


    Common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) clonally produce both B- and T-cell lineages, but have little myeloid potential in vivo. However, some studies claim that the upstream lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP) is the thymic seeding population, and suggest that CLPs are primarily B-cell-restricted. To identify surface proteins that distinguish functional CLPs from B-cell progenitors, we used a new computational method of Mining Developmentally Regulated Genes (MiDReG). We identified Ly6d, which divides CLPs into two distinct populations: one that retains full in vivo lymphoid potential and produces more thymocytes at early timepoints than LMPP, and another that behaves essentially as a B-cell progenitor.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.1836009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270849700004

    View details for PubMedID 19833765

  • Evaluation of the Long-Term Reconstituting Subset of Hematopoietic Stem Cells with CD150 STEM CELLS Papathanasiou, P., Attema, J. L., Karsunky, H., Xu, J., Smale, S. T., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 27 (10): 2498-2508


    Blood is a tissue with a high cell turnover rate that is constantly being replenished by bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) seeded during fetal ontogeny from the liver. Here we show that the long-term (LT) reconstituting subset of cKit(+)Thy1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca1(+)Flk2(-) HSCs is CD150(+). HSCs sourced from the fetal liver show LT, multilineage engraftment from E14.5 onward, and the CD150 cell surface molecule can readily substitute Thy1.1 as a positive marker of LT-HSCs in this tissue. From both fetal liver and adult bone marrow, cKit(+)Thy1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca1(+)Flk2(-) CD150(+) cells exhibit robust LT competitive engraftment, self-renewal, multilineage differentiation capacity, and an accessible chromatin configuration consistent with high expression of erythroid/megakaryoid genes in purified cell subsets. Our data show that, with appropriate combinations of cell surface markers, stem cells can be accurately isolated to high purity and characterized. This is important for the clarification of lineage relationships and the identification of bona fide regulators of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation both in normal and neoplastic tissues.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/stem.170

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271830200013

    View details for PubMedID 19593793

  • Manganese-Guided Cellular MRI of Human Embryonic Stem Cell and Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Viability MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Yamada, M., Gurney, P. T., Chung, J., Kundu, P., Drukker, M., Smith, A. K., Weissman, I. L., Nishimura, D., Robbins, R. C., Yang, P. C. 2009; 62 (4): 1047-1054


    This study investigated the ability of MnCl(2) as a cellular MRI contrast agent to determine the in vitro viability of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC). Basic MRI parameters including T(1) and T(2) values of MnCl(2)-labeled hESC and hBMSC were measured and viability signal of manganese (Mn(2+))-labeled cells was validated. Furthermore, the biological activity of Ca(2+)-channels was modulated utilizing both Ca(2+)-channel agonist and antagonist to evaluate concomitant signal changes. Metabolic effects of MnCl(2)-labeling were also assessed using assays for cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis. Finally, in vivo Mn(2+)-guided MRI of the transplanted hESC was successfully achieved and validated by bioluminescence imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.22071

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270558700025

    View details for PubMedID 19526508

  • Identification, molecular characterization, clinical prognosis, and therapeutic targeting of human bladder tumor-initiating cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Chan, K. S., Espinosa, I., Chao, M., Wong, D., Ailles, L., Diehn, M., Gill, H., Presti, J., Chang, H. Y., van de Rijn, M., Shortliffe, L., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 106 (33): 14016-14021


    Major clinical issues in bladder cancer include the identification of prediction markers and novel therapeutic targets for invasive bladder cancer. In the current study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a tumor-initiating cell (T-IC) subpopulation in primary human bladder cancer, based on the expression of markers similar to that of normal bladder basal cells (Lineage-CD44(+)CK5(+)CK20(-)). The bladder T-IC subpopulation was defined functionally by its enriched ability to induce xenograft tumors in vivo that recapitulated the heterogeneity of the original tumor. Further, molecular analysis of more than 300 bladder cancer specimens revealed heterogeneity among activated oncogenic pathways in T-IC (e.g., 80% Gli1, 45% Stat3, 10% Bmi-1, and 5% beta-catenin). Despite this molecular heterogeneity, we identified a unique bladder T-IC gene signature by gene chip analysis. This T-IC gene signature, which effectively distinguishes muscle-invasive bladder cancer with worse clinical prognosis from non-muscle-invasive (superficial) cancer, has significant clinical value. It also can predict the progression of a subset of recurring non-muscle-invasive cancers. Finally, we found that CD47, a protein that provides an inhibitory signal for macrophage phagocytosis, is highly expressed in bladder T-ICs compared with the rest of the tumor. Blockade of CD47 by a mAb resulted in macrophage engulfment of bladder cancer cells in vitro. In summary, we have identified a T-IC subpopulation with potential prognostic and therapeutic value for invasive bladder cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0906549106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269078700071

    View details for PubMedID 19666525

  • The ISSCR: who are we and where are we going? Cell stem cell Weissman, I. 2009; 5 (2): 151-153

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2009.07.013

    View details for PubMedID 19664988

  • A NEUROSURGEON'S GUIDE TO STEM CELLS, CANCER STEM CELLS, AND BRAIN TUMOR STEM CELLS NEUROSURGERY Cheshier, S. H., Kalani, M. Y., Lim, M., Ailles, L., Huhn, S. L., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 65 (2): 237-249


    Stem cells and their potential applications have become the forefront of scientific, political, and ethical discourse. Whereas stem cells were long accepted as units of development and evolution, it is now becoming increasingly clear that they are also units of oncogenesis. Although the field of stem cell biology is expanding at an astounding rate, the data attained are not readily translatable for the physicians who may eventually deliver these tools to patients. Herein, we provide a brief review of stem cell and cancer stem cell biology and highlight the scientific and clinical implications of recent findings regarding the presence of cancer-forming stem cells in brain tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000349921.14519.2A

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268523200005

    View details for PubMedID 19625901

  • CD47 Is an Adverse Prognostic Factor and Therapeutic Antibody Target on Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells CELL Majeti, R., Chao, M. P., Alizadeh, A. A., Pang, W. W., Jaiswal, S., Gibbs, K. D., van Rooijen, N., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 138 (2): 286-299


    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is organized as a cellular hierarchy initiated and maintained by a subset of self-renewing leukemia stem cells (LSC). We hypothesized that increased CD47 expression on human AML LSC contributes to pathogenesis by inhibiting their phagocytosis through the interaction of CD47 with an inhibitory receptor on phagocytes. We found that CD47 was more highly expressed on AML LSC than their normal counterparts, and that increased CD47 expression predicted worse overall survival in three independent cohorts of adult AML patients. Furthermore, blocking monoclonal antibodies directed against CD47 preferentially enabled phagocytosis of AML LSC and inhibited their engraftment in vivo. Finally, treatment of human AML LSC-engrafted mice with anti-CD47 antibody depleted AML and targeted AML LSC. In summary, increased CD47 expression is an independent, poor prognostic factor that can be targeted on human AML stem cells with blocking monoclonal antibodies capable of enabling phagocytosis of LSC.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.045

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268277000011

    View details for PubMedID 19632179

  • CD47 Is Upregulated on Circulating Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Leukemia Cells to Avoid Phagocytosis CELL Jaiswal, S., Jamieson, C. H., Pang, W. W., Park, C. Y., Chao, M. P., Majeti, R., Traver, D., van Rooijen, N., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 138 (2): 271-285


    Macrophages clear pathogens and damaged or aged cells from the blood stream via phagocytosis. Cell-surface CD47 interacts with its receptor on macrophages, SIRPalpha, to inhibit phagocytosis of normal, healthy cells. We find that mobilizing cytokines and inflammatory stimuli cause CD47 to be transiently upregulated on mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors just prior to and during their migratory phase, and that the level of CD47 on these cells determines the probability that they are engulfed in vivo. CD47 is also constitutively upregulated on mouse and human myeloid leukemias, and overexpression of CD47 on a myeloid leukemia line increases its pathogenicity by allowing it to evade phagocytosis. We conclude that CD47 upregulation is an important mechanism that provides protection to normal HSCs during inflammation-mediated mobilization, and that leukemic progenitors co-opt this ability in order to evade macrophage killing.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268277000010

    View details for PubMedID 19632178

  • Expression of AA4.1 marks lymphohematopoietic progenitors in early mouse development PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Yamane, T., Hosen, N., Yamazaki, H., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 106 (22): 8953-8958


    The hematopoietic system of mice is established during the early to midgestational stage of development. However, the earliest lymphohematopoietic progenitors that appear during mouse development have been less well characterized compared with the hematopoietic stem cell compartment of fetal liver and bone marrow. We isolated the earliest lymphohematopoietic progenitors by using embryonic stem (ES) cell culture in vitro. Cells with the c-Kit(+)Lin(-) cell surface phenotype were present abundantly in ES cells cocultured with stromal cell lines. We further separated the cells into two distinct cell subsets based on AA4.1 expression. Although AA4.1(+) and AA4.1(-) cells had equivalent potency to generate myeloid cell lineages, the lymphoid potential in ES-cell-derived cells was largely restricted to the cells expressing AA4.1. The same cell type was present abundantly in the early yolk sac and in fewer numbers (approximately 5% of that in the yolk sac) in the caudal half of the developing embryos. These data suggest that AA4.1 is a cell surface marker that can identify the earliest lymphohematopoietic progenitors in mouse development.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0904090106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266580500033

    View details for PubMedID 19458045

  • Sustained in vitro intestinal epithelial culture within a Wnt-dependent stem cell niche. Nature medicine Ootani, A., Li, X., Sangiorgi, E., Ho, Q. T., Ueno, H., Toda, S., Sugihara, H., Fujimoto, K., Weissman, I. L., Capecchi, M. R., Kuo, C. J. 2009; 15 (6): 701-706


    The in vitro analysis of intestinal epithelium has been hampered by a lack of suitable culture systems. Here we describe robust long-term methodology for small and large intestinal culture, incorporating an air-liquid interface and underlying stromal elements. These cultures showed prolonged intestinal epithelial expansion as sphere-like organoids with proliferation and multilineage differentiation. The Wnt growth factor family positively regulates proliferation of the intestinal epithelium in vivo. Accordingly, culture growth was inhibited by the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) and markedly stimulated by a fusion protein between the Wnt agonist R-spondin-1 and immunoglobulin Fc (RSpo1-Fc). Furthermore, treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine and neurogenin-3 overexpression induced goblet cell and enteroendocrine cell differentiation, respectively, consistent with endogenous Notch signaling and lineage plasticity. Epithelial cells derived from both leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor-5-positive (Lgr5(+)) and B lymphoma moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region homolog-1-positive (Bmi1(+)) lineages, representing putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations, were present in vitro and were expanded by treatment with RSpo1-Fc; this increased number of Lgr5(+) cells upon RSpo1-Fc treatment was subsequently confirmed in vivo. Our results indicate successful long-term intestinal culture within a microenvironment accurately recapitulating the Wnt- and Notch-dependent ISC niche.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.1951

    View details for PubMedID 19398967

  • Automated microfluidic chromatin immunoprecipitation from 2,000 cells LAB ON A CHIP Wu, A. R., Hiatt, J. B., Lu, R., Attema, J. L., Lobo, N. A., Weissman, I. L., Clarke, M. F., Quake, S. R. 2009; 9 (10): 1365-1370


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful assay used to probe DNA-protein interactions. Traditional methods of implementing this assay are lengthy, cumbersome and require a large number of cells, making it difficult to study rare cell types such as certain cancer and stem cells. We have designed a microfluidic device to perform sensitive ChIP analysis on low cell numbers in a rapid, automated fashion while preserving the specificity of the assay. Comparing ChIP results for two modified histone protein targets, we showed our automated microfluidic ChIP (AutoChIP) from 2,000 cells to be comparable to that of conventional ChIP methods using 50,000-500,000 cells. This technology may provide a solution to the need for a high sensitivity, rapid, and automated ChIP assay, and in doing so facilitate the use of ChIP for many interesting and valuable applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b819648f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268227400008

    View details for PubMedID 19417902

  • Association of reactive oxygen species levels and radioresistance in cancer stem cells NATURE Diehn, M., Cho, R. W., Lobo, N. A., Kalisky, T., Dorie, M. J., Kulp, A. N., Qian, D., Lam, J. S., Ailles, L. E., Wong, M., Joshua, B., Kaplan, M. J., Wapnir, I., Dirbas, F. M., Somlo, G., Garberoglio, C., Paz, B., Shen, J., Lau, S. K., Quake, S. R., Brown, J. M., Weissman, I. L., Clarke, M. F. 2009; 458 (7239): 780-U123


    The metabolism of oxygen, although central to life, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have been implicated in processes as diverse as cancer, cardiovascular disease and ageing. It has recently been shown that central nervous system stem cells and haematopoietic stem cells and early progenitors contain lower levels of ROS than their more mature progeny, and that these differences are critical for maintaining stem cell function. We proposed that epithelial tissue stem cells and their cancer stem cell (CSC) counterparts may also share this property. Here we show that normal mammary epithelial stem cells contain lower concentrations of ROS than their more mature progeny cells. Notably, subsets of CSCs in some human and murine breast tumours contain lower ROS levels than corresponding non-tumorigenic cells (NTCs). Consistent with ROS being critical mediators of ionizing-radiation-induced cell killing, CSCs in these tumours develop less DNA damage and are preferentially spared after irradiation compared to NTCs. Lower ROS levels in CSCs are associated with increased expression of free radical scavenging systems. Pharmacological depletion of ROS scavengers in CSCs markedly decreases their clonogenicity and results in radiosensitization. These results indicate that, similar to normal tissue stem cells, subsets of CSCs in some tumours contain lower ROS levels and enhanced ROS defences compared to their non-tumorigenic progeny, which may contribute to tumour radioresistance.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature07733

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265193600045

    View details for PubMedID 19194462

  • Dysregulated gene expression networks in human acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Majetl, R., Becker, M. W., Tian, Q., Lee, T. M., Yan, X., Liu, R., Chiang, J., Hood, L., Clarke, M. F., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 106 (9): 3396-3401


    We performed the first genome-wide expression analysis directly comparing the expression profile of highly enriched normal human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and leukemic stem cells (LSC) from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Comparing the expression signature of normal HSC to that of LSC, we identified 3,005 differentially expressed genes. Using 2 independent analyses, we identified multiple pathways that are aberrantly regulated in leukemic stem cells compared with normal HSC. Several pathways, including Wnt signaling, MAP Kinase signaling, and Adherens Junction, are well known for their role in cancer development and stem cell biology. Other pathways have not been previously implicated in the regulation of cancer stem cell functions, including Ribosome and T Cell Receptor Signaling pathway. This study demonstrates that combining global gene expression analysis with detailed annotated pathway resources applied to highly enriched normal and malignant stem cell populations, can yield an understanding of the critical pathways regulating cancer stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0900089106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263844100075

    View details for PubMedID 19218430

  • Imaging of STAT3 Signaling Pathway During Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT Xie, X., Chan, K. S., Cao, F., Huang, M., Li, Z., Lee, A., Weissman, I. L., Wu, J. C. 2009; 18 (2): 205-214


    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a pleiotropic transcription factor involved in a variety of physiological processes. STAT3 acts as a key transcriptional determinant of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and plays a pivotal function in early mammalian embryogenesis because the development of many organs requires STAT3 activation. However, little is known about the role of STAT3 function during ES cell differentiation. To answer this question, we built a lentiviral construct with 7-repeat STAT3-binding sequence (enhancer) and minimal TA (promoter) driving renilla luciferase and monomeric red fluorescence protein (Rluc-mRFP), followed by a constitutive cytomegalovirus promoter driving green fluorescent protein as a selection marker. The specificity of our custom-designed 7-repeat STAT3 reporter construct was first confirmed by cotransfection with constitutively active version of STAT3 (STAT3C) into human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Next, a mouse ES cell line stably transduced with STAT3 reporter construct was isolated. This ES cell line showed a tight response in reporter gene expression with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induction and was chosen as a developmental model for the STAT3 functional study. Using serial noninvasive bioluminescence imaging, we showed that the onset of embryoid body (EB) formation involved inhibition of STAT3 activity. However, during differentiation, STAT3 activity steadily increased from day 5 to 14 and was reduced by day 21. STAT3 activity was also confirmed separately by Western blots. Finally, phosphorylation of STAT3 was also found to correspond with cardiomyocyte differentiation. In summary, this is the first study to monitor real-time STAT3 activity during ES cell differentiation. This genetically modified line can be used to study the biological role of STAT3 during ES cell differentiation into different derivatives.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/scd.2008.0152

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264171300002

    View details for PubMedID 18576943

  • Cancer Stem Cell-Directed Therapies: Recent Data From the Laboratory and Clinic MOLECULAR THERAPY Park, C. Y., Tseng, D., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 17 (2): 219-230


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined by their ability to (i) fully recapitulate the tumor of origin when transplanted into immunodeficient mouse hosts, and (ii) self-renew, demonstrated by their ability to be serially transplanted. These properties suggest that CSCs are required for tumor maintenance and metastasis; thus, it has been predicted that CSC elimination is required for cure. This prediction has profoundly altered paradigms for cancer research, compelling investigators to prospectively isolate CSCs to characterize the molecular pathways regulating their behavior. Many potential strategies for CSC-directed therapy have been proposed, but few studies have rigorously demonstrated their efficacy using in vivo models. Herein, we highlight recent studies that demonstrate the utility of CSC-directed therapies and discuss the implications of the CSC hypothesis to experimental design and therapeutic strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/mt.2008.254

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263287100008

    View details for PubMedID 19066601

  • Reductive isolation from bone marrow and blood implicates common lymphoid progenitors as the major source of thymopoiesis BLOOD Serwold, T., Ehrlich, L. I., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 113 (4): 807-815


    Ongoing thymopoiesis requires continual seeding from progenitors that reside within the bone marrow (BM), but the identity of the most proximate prethymocytes has remained controversial. Here we take a comprehensive approach to prospectively identify the major source of thymocyte progenitors that reside within the BM and blood, and find that all thymocyte progenitor activity resides within a rare Flk2(+)CD27(+) population. The BM Flk2(+)CD27(+) subset is predominantly composed of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and multipotent progenitors. Of these 2 populations, only CLPs reconstitute thymopoiesis rapidly after intravenous injection. In contrast, multipotent progenitor-derived cells reconstitute the thymus with delayed kinetics only after they have reseeded the BM, self-renewed, and generated CLPs. These results identify CLPs as the major source of thymocyte progenitors within the BM.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-08-173682

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262646200009

    View details for PubMedID 18927436

  • Endochondral ossification is required for haematopoietic stem-cell niche formation NATURE Chan, C. K., Chen, C., Luppen, C. A., Kim, J., DeBoer, A. T., Wei, K., Helms, J. A., Kuo, C. J., Kraft, D. L., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 457 (7228): 490-U9


    Little is known about the formation of niches, local micro-environments required for stem-cell maintenance. Here we develop an in vivo assay for adult haematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) niche formation. With this assay, we identified a population of progenitor cells with surface markers CD45(-)Tie2(-)alpha(V)(+)CD105(+)Thy1.1(-) (CD105(+)Thy1(-)) that, when sorted from 15.5 days post-coitum fetal bones and transplanted under the adult mouse kidney capsule, could recruit host-derived blood vessels, produce donor-derived ectopic bones through a cartilage intermediate and generate a marrow cavity populated by host-derived long-term reconstituting HSC (LT-HSC). In contrast, CD45(-)Tie2(-)alpha(V)(+)CD105(+)Thy1(+) (CD105(+)Thy1(+)) fetal bone progenitors form bone that does not contain a marrow cavity. Suppressing expression of factors involved in endochondral ossification, such as osterix and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inhibited niche generation. CD105(+)Thy1(-) progenitor populations derived from regions of the fetal mandible or calvaria that do not undergo endochondral ossification formed only bone without marrow in our assay. Collectively, our data implicate endochondral ossification, bone formation that proceeds through a cartilage intermediate, as a requirement for adult HSC niche formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature07547

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262519200049

    View details for PubMedID 19078959

  • Two-step oligoclonal development of male germ cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ueno, H., Turnbull, B. B., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 106 (1): 175-180


    During mouse development, primordial germ cells (PGCs) that give rise to the entire germ line are first identified within the proximal epiblast. However, long-term tracing of the fate of the cells has not been done wherein all cells in and around the germ-cell lineage are identified. Also, quantitative estimates of the number of founder PGCs using different models have come up with various numbers. Here, we use tetrachimeric mice to show that the progenitor numbers for the entire germ line in adult testis, and for the initiating embryonic PGCs, are both 4 cells. Although they proliferate to form polyclonal germ-cell populations in fetal and neonatal testes, germ cells that actually contribute to adult spermatogenesis originate from a small number of secondary founder cells that originate in the fetal period. The rest of the "deciduous" germ cells are lost, most likely by apoptosis, before the reproductive period. The second "actual" founder germ cells generally form small numbers of large monoclonal areas in testes by the reproductive period. Our results also demonstrate that there is no contribution of somatic cells to the male germ cell pool during development or in adulthood. These results suggest a model of 2-step oligoclonal development of male germ cells in mice, the second step distinguishing the heritable germ line from cells selected not to participate in forming the next generation.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0810325105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262263900034

    View details for PubMedID 19098099

  • The Adhesion Molecule Esam1 Is a Novel Hematopoietic Stem Cell Marker STEM CELLS Ooi, A. G., Karsunky, H., Majeti, R., Butz, S., Vestweber, D., Ishida, T., Quertermous, T., Weissman, I. L., Forsberg, E. C. 2009; 27 (3): 653-661


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been highly enriched using combinations of 12-14 surface markers. Genes specifically expressed by HSCs as compared with other multipotent progenitors may yield new stem cell enrichment markers, as well as elucidate self-renewal and differentiation mechanisms. We previously reported that multiple cell surface molecules are enriched on mouse HSCs compared with more differentiated progeny. Here, we present a definitive expression profile of the cell adhesion molecule endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (Esam1) in hematopoietic cells using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry studies. We found Esam1 to be highly and selectively expressed by HSCs from mouse bone marrow (BM). Esam1 was also a viable positive HSC marker in fetal, young, and aged mice, as well as in mice of several different strains. In addition, we found robust levels of Esam1 transcripts in purified human HSCs. Esam1(-/-) mice do not exhibit severe hematopoietic defects; however, Esam1(-/-) BM has a greater frequency of HSCs and fewer T cells. HSCs from Esam1(-/-) mice give rise to more granulocyte/monocytes in culture and a higher T cell:B cell ratio upon transplantation into congenic mice. These studies identify Esam1 as a novel, widely applicable HSC-selective marker and suggest that Esam1 may play roles in both HSC proliferation and lineage decisions.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2008-0824

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264706900016

    View details for PubMedID 19074415

  • Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells and the Inflammatory Response CANCER VACCINES Jaiswal, S., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 1174: 118-121


    Cells of the vertebrate immune system are continuously regenerated by division of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into differentiated effector cells. Classically, HSCs were thought to reside primarily in the bone marrow niche where they produced mature progeny that migrated from the marrow to repopulate the peripheral immune system. However, emerging evidence has established that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are themselves mobile and able to repopulate ectopic niches and contribute more directly to inflammatory responses in the periphery. How the HSPCs remain immune to destruction in a toxic inflammatory milieu is unknown.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04930.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271828500015

    View details for PubMedID 19769744

  • Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency leads to disrupted response to acute stress in stem cells and progenitors BLOOD Cao, Y., Wagers, A. J., Karsunky, H., Zhao, H., Reeves, R., Wong, R. J., Stevenson, D. K., Weissman, I. L., Contag, C. H. 2008; 112 (12): 4494-4502


    An effective response to extreme hematopoietic stress requires an extreme elevation in hematopoiesis and preservation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These diametrically opposed processes are likely to be regulated by genes that mediate cellular adaptation to physiologic stress. Herein, we show that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the inducible isozyme of heme degradation, is a key regulator of these processes. Mice lacking one allele of HO-1 (HO-1(+/-)) showed accelerated hematopoietic recovery from myelotoxic injury, and HO-1(+/-) HSCs repopulated lethally irradiated recipients with more rapid kinetics. However, HO-1(+/-) HSCs were ineffective in radioprotection and serial repopulation of myeloablated recipients. Perturbations in key stem cell regulators were observed in HO-1(+/-) HSCs and hematopoietic progenitors (HPCs), which may explain the disrupted response of HO-1(+/-) HPCs and HPCs to acute stress. Control of stem cell stress response by HO-1 presents opportunities for metabolic manipulation of stem cell-based therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2007-12-127621

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261217000024

    View details for PubMedID 18509090

  • Wnt-mediated self-renewal of neural stem/progenitor cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Kalani, M. Y., Cheshier, S. H., Cord, B. J., Bababeygy, S. R., Vogel, H., Weissman, I. L., Palmer, T. D., Nusse, R. 2008; 105 (44): 16970-16975


    In this work we have uncovered a role for Wnt signaling as an important regulator of stem cell self-renewal in the developing brain. We identified Wnt-responsive cells in the subventricular zone of the developing E14.5 mouse brain. Responding cell populations were enriched for self-renewing stem cells in primary culture, suggesting that Wnt signaling is a hallmark of self-renewing activity in vivo. We also tested whether Wnt signals directly influence neural stem cells. Using inhibitors of the Wnt pathway, we found that Wnt signaling is required for the efficient cloning and expansion of single-cell derived populations that are able to generate new stem cells as well as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. The addition of exogenous Wnt3a protein enhances clonal outgrowth, demonstrating not only a critical role for the Wnt pathway for the regulation of neurogenesis but also its use for the expansion of neural stem cells in cell culture and in tissue engineering.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0808616105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260913800033

    View details for PubMedID 18957545

  • The origins of the identification and isolation of hematopoietic stem cells, and their capability to induce donor-specific transplantation tolerance and treat autoimmune diseases BLOOD Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2008; 112 (9): 3543-3553


    Advances in the understanding of the cells of the hematopoietic system have provided a rich basis for improving clinical hematopoietic cell transplants; finding and using proteins and molecules to amplify or suppress particular blood cell types; understanding the stepwise progression of preleukemic stages leading first to chronic myeloid disorders, then the emergence of acute blastic leukemias; and treating malignant and nonmalignant diseases with cell subsets. As a result of intense scientific investigation, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been isolated and their key functional characteristics revealed-self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. These characteristics are now found to be present in all tissue/organ stem cell studies, and even in the analysis of pluripotent embryonic, nuclear transfer, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Studies on HSC have identified hematopoiesis as one of the best systems for studying developmental cell lineages and as the best for understanding molecular changes in cell fate decision-making and for finding preclinical and clinical platforms for tissue and organ replacement, regeneration, and oncogenesis. Here we review the steps, from our viewpoint, that led to HSC isolation and its importance in self-nonself immune recognition.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-08-078220

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260301800011

    View details for PubMedID 18948588

  • Transcriptional and Functional Profiling of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes PLOS ONE Cao, F., Wagner, R. A., Wilson, K. D., Xie, X., Fu, J., Drukker, M., Lee, A., Li, R. A., Gambhir, S. S., Weissman, I. L., Robbins, R. C., Wu, J. C. 2008; 3 (10)


    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can serve as a potentially limitless source of cells that may enable regeneration of diseased tissue and organs. Here we investigate the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in promoting recovery from cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury in a mouse model. Using microarrays, we have described the hESC-CM transcriptome within the spectrum of changes that occur between undifferentiated hESCs and fetal heart cells. The hESC-CMs expressed cardiomyocyte genes at levels similar to those found in 20-week fetal heart cells, making this population a good source of potential replacement cells in vivo. Echocardiographic studies showed significant improvement in heart function by 8 weeks after transplantation. Finally, we demonstrate long-term engraftment of hESC-CMs by using molecular imaging to track cellular localization, survival, and proliferation in vivo. Taken together, global gene expression profiling of hESC differentiation enables a systems-based analysis of the biological processes, networks, and genes that drive hESC fate decisions, and studies such as this will serve as the foundation for future clinical applications of stem cell therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0003474

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265126100005

    View details for PubMedID 18941512

  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Quiescence Is Maintained by Compound Contributions of the Retinoblastoma Gene Family CELL STEM CELL Viatour, P., Somervaille, T. C., Venkatasubrahmanyam, S., Kogan, S., McLaughlin, M. E., Weissman, I. L., Butte, A. J., Passegue, E., Sage, J. 2008; 3 (4): 416-428


    Individual members of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene family serve critical roles in the control of cellular proliferation and differentiation, but the extent of their contributions is masked by redundant and compensatory mechanisms. Here we employed a conditional knockout strategy to simultaneously inactivate all three members, Rb, p107, and p130, in adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Rb family triple knockout (TKO) mice develop a cell-intrinsic myeloproliferation that originates from hyperproliferative early hematopoietic progenitors and is accompanied by increased apoptosis in lymphoid progenitor populations. Loss of quiescence in the TKO HSC pool is associated with an expansion of these mutant stem cells but also with an enhanced mobilization and an impaired reconstitution potential upon transplantation. The presence of a single p107 allele is sufficient to largely rescue these defects. Thus, Rb family members collectively maintain HSC quiescence and the balance between lymphoid and myeloid cell fates in the hematopoietic system.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260149800012

    View details for PubMedID 18940733

  • Identification of the Endostyle as a Stem Cell Niche in a Colonial Chordate CELL STEM CELL Voskoboynik, A., Soen, Y., Rinkevich, Y., Rosner, A., Ueno, H., Reshef, R., Ishizuka, K. J., Palmeri, K. J., Moiseeva, E., Rinkevich, B., Weissman, I. L. 2008; 3 (4): 456-464


    Stem cell populations exist in "niches" that hold them and regulate their fate decisions. Identification and characterization of these niches is essential for understanding stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration. Here we report on the identification of a novel stem cell niche in Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial urochordate with high stem cell-mediated developmental activities. Using in vivo cell labeling, engraftment, confocal microscopy, and time-lapse imaging, we have identified cells with stemness capabilities in the anterior ventral region of the Botryllus' endostyle. These cells proliferate and migrate to regenerating organs in developing buds and buds of chimeric partners but do not contribute to the germ line. When cells are transplanted from the endostyle region, they contribute to tissue development and induce long-term chimerism in allogeneic tissues. In contrast, cells from other Botryllus' regions do not show comparable stemness capabilities. Cumulatively, these results define the Botryllus' endostyle region as an adult somatic stem cell niche.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260149800015

    View details for PubMedID 18940736

  • Multimodal evaluation of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial restoration by mouse embryonic stem cells JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Hendry, S. L., van der Bogt, K. E., Sheikh, A. Y., Arai, T., Dylla, S. J., Drukker, M., McConnell, M. V., Kutschka, I., Hoyt, G., Cao, F., Weissman, I. L., Connolly, A. J., Pelletier, M. P., Wu, J. C., Robbins, R. C., Yang, P. C. 2008; 136 (4): 1028-U14


    Mouse embryonic stem cells have demonstrated potential to restore infarcted myocardium after acute myocardial infarction. Although the underlying mechanism remains controversial, magnetic resonance imaging has provided reliable in vivo assessment of functional recovery after cellular transplants. Multimodal comparison of the restorative effects of mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts was performed to validate magnetic resonance imaging data and provide mechanistic insight.SCID-beige mice (n = 55) underwent coronary artery ligation followed by injection of 2.5 x 10(5) mouse embryonic stem cells, 2.5 x 10(5) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, or normal saline solution. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial restoration by mouse embryonic stem cells was evaluated by (1) in vivo pressure-volume loops, (2) in vivo bioluminescence imaging, and (3) ex vivo TaqMan (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton, Calif) polymerase chain reaction and immunohistologic examination.In vivo magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction at 1 week in the mouse embryonic stem cell group. This finding was validated with (1) pressure-volume loop analysis demonstrating significantly improved systolic and diastolic functions, (2) bioluminescence imaging and polymerase chain reaction showing superior posttransplant survival of mouse embryonic stem cells, (3) immunohistologic identification of cardiac phenotype within engrafted mouse embryonic stem cells, and (4) polymerase chain reaction measuring increased expressions of angiogenic and antiapoptotic genes and decreased expressions of antifibrotic genes.This study validates in vivo magnetic resonance imaging as an effective means of evaluating the restorative potential of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2007.12.053

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260314800033

    View details for PubMedID 18954646

  • The E. Donnall Thomas lecture: Normal and neoplastic stem cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Weissman, I. L. 2008; 14 (8): 849-858


    Dr. Irving Weissman was the honored E. Donnall Thomas lecturer at the Tandem BMT Meetings, held on February 10, 2007, at Keystone, Colorado. Dr. Weissman has been a major player, and has provided us with enormous insight into many areas of biology, dating back to his high school days in Montana. He led an enormously productive career at Stanford University where he has taught us many lessons involving our understanding of lymphocyte homing, stem cell biology, both of the hematopoietic system and other types of stem cells, and also now, about cancer stem cells. Dr. Weissman has made enormous contributions to this burgeoning field that has provided us new insights and new opportunities for treatment strategies. In addition to a very productive laboratory career, he is also currently the director of both the Stem Cell Institute, as well as the Cancer Center at Stanford University. The following text is a modified transcribed version of the presentation made by Dr. Weissman.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.05.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258228200001

    View details for PubMedID 18640567

  • Space-time considerations for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Bhattacharya, D., Ehrlich, L. I., Weissman, I. L. 2008; 38 (8): 2060-2067


    The mammalian blood system contains a multitude of distinct mature cell lineages adapted to serving diverse functional roles. Mutations that abrogate the development or function of one or more of these lineages can lead to profound adverse consequences, such as immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, or anemia. Replacement of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that carry such mutations with HSC from a healthy donor can reverse such disorders, but because the risks associated with the procedure are often more serious than the blood disorders themselves, bone marrow transplantation is generally not used to treat a number of relatively common inherited blood diseases. Aside from a number of other problems, risks associated with cytoreductive treatments that create "space" for donor HSC, and the slow kinetics with which immune competence is restored following transplantation hamper progress. This review will focus on how recent studies using experimental model systems may direct future efforts to implement routine use of HSC transplantation to cure inherited blood disorders.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eji.200838383

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258680100001

    View details for PubMedID 18651698

  • Multimodality Evaluation of the Viability of Stem Cells Delivered Into Different Zones of Myocardial Infarction CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING Hung, T., Suzuki, Y., Urashima, T., Caffarelli, A., Hoyt, G., Sheikh, A. Y., Yeung, A. C., Weissman, I., Robbins, R. C., Bulte, J. W., Yang, P. C. 2008; 1 (1): 6-13


    We tested the hypothesis that multimodality imaging of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) provides accurate assessment of cellular location, viability, and restorative potential after transplantation into different zones of myocardial infarction.Mice underwent left anterior descending artery ligation followed by transplantation of dual-labeled mESCs with superparamagnetic iron oxide and luciferase via direct injection into 3 different zones of myocardial infarction: intra-infarction, peri-infarction, and normal (remote). One day after transplantation, magnetic resonance imaging enabled assessment of the precise anatomic locations of mESCs. Bioluminescence imaging allowed longitudinal analysis of cell viability through detection of luciferase activity. Subsequent evaluation of myocardial regeneration and functional restoration was performed by echocardiography and pressure-volume loop analysis. Using 16-segment analysis, we demonstrated precise localization of dual-labeled mESCs. A strong correlation between histology and magnetic resonance imaging was established (r=0.962, P=0.002). Bioluminescent imaging data demonstrated that cell viability in the remote group was significantly higher than in other groups. Echocardiography and pressure-volume loop analysis revealed improved functional restoration in animals treated with mESCs, although myocardial regeneration was not observed.Multimodality evaluation of mESC engraftment in the heterogeneous tissue of myocardial infarction is possible. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated accurate anatomic localization of dual-labeled mESCs. Bioluminescent imaging enabled assessment of variable viability of mESCs transplanted into the infarcted myocardium. Echocardiography and pressure-volume loop analysis validated the restorative potential of mESCs. Although mESCs transplanted into the remote zone demonstrated the highest viability, precise delivery of mESCs into the peri-infarction region might be equally critical in restoring the injured myocardium.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.108.767343

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266039600003

    View details for PubMedID 19808509

  • Flk2(+) common lymphoid progenitors possess equivalent differentiation potential for the B and T lineages BLOOD Karsunky, H., Inlay, M. A., Serwold, T., Bhattacharya, D., Weissman, I. L. 2008; 111 (12): 5562-5570


    Mature blood cells develop from multipotent hematopoietic stem cells through a series of sequential intermediates in which the developmental potential for particular blood lineages is progressively extinguished. We previously reported the identification of one of these developmental intermediates, the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP), which can give rise to T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and natural killer cells (NKs), but lacks myeloid and erythroid potential. Recently, several studies have suggested that the T-cell and DC potential of CLP is limited or absent, and/or that CLP contains significant myeloid potential. Here, we show that the originally identified CLP population can be divided into functionally distinct subsets based on the expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor, Flk2. The Flk2(+) subset contains robust in vivo and in vitro T-cell, B-cell, DC, and NK potential, but lacks myeloid potential and, therefore, represents an oligopotent, lymphoid-restricted progenitor. This population of cells does not appear to be B cell-biased and robustly reconstitutes both B and T lineages in vivo, consistent with its being a physiologic progenitor of both of these subsets. Thus, Flk2 expression defines a homogeneous, readily obtainable subset of bone marrow CLP that is completely lymphoid-committed and can differentiate equivalently well into both B and T lineages.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2007-11-126219

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256786500028

    View details for PubMedID 18424665

  • Isolation of human fetal liver progenitors and their enhanced proliferation by three-dimensional coculture with endothelial cells TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A Xiong, A., Austin, T. W., Lagasse, E., Uchida, N., Tamaki, S., Bordier, B. B., Weissman, I. L., Glenn, J. S., Millan, M. T. 2008; 14 (6): 995-1006


    Liver progenitor cells, characterized by the coexpression of biliary and hepatocyte lineage markers and the ability to form colonies in culture, were isolated by flow cytometry from primary human fetal livers. These prospectively isolated liver progenitor cells supported hepatitis D virus infection, expressed, and produced albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, as tracked by albumin- and alpha-fetoprotein-driven lentiviral promoter reporter constructs and measured by ELISA, respectively. Coculture in three-dimensional (3D) fibrin gel with endothelial cells resulted in the formation of vascular structures by the endothelial cells and increased proliferation of liver progenitors. The enhanced proliferation of liver progenitors that was observed when liver progenitors and endothelial cells were cultured in direct contact was not achieved when liver progenitors and endothelial cells were cultured on adjacent but separate matrices and when they were cultured across transwell membranes. In conclusion, coculture of liver progenitors and endothelial cells in three-dimensional matrix resulted in enhanced liver progenitor proliferation and function. This coculture methodology offers a novel coculture system that could be applied for the development of engineered liver tissues.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.tea.2007.0087

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256969800005

    View details for PubMedID 19230124

  • SIRT1 acts as a nutrient-sensitive growth suppressor and its loss is associated with increased AMPK and telomerase activity MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL Narala, S. R., Allsopp, R. C., Wells, T. B., Zhang, G., Prasad, P., Coussens, M. J., Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L., Vaziri, H. 2008; 19 (3): 1210-1219


    SIRT1, the mammalian homolog of SIR2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is an NAD-dependent deacetylase implicated in regulation of lifespan. By designing effective short hairpin RNAs and a silent shRNA-resistant mutant SIRT1 in a genetically defined system, we show that efficient inhibition of SIRT1 in telomerase-immortalized human cells enhanced cell growth under normal and nutrient limiting conditions. Hematopoietic stem cells obtained from SIRT1-deficient mice also showed increased growth capacity and decreased dependency on growth factors. Consistent with this, SIRT1 inhibition was associated with increased telomerase activity in human cells. We also observed a significant increase in AMPK levels up on SIRT1 inhibition under glucose limiting conditions. Although SIRT1 suppression cooperated with hTERT to promote cell growth, either overexpression or suppression of SIRT1 alone had no effect on life span of human diploid fibroblasts. Our findings challenge certain models and connect nutrient sensing enzymes to the immortalization process. Furthermore, they show that in certain cell lineages, SIRT1 can act as a growth suppressor gene.

    View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E07-09-0965

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258951400038

    View details for PubMedID 18184747

  • Hematopoietic stem cell-derived pericytic cells in brain tumor angio-architecture STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT Bababeygy, S. R., Cheshier, S. H., Hou, L. C., Higgins, D. M., Weissman, I. L., Tse, V. C. 2008; 17 (1): 11-18


    Bone marrow-derived cells are recruited into tumor vasculature in response to angiogenic signals, and some of the cells within the newly forming tumor vessels are hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in origin. Previous studies suggest that bone marrow-derived pericytes are associated with newly formed vessels in tumors. In this study, we used an orthotopic rat glioma model (RT-2/RAG) to examine the contribution of long-term hematopoietic stem cell (LT-HSC)-derived pericytic cells to brain tumor angiogenesis. Mice (RAG-2/KO5.2) were lethally irradiated, and their hematopoietic cells were repopulated by transplantation of double fluorescence-activated cell-sorted LT-HSCs that express green fluorescent protein (GFP+). RT-2/RAG cells were then injected into the striatum of the chimeric mice 6 weeks post-transplantation. The animals were sacrificed 9 days after tumor implantation, and the incorporation and lineage-specific marker expression profile of the GFP+ cells within the growing tumor and tumor periphery were analyzed. LT-HSC-derived GFP+ cells were noted to incorporate onto the surface of tumor vessels within the perivascular space. LT-HSC-derived GFP+ cells express the pericyte progenitor marker, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR beta), as well as mature perictyte markers such as nerve/glial antigen 2 proteoglycan (NG2), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA), and desmin. These LT-HSC-derived cells may represent a population of progenitor or committed pericytes within the neovascular tree and may play a role in shaping the angio-architecture in the vascular niche of brain tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/scd.2007.0117

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253628600002

    View details for PubMedID 18240955

  • Establishment of a Normal Hematopoietic and Leukemia Stem Cell Hierarchy CONTROL AND REGULATION OF STEM CELLS Chao, M. P., Seita, J., Weissman, I. L. 2008; 73: 439-449


    Many types of adult tissues, especially for high turnover tissues such as the blood and intestinal system, stand on a hierarchical tissue-specific stem cell system. Tissue-specific stem cells concurrently have self-renewal capacity and potential to give rise to all types of mature cells in their tissue. The differentiation process of the tissue-specific stem cell is successive restriction of these capacities. The first progeny of tissue-specific stem cells are multipotent progenitors (MPPs) that lose long-term self-renewal capacity yet have full lineage potential. MPPs in turn give rise to oligopotent progenitors, which then commit into lineage-restricted progenitors. This hierarchical system enables a lifelong supply of matured functional cells that generally have a short life span and a relatively high turnover rate. In this chapter, we review our findings and other key experiments that have led to the establishment of the current cellular stem and progenitor hierarchy in the blood-forming systems of mice and humans for both normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. We also review select signaling pathways intrinsic to normal hematopoietic and leukemic stem cell populations as well our recent findings elucidating the possible origin of the leukemia stem cell.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267135700050

    View details for PubMedID 19022770

  • In vivo evaluation of human hematopoiesis through xenotransplantation of purified hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood NATURE PROTOCOLS Park, C. Y., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2008; 3 (12): 1932-1940


    Establishment of robust xenograft models is critical to studying human hematopoiesis in a physiologic setting. Using a recently developed immunodeficient mouse strain, we have established long-term multilineage human grafts and demonstrated their serially transplantability using limited numbers of purified human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Herein, we describe our protocol for the isolation of human HSC (Lin-CD34+CD38-CD90+) from umbilical cord blood (CB) as well as the xenotransplantation system that allows stable engraftment of human hematopoietic cells with as few as ten HSCs. Isolation of CB mononuclear cells requires 2-3 h, and cells may be cryopreserved before transplantation. Isolation of HSC requires approximately 2-3 h, and transplantation requires 1 h. Short-term and long-term engraftment is assessed 4-6 weeks and 10-12 weeks post-transplantation, respectively, with preparation and analysis time requiring 4-8 h at each time point.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nprot.2008.194

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265781700012

    View details for PubMedID 19180077

  • The PIAS-like protein Zimp10 is essential for embryonic viability and proper vascular development MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY Beliakoff, J., Lee, J., Ueno, H., Aiyer, A., Weissman, I. L., Barsh, G. S., Cardiff, R. D., Sun, Z. 2008; 28 (1): 282-292


    Members of the PIAS (for protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family play critical roles in modulating the activity of a variety of transcriptional regulators. Zimp10, a novel PIAS-like protein, is a transcriptional coregulator and may be involved in the modification of chromatin through interactions with the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes. Here, we investigate the biological role of Zimp10 in zimp10-deficient mice. Homozygosity for the Zimp10-targeted allele resulted in developmental arrest at approximately embryonic day 10.5. Analysis of knockout embryos revealed severe defects in the reorganization of the yolk sac vascular plexus. No significant abnormality in hematopoietic potential was observed in zimp10 null mice. Microarray and quantified reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that the expression of the Fos family member Fra-1, which is involved in extraembryonic vascular development, was reduced in yolk sac tissues of zimp10 null embryos. Using fra-1 promoter/reporter constructs, we further demonstrate the regulatory role of Zimp10 on the transcription of Fra-1. This study provides evidence to demonstrate a crucial role for Zimp10 in vasculogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/MCB.00771-07

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251925300024

    View details for PubMedID 17967885

  • Identification of a hierarchy of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors in human cord blood CELL STEM CELL Majeti, R., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 1 (6): 635-645


    Mouse hematopoiesis is initiated by long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that differentiate into a series of multipotent progenitors that exhibit progressively diminished self-renewal ability. In human hematopoiesis, populations enriched for HSC activity have been identified, as have downstream lineage-committed progenitors, but multipotent progenitor activity has not been uniquely isolated. Previous reports indicate that human HSC are enriched in Lin-CD34+CD38- cord blood and bone marrow and express CD90. We demonstrate that the Lin-CD34+CD38- fraction of cord blood and bone marrow can be subdivided into three subpopulations: CD90+CD45RA-, CD90-CD45RA-, and CD90-CD45RA+. Utilizing in vivo transplantation studies and complementary in vitro assays, we demonstrate that the Lin-CD34+CD38-CD90+CD45RA- cord blood fraction contains HSC and isolate this activity to as few as 10 purified cells. Furthermore, we report the first prospective isolation of a population of candidate human multipotent progenitors, Lin-CD34+CD38-CD90-CD45RA- cord blood.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.10.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251784300010

    View details for PubMedID 18371405

  • Efficient transplantation via antibody-based clearance of hematopoietic stem cell niches SCIENCE Czechowicz, A., Kraft, D., Weissman, I. L., Bhattacharya, D. 2007; 318 (5854): 1296-1299


    Upon intravenous transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can home to specialized niches, yet most HSCs fail to engraft unless recipients are subjected to toxic preconditioning. We provide evidence that, aside from immune barriers, donor HSC engraftment is restricted by occupancy of appropriate niches by host HSCs. Administration of ACK2, an antibody that blocks c-kit function, led to the transient removal of >98% of endogenous HSCs in immunodeficient mice. Subsequent transplantation of these mice with donor HSCs led to chimerism levels of up to 90%. Extrapolation of these methods to humans may enable mild but effective conditioning regimens for transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1149726

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251086600042

    View details for PubMedID 18033883

  • Transcriptional profiling of antigen-dependent murine B cell differentiation and memory formation JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Bhattacharya, D., Cheah, M. T., Franco, C. B., Hosen, N., Pin, C. L., Sha, W. C., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 179 (10): 6808-6819


    Humoral immunity is characterized by the generation of Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells that can more rapidly generate specific Abs upon Ag exposure than their naive counterparts. To determine the intrinsic differences that distinguish naive and memory B cells and to identify pathways that allow germinal center B cells to differentiate into memory B cells, we compared the transcriptional profiles of highly purified populations of these three cell types along with plasma cells isolated from mice immunized with a T-dependent Ag. The transcriptional profile of memory B cells is similar to that of naive B cells, yet displays several important differences, including increased expression of activation-induced deaminase and several antiapoptotic genes, chemotactic receptors, and costimulatory molecules. Retroviral expression of either Klf2 or Ski, two transcriptional regulators specifically enriched in memory B cells relative to their germinal center precursors, imparted a competitive advantage to Ag receptor and CD40-engaged B cells in vitro. These data suggest that humoral recall responses are more rapid than primary responses due to the expression of a unique transcriptional program by memory B cells that allows them to both be maintained at high frequencies and to detect and rapidly respond to antigenic re-exposure.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250792700049

    View details for PubMedID 17982071

  • Hematopoietic stem cell quiescence attenuates DNA damage response and permits DNA damage accumulation during aging CELL CYCLE Rossi, D. J., Seita, J., Czechowicz, A., Bhattacharya, D., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 6 (19): 2371-2376


    The aging of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells is believed to be central to the pathophysiological conditions arising in aged individuals. While the mechanisms driving stem cell aging are poorly understood, mounting evidence points to age-dependent DNA damage accrual as an important contributing factor. While it has been postulated that DNA damage may deplete stem cell numbers with age, recent studies indicate that murine hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) reserves are in fact maintained despite the accrual of genomic damage with age. Evidence suggests this to be a result of the quiescent (G0) cell cycle status of HSC, which results in an attenuation of checkpoint control and DNA damage responses for repair or apoptosis. When aged stem cells that have acquired damage are called into cycle under conditions of stress or tissue regeneration however, their functional capacity was shown to be severely impaired. These data suggest that age-dependent DNA damage accumulation may underlie the diminished capacity of aged stem cells to mediate a return to homeostasis after acute stress or injury. Moreover, the cytoprotection afforded by stem cell quiescence in stress-free, steady-state conditions suggests a mechanism through which potentially dangerous lesions can accumulate in the stem cell pool with age.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251085700012

    View details for PubMedID 17700071

  • Cancer stem cells in solid tumors CURRENT OPINION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY Ailles, L. E., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 18 (5): 460-466


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cells that drive tumorigenesis, as well as giving rise to a large population of differentiated progeny that make up the bulk of the tumor, but that lack tumorigenic potential. CSCs have been identified in a variety of human tumors, as assayed by their ability to initiate tumor growth in immunocompromised mice. Further characterization studies have demonstrated that gene expression profiles in breast cancer correlate with patient prognosis, and brain CSCs are specifically resistant to radiation through DNA damage repair. In addition, specific signaling pathways play a functional role in CSC self renewal and/or differentiation, and early studies indicate that CSCs are associated with a microenvironmental niche. Thus the biological properties of CSCs are just beginning to be revealed, and the continuation of these studies should lead to the development of CSC-targeted therapies for cancer treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.copbio.2007.10.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251512700013

    View details for PubMedID 18023337

  • The effect of bleeding on hematopoietic stem cell cycling and self-renewal STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT Cheshier, S. H., Prohaska, S. S., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 16 (5): 707-717


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) divide and give rise to more committed progenitors, which ultimately produce all lineages of blood cells. HSCs can be induced to enter the cell cycle in vitro and in vivo by stimulatory cytokines and in vivo by ablation of bone marrow (BM) cells with irradiation or chemotherapeutic agents. Although it has been postulated that rates of HSC proliferation increase with normal hematopoietic stresses, such as infection or hemorrhage, this hypothesis has never been directly tested. The ability to analyze HSCs prospectively by cell-surface phenotype c-kit(+), Thy1.1(lo), Sca-1(+), Linage(neg/lo) has allowed us to perform a detailed examination of the effects of bleeding on the cell cycle kinetics of HSCs. Our results demonstrate for the first time that HSCs in both the BM and the spleen proliferate and self-renew in response to tail-vein bleeding in mice. This response was suppressed when red blood cells, but not when white blood cells, were transferred after bleeding. Thus, regulators of HSC proliferation can sense and respond to red blood cell levels.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/scd.2007.0017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251266900003

    View details for PubMedID 17999593

  • The Wilms' tumor gene WT1-GFP knock-in mouse reveals the dynamic regulation of WT1 expression in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis LEUKEMIA Hosen, N., Shirakata, T., Nishida, S., Yanagihara, M., Tsuboi, A., Kawakami, M., Oji, Y., Oka, Y., Okabe, M., Tan, B., Sugiyama, H., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 21 (8): 1783-1791


    The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is overexpressed in most of human leukemias regardless of disease subtypes. To characterize the expression pattern of WT1 during normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis, we generated a knock-in reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse (WT1(GFP/+)) and assayed for WT1 expression in normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells. In normal hematopoietic cells, WT1 was expressed in none of the long-term (LT) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and very few (<1%) of the multipotent progenitor cells. In contrast, in murine leukemias induced by acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML1)/ETO+TEL/PDGFbetaR or BCR/ABL, WT1 was expressed in 40.5 or 38.9% of immature c-kit(+)lin(-)Sca-1(+) (KLS) cells, which contained a subset, but not all, of transplantable leukemic stem cells (LSCs). WT1 expression was minimal in normal fetal liver HSCs and mobilized HSCs, both of which are stimulated for proliferation. In addition, overexpression of WT1 in HSCs did not result in proliferation or expansion of HSCs and their progeny in vivo. Thus, the mechanism by which expansion of WT1-expressing cells occurs in leukemia remains unclear. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate that the WT1(GFP/+) mouse is a powerful tool for analyzing WT1-expressing cells, and they highlight the potential of WT1, as a specific therapeutic target that is expressed in LSCs but not in normal HSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.leu.2404752

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248170100021

    View details for PubMedID 17525726

  • Epigenetic characterization of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation using miniChIP and bisulfite sequencing analysis PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Attema, J. L., Papathanasiou, P., Forsberg, E. C., Xu, J., Smale, S. T., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 104 (30): 12371-12376


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) produce all blood cell lineages by virtue of their capacity to self-renew and differentiate into progenitors with decreasing cellular potential. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in controlling stem cell potency and cell fate decisions. To investigate this hypothesis in HSC, we have modified the conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation assay allowing for the analysis of 50,000 prospectively purified stem and progenitor cells. Together with bisulfite sequencing analysis, we found that methylated H3K4 and AcH3 and unmethylated CpG dinucleotides colocalize across defined regulatory regions of lineage-affiliated genes in HSC. These active epigenetic histone modifications either accumulated or were replaced by increased DNA methylation and H3K27 trimethylation in committed progenitors consistent with gene expression. We also observed bivalent histone modifications at a lymphoid-affiliated gene in HSC and downstream transit-amplifying progenitors. Together, these data support a model in which epigenetic modifications serve as an important mechanism to control HSC multipotency.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0704468104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248472100026

    View details for PubMedID 17640913

  • Early TCR expression and aberrant T cell development in mice with endogenous prerearranged T cell receptor genes JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Serwold, T., Hochedlinger, K., Inlay, M. A., Jaenisch, R., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 179 (2): 928-938


    The factors that regulate the rate of production of T cells by the thymus remain incompletely defined. To test whether generation of functional T cell receptors limits the rate of thymic T cell export, we made use of a line of mice, LN3alphabeta, that have endogenously prerearranged TCR genes. The prerearranged TCR genes were expressed abnormally early in hemopoietic development, indicating that RAG-mediated recombination, rather than transcription factor expression, is the key determinant of the initiation of robust TCR transcription. Thymic T cell export rates were similar between wild-type (wt) and LN3alphabeta mice, indicating that T cell maturation rates in these mice are determined by factors other than TCR gene rearrangement. In competitive bone marrow chimeras, however, LN3alphabeta thymocytes were out-competed by wt cells and failed to develop beyond the double-negative 4 stage. Furthermore, wt progenitors transplanted intrathymically into LN3alphabeta mice proliferated excessively, suggesting that increased proliferative signals in the LN3alphabeta thymus compensate for faulty T cell development driven by early TCR expression.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247752100029

    View details for PubMedID 17617584

  • Bmi-1-green fluorescent protein-knock-in mice reveal the dynamic regulation of Bmi-1 expression in normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells STEM CELLS Hosen, N., Yamane, T., Muijtjens, M., Pham, K., Clarke, M. F., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 25 (7): 1635-1644


    The ability to self-renew is essential for all kinds of stem cells regardless of tissue type. One of the best candidate genes involved in conferring self-renewal capacity is Bmi-1, which has been proven to be essential for the maintenance of both normal adult hematopoietic and leukemia stem cells, as well as adult neural stem cells. To investigate the possible role of Bmi-1 in other cell types that also self-renew, we generated Bmi-1-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-knock-in mice, in which GFP was expressed under the endogenous transcriptional regulatory elements of the Bmi-1 gene. Using these targeted reporter mice, we demonstrated that Bmi-1 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) at its highest levels and downregulated upon commitment to differentiation. An in vivo reconstitution assay revealed that the frequency of HSCs was 1/16 in Bmi-1high c-kit+ lin -Sca-1+ bone marrow (BM) cells and 1/49 in Bmi-1 high lin- BM cells, suggesting that Bmi-1 may serve as a marker for normal HSCs. In murine leukemia models induced by P210BCR/ABL or TEL/PDGFbetaR + AML1/ETO, Bmi-1 was not overexpressed in leukemic HSCs, despite the increase in the HSC numbers. Bmi-1 was expressed at its highest levels in undifferentiated leukemia cells. Furthermore, in several other nonhematopoietic tissues, cells could be separated into distinct subpopulations with differential Bmi-1 expression. Thus, these mice allow for the isolation of viable Bmi-1-expressing cells and have the potential to become a useful tool for understanding the role of Bmi-1 in normal and cancer stem cells in multiple tissue types. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2006-0229

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247722100006

    View details for PubMedID 17395774

  • CD96 is a leukemic stem cell-specific marker in human acute myeloid leukemia PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Hosen, N., Park, C. Y., Tatsumi, N., Oji, Y., Sugiyama, H., Gramatzki, M., Krensky, A. M., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 104 (26): 11008-11013


    Permanent cure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by chemotherapy alone remains elusive for most patients because of the inability to effectively eradicate leukemic stem cells (LSCs), the self-renewing component of the leukemia. To develop therapies that effectively target LSC, one potential strategy is to identify cell surface markers that can distinguish LSC from normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In this study, we employ a signal sequence trap strategy to isolate cell surface molecules expressed on human AML-LSC and find that CD96, which is a member of the Ig gene superfamily, is a promising candidate as an LSC-specific antigen. FACS analysis demonstrates that CD96 is expressed on the majority of CD34(+)CD38(-) AML cells in many cases (74.0 +/- 25.3% in 19 of 29 cases), whereas only a few (4.9 +/- 1.6%) cells in the normal HSC-enriched population (Lin(-)CD34(+)CD38(-)CD90(+)) expressed CD96 weakly. To examine whether CD96(+) AML cells are enriched for LSC activity, we separated AML cells into CD96(+) and CD96(-) fractions and transplanted them into irradiated newborn Rag2(-/-) gamma(c)(-/-) mice. In four of five samples, only CD96(+) cells showed significant levels of engraftment in bone marrow of the recipient mice. These results demonstrate that CD96 is a cell surface marker present on many AML-LSC and may serve as an LSC-specific therapeutic target.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0704271104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247641900048

    View details for PubMedID 17576927

  • Deficiencies in DNA damage repair limit the function of haematopoietic stem cells with age NATURE Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Seita, J., Nussenzweig, A., Hoeijmakers, J., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 447 (7145): 725-U15


    A diminished capacity to maintain tissue homeostasis is a central physiological characteristic of ageing. As stem cells regulate tissue homeostasis, depletion of stem cell reserves and/or diminished stem cell function have been postulated to contribute to ageing. It has further been suggested that accumulated DNA damage could be a principal mechanism underlying age-dependent stem cell decline. We have tested these hypotheses by examining haematopoietic stem cell reserves and function with age in mice deficient in several genomic maintenance pathways including nucleotide excision repair, telomere maintenance and non-homologous end-joining. Here we show that although deficiencies in these pathways did not deplete stem cell reserves with age, stem cell functional capacity was severely affected under conditions of stress, leading to loss of reconstitution and proliferative potential, diminished self-renewal, increased apoptosis and, ultimately, functional exhaustion. Moreover, we provide evidence that endogenous DNA damage accumulates with age in wild-type stem cells. These data are consistent with DNA damage accrual being a physiological mechanism of stem cell ageing that may contribute to the diminished capacity of aged tissues to return to homeostasis after exposure to acute stress or injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature05862

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247030700046

    View details for PubMedID 17554309

  • B-cell development fails in the absence of the Pbx1 proto-oncogene BLOOD Sanyal, M., Tung, J. W., Karsunky, H., Zeng, H., Selleri, L., Weissman, I. L., Herzenberg, L. A., Cleary, M. L. 2007; 109 (10): 4191-4199


    Pbx1, a homeodomain transcription factor that was originally identified as the product of a proto-oncogene in acute pre-B-cell leukemia, is a global regulator of embryonic development. However, embryonic lethality in its absence has prevented an assessment of its role in B-cell development. Here, using Rag1-deficient blastocyst complementation assays, we demonstrate that Pbx1 null embryonic stem (ES) cells fail to generate common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) resulting in a complete lack of B and NK cells, and a partial impairment of T-cell development in chimeric mice. A critical role for Pbx1 was confirmed by rescue of B-cell development from CLPs following restoration of its expression in Pbx1-deficient ES cells. In adoptive transfer experiments, B-cell development from Pbx1-deficient fetal liver cells was also severely compromised, but not erased, since transient B lymphopoiesis was detected in Rag-deficient recipients. Conditional inactivation of Pbx1 in pro-B (CD19(+)) cells and thereafter revealed that Pbx1 is not necessary for B-cell development to proceed from the pro-B-cell stage. Thus, Pbx1 critically functions at a stage between hematopoietic stem cell development and B-cell commitment and, therefore, is one of the earliest-acting transcription factors that regulate de novo B-lineage lymphopoiesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2006-10-054213

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246609100023

    View details for PubMedID 17244677

  • Striving for normality: whole body regeneration through a series of abnormal generations FASEB JOURNAL Voskoboynik, A., Simon-Blecher, N., Soen, Y., Rinkevich, B., De Tomaso, A. W., Ishizuka, K. J., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 21 (7): 1335-1344


    Embryogenesis and asexual reproduction are commonly considered to be coordinated developmental processes, which depend on accurate progression through a defined sequence of developmental stages. Here we report a peculiar developmental scenario in a simple chordate, Botryllus schlosseri, wherein a normal colony of individuals (zooids and buds) is regenerated from the vasculature (vascular budding) through a sequence of morphologically abnormal developmental stages. Vascular budding was induced by surgically removing buds and zooids from B. schlosseri colonies, leaving only the vasculature and the tunic that connects them. In vivo imaging and histological sections showed that the timing and morphology of developing structures during vascular budding deviated significantly from other asexual reproduction modes (the regular asexual reproduction mode in this organism and vascular budding in other botryllid species). Subsequent asexual reproduction cycles exhibited gradual regaining of normal developmental patterns, eventually leading to regeneration of a normal colony. The conversion into a normal body form suggests the activation of an alternative pathway of asexual reproduction, which involves gradual regaining of normal positional information. It presents a powerful model for studying the specification of the same body plan by different developmental programs.

    View details for DOI 10.1096/fj.06-7337com

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246117000009

    View details for PubMedID 17289924

  • Hematopoietic stem cell aging: Mechanism and consequence EXPERIMENTAL GERONTOLOGY Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 42 (5): 385-390


    Advancing age is frequented by the onset of a variety of hematological conditions characterized by diminished homeostatic control of blood cell production. The fact that upstream hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are obligate mediators of homeostatic control of all blood lineages, has implicated the involvement of these cells in the pathophysiology of these conditions. Indeed, evidence from our group and others has suggested that two of the most clinically significant age-associated hematological conditions, namely, the diminution of the adaptive immune system and the elevated incidence of myeloproliferative diseases, have their origin in cell autonomous changes in the functional capacity of hematopoietic stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exger.2006.11.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246532900002

    View details for PubMedID 17275237

  • Molecular imaging of embryonic stem cell misbehavior and suicide gene ablation CLONING AND STEM CELLS Cao, F., Drukker, M., Lin, S., Sheikh, A. Y., Xie, X., Li, Z., Connolly, A. J., Weissman, I. L., Wu, J. C. 2007; 9 (1): 107-117


    Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of stem cells for the repair and regeneration of injured tissues. However, tracking transplanted stem cell fate and function in vivo remains problematic. To address these issues, murine embryonic stem (ES) cells were stably transduced with self-inactivating lentiviral vectors carrying either a triple fusion (TF) or double fusion (DF) reporter gene construct. The TF consisted of monomeric red fluorescence protein (mrfp), firefly luciferase (Fluc), and herpes simplex virus truncated thymidine kinase (HSV-ttk) reporter genes. The DF consisted of enhanced green fluorescence protein (egfp) and Fluc reporter genes but lacked HSV-ttk. Stably transduced ES-TF or ES-DF cells were selected by fluorescence activated cell sorting based on either mrfp (TF) or egfp (DF) expression. Afterwards, cells were injected subcutaneously into the right (ES-TF cells) and left (ES-DF cells) shoulders of adult female nude mice. Cell survival was tracked noninvasively by bioluminescence and positron emission tomography imaging of Fluc and HSV-ttk reporter genes, respectively. Imaging signals progressively increased from day 2 to day 14, consistent with ES cell survival and proliferation in vivo. However, teratoma formation occurred in all nude mice after 5 weeks. Administration of ganciclovir (GCV), targeting the HSV-ttk gene, resulted in selective ablation of teratomas arising from the ES-TF cells but not ES-DF cells. These data demonstrate the novel use of multimodality imaging techniques to (1) monitor transplanted ES cell survival and proliferation in vivo and (2) assess the efficacy of suicide gene therapy as a backup safety measure against teratoma formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/clo.2006.0016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245390300015

    View details for PubMedID 17386018

  • Generation of a monoclonal antibody library against human embryonic stem cells. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Drukker, M., Muscat, C., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 407: 63-81


    Differentiated cell types derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may serve in the future to treat various human diseases and to model early human embryonic development in vitro. Fulfilling this potential, however, requires extensive development of methods and reagents for studying hESCs self-renewal and differentiation. One of the most widely used experimental approaches in the field of stem cell research is the identification of cell surface markers that can be used to prospectively define and isolate specific populations of stem cells and their progenitors. Here, we review an efficient method for generating monoclonal antibodies against cell surface antigens expressed by hESCs and stem cells at different stages of differentiation. This method may have profound implications for many aspects of hESC research and therapeutics.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-59745-536-7_6

    View details for PubMedID 18453249

  • The cancer stem cell hypothesis: a work in progress LABORATORY INVESTIGATION Tan, B. T., Park, C. Y., Ailles, L. E., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 86 (12): 1203-1207


    There is a growing body of evidence that supports the idea that malignant tumors are initiated and maintained by a population of tumor cells that share similar biologic properties to normal adult stem cells. This model, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, is based on the observation that tumors, like adult tissues, arise from cells that exhibit the ability to self-renew as well as give rise to differentiated tissue cells. Although the concept of the CSC is not entirely new, advances made over the past two decades in our understanding of normal stem cell biology in conjunction with the recent application of these concepts to experimentally define CSCs have resulted in the identification of CSCs in several human malignancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/labinvest.3700488

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242442400001

    View details for PubMedID 17075578

  • Clonal analysis of mouse development reveals a polyclonal origin for yolk sac blood islands DEVELOPMENTAL CELL Ueno, H., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 11 (4): 519-533


    Direct clonal analysis of tissue and organ maturation in vivo is a critical step in the interpretation of in vitro cell precursor-progeny relationships. We have developed a method to analyze clonal progenitor contributions in vivo using ES cells stably expressing separate fluorescent proteins and placed into normal blastocysts to form tetrachimeras. Here we applied this method to the analysis of embryonic yolk sac blood islands. In most vertebrates, yolk sac blood islands are the initial sites of appearance of hematopoietic and endothelial cells. It has been proposed that these lineages arise from a common clonal progenitor, the hemangioblast, but this hypothesis has not been tested directly in physiological development in vivo. Our analysis shows that each island has contributions from multiple progenitors. Moreover, contribution by individual hemangioblast progenitors to both endothelial and hematopoietic lineages within an island, if it happens at all, is an infrequent event.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2006.08.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241123300013

    View details for PubMedID 17011491

  • Incorporation of bone marrow-derived Flk-1-expressing CD34+ cells in the endothelium of tumor vessels in the mouse brain NEUROSURGERY Santarelli, J. G., Udani, V., Yung, Y. C., Cheshier, S., Wagers, A., Brekken, R. A., Weissman, I., Tse, V. 2006; 59 (2): 374-381


    Neoangiogenesis is a prerequisite for the full phenotypic expression and growth of a malignant tumor mass. It is believed to be triggered by tissue hypoxia and involves proliferation and sprouting of the preexisting vessels and the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells from bone marrow.A chimeric mouse model was used to examine the contribution of these progenitor cells to the neovasculature of brain tumor. T-cell knockout (RAG/KO5.2) mice were irradiated lethally, and their bone marrow was repopulated with T-cell depleted green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing bone marrow cells. RAG/RT-2 glioma cells were implanted into the striatum of the animals. Neovascular formation at various times of tumor growth was monitored together with the extent of incorporation of GFP+ bone marrow-derived cells within the vascular tree, in particular, cells carrying the endothelial progenitor markers CD34 and Flk-1.The recruitment of GFP+ cells to the growing tumor and their incorporation into the vascular network occurred during the period of increasing vascular density and preceded the expansion of the tumor. The number of marrow-derived cells with endothelial morphology and phenotype was small but significant (4% of all endothelial cells at Day 12); 54% of all tumor vessels contained at least one GFP+ cell.Our results suggest that bone marrow cells are recruited to newly formed and remodeled tumor vessels. Their recruitment may occur in response to signals from a highly proliferating milieu, and their role is to support the neovascular complex and to promote tumor growth.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000222658.66878.CC

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239763800047

    View details for PubMedID 16883178

  • Hematopoietic stem cells - The paradigmatic tissue-specific stem cell AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Bryder, D., Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 169 (2): 338-346


    The recent prospective isolation of a wide variety of somatically derived stem cells has affirmed the notion that homeostatic maintenance of most tissues and organs is mediated by tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells and fueled enthusiasm for the use of such cells in strategies aimed at repairing or replacing damaged, diseased, or genetically deficient tissues and organs. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are arguably the most well-characterized tissue-specific stem cell, with decades of basic research and clinical application providing not only a profound understanding of the principles of stem cell biology, but also of its potential pitfalls. It is our belief that emerging stem cell fields can benefit greatly from an understanding of the lessons learned from the study of HSCs. In this review we discuss some general concepts regarding stem cell biology learned from the study of HSCs with a highlight on recent work pertaining to emerging topics of interest for stem cell biology.

    View details for DOI 10.2353/jmoldx.2006.050079

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239471100002

    View details for PubMedID 16877336

  • New evidence supporting megakaryocyte-erythrocyte potential of Flk2/Flt3(+) multipotent hematopoietic progenitors CELL Forsberg, E. C., Serwold, T., Kogan, S., Weissman, I. L., Passegue, E. 2006; 126 (2): 415-426


    A model of hematopoietic development wherein multipotentiality is conserved until segregation of myeloid and lymphoid potential has recently been challenged, proposing that megakaryocyte/erythrocyte (MegE) potential is lost in Flk2/Flt3-expressing early progenitors. Here, we used sensitive in vivo approaches to quantitatively and kinetically assess the MegE potential of hematopoietic stem cells and various Flk2(+) early progenitors and compared it with the MegE potential of downstream committed myeloid and lymphoid progenitors and with their ability to give rise to mature myelomonocytic and lymphoid cells. We demonstrate that Flk2(+) early progenitors retain MegE potential in vivo both at the population and clonal levels. These results indicate that Flk2 expression by early progenitors is not at the expense of full multipotency and support the current model of hematopoietic development with segregation of myeloid and lymphoid lineages from multipotent progenitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239552600025

    View details for PubMedID 16873070

  • fester, a Candidate allorecognition receptor from a primitive chordate IMMUNITY Nyholm, S. V., Passegue, E., Ludington, W. B., Voskoboynik, A., Mitchel, K., Weissman, I. L., De Tomaso, A. W. 2006; 25 (1): 163-173


    Histocompatibility in the primitive chordate, Botryllus schlosseri, is controlled by a single, highly polymorphic locus, the FuHC. By taking a forward genetic approach, we have identified a locus encoded near the FuHC, called fester, which is polymorphic, polygenic, and inherited in distinct haplotypes. Somatic diversification occurs through extensive alternative splicing, with each individual expressing a unique repertoire of splice forms, both membrane bound and potentially secreted, all expressed in tissues intimately associated with histocompatibility. Functional studies, via both siRNA-mediated knockdown and direct blocking by monoclonal antibodies raised against fester, were able to disrupt predicted histocompatibility outcomes. The genetic and somatic diversity, coupled to the expression and functional data, suggests that fester is a receptor involved in histocompatibility.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2006.04.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239713000019

    View details for PubMedID 16860765

  • Rapid lymphocyte reconstitution of unconditioned immunodeficient mice with non-self-renewing multipotent hematopoietic progenitors CELL CYCLE Bhattacharya, D., Bryder, D., Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 5 (11): 1135-1139


    The replacement of abnormal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with normal transplanted HSCs can correct a wide range of hematologic disorders. Here, we provide evidence that transplantation of more differentiated progenitor cells can be used to more rapidly correct lymphoid deficiencies in unconditioned immunocompromised mice. Transplantation of flk2+ multipotent progenitors led to robust B and T cell reconstitution that was maintained for at least 16 weeks. Antigenic challenge at 16 weeks post-transplantation revealed that reconstituted lymphocytes maintained a functional repertoire. In contrast to the persistent lymphocytic engraftment, myeloid chimerism was lost by 12 weeks post-transplantation consistent with the fact that flk2+ progenitors are non-self-renewing. Thus, while more differentiated progenitors are capable of rescuing lymphoid deficiencies, transplantation of HSCs must be used for the correction of non-lymphoid disorders, and, we propose, very long-term immune reconstitution. Based on recent evidence, we discuss novel strategies to achieve the replacement of abnormal HSCs without the use of cytotoxic conditioning regimens.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238581100003

    View details for PubMedID 16760650

  • Pten, tumorigenesis, and stem cell self-renewal CELL Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 125 (2): 229-231


    Self-renewal pathways crucial for maintaining stem cells are deregulated in cancer, raising the spectre that cancer therapies targeting such pathways might also ablate normal stem cells. As Yilmaz et al. (2006) report in a recent Nature paper, this may not be the case for the tumor suppressor protein Pten, which drives the self-renewal of normal hematopoietic stem cells and the formation of leukemia cells through different mechanisms.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2006.04.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237241500013

    View details for PubMedID 16630811

  • Differential expression of alpha 2 integrin separates long-term and short-term reconstituting Lin(-/lo)Thy1.1(lo)c-kit(+)Sca-1(+) hematopoietic stem cells STEM CELLS Wagers, A. J., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 24 (4): 1087-1094


    Self-renewing, multipotent hematopoietic stem cells are highly enriched within the Lin- Thy1.1(lo)c-kit+ Sca-1+ subset of mouse bone marrow. However, heterogeneous expression within this population of certain cell surface markers raises the possibility that it may be further fractionated phenotypically and perhaps functionally. We previously identified alpha2-integrin (CD49b) as a surface marker with heterogeneous expression on Lin(-/lo)Thy1.1(lo)c-kit+ Sca-1+ stem cells. To determine whether differences in alpha2 expression were indicative of differences in stem cell function, we purified alpha2- and alpha2hi stem cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and analyzed their function in long- and short-term hematopoietic reconstitution assays. Both alpha2- and alpha2hi cells could give rise to mature lymphoid and myeloid cells after transplantation into lethally irradiated congenic recipients. However, alpha2hi cells supported hematopoiesis for only a short time (<4 weeks), whereas alpha2- cells reproducibly yielded robust, long-term (>20 weeks) reconstitution, suggesting that alpha2- cells represent a more primitive population than do alpha2hi cells. Consistent with this idea, alpha2- Lin(-/lo)Thy1.1(lo)c-kit+ Sca-1+ cells exhibited an approximately sixfold decreased frequency of spleen colony-forming units (day 12) versus alpha2hi cells. Furthermore, bone marrow cells isolated from animals transplanted >20 weeks previously with 20 alpha2- Lin(-/lo)Thy1.1(lo)c-kit+ Sca-1+ cells included both alpha2- and alpha2hi stem cells of donor origin, indicating that alpha2hi cells are likely lineal descendents of alpha2- cells. Interestingly, alpha2 integrin expression is significantly reduced on lineage-restricted oligopotent progenitors in the marrow, suggesting that high level expression of alpha2 selectively marks a subset of primitive hematopoietic cells which retains multilineage reconstitution potential but exhibits reduced self-renewal capacity.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2005-0396

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240636300031

    View details for PubMedID 16373693

  • In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery CIRCULATION Cao, F., Lin, S., Xie, X. Y., Ray, P., Patel, M., Zhang, X. Z., Drukker, M., Dylla, S. J., Connolly, A. J., Chen, X. Y., Weissman, I. L., Gambhir, S. S., Wu, J. C. 2006; 113 (7): 1005-1014


    Recent studies have shown that stem cell therapy can promote tissue regeneration; however, monitoring stem cells in vivo remains problematic owing to limitations of conventional histological assays and imaging modalities.Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells were stably transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying a novel triple-fusion (TF) reporter gene that consists of firefly luciferase, monomeric red fluorescence protein, and truncated thymidine kinase (fluc-mrfp-ttk). ES cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation ability were not adversely affected by either reporter genes or reporter probes compared with nontransduced control cells (P=NS). Afterward, 1x10(7) of ES cells carrying the TF reporter gene (ES-TF) were injected into the myocardium of adult nude rats (n=20). Control animals received nontransduced ES cells (n=6). At day 4, the bioluminescence and positron emission tomography signals in study animals were 3.7x10(7)+/-5.8x10(6) photons.s(-1).cm(-2) per steradian (sr) and 0.08+/-0.03% injected dose/g, respectively (P<0.05 versus control). Both signals increased progressively from week 1 to week 4, which indicated ES cell survival and proliferation in the host. Histological analysis demonstrated the formation of intracardiac and extracardiac teratomas. Finally, animals (n=4) that were treated with intraperitoneal injection of ganciclovir (50 mg/kg) did not develop teratomas when compared with control animals (n=4) treated with saline (1 mL/kg).This is the first study to characterize ES cells that stably express fluorescence, bioluminescence, and positron emission tomography reporter genes and monitor the kinetics of ES cell survival, proliferation, and migration. This versatile imaging platform should have broad applications for basic research and clinical studies on stem cell therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONHA.105.588954

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235403900015

    View details for PubMedID 16476845

  • Flk2(+) myeloid progenitors are the main source of Langerhans cells BLOOD Mende, I., Karsunky, H., Weissman, I. L., Engleman, E. G., Merad, M. 2006; 107 (4): 1383-1390


    Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) residing in the epidermis that play a major role in skin immunity. Our earlier studies showed that when skin is inflamed LCs are replaced by bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, while during steady-state conditions LCs are able to self-renew in the skin. Identification of the LC progenitors in bone marrow would represent a critical step toward identifying the factors that regulate LC generation as well as their trafficking to the skin. To determine LC lineage origin, we reconstituted lethally irradiated CD45.2 mice with rigorously purified lymphoid and myeloid progenitors from CD45.1 congenic mice. Twenty-four hours later, we exposed the mice to UV light to deplete resident LCs and induce their replacement by progenitors. Reconstitution with common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), or early thymic progenitors led to LC generation within 2 to 3 weeks. CMPs were at least 20 times more efficient at generating LCs than CLPs. LCs from both lineages were derived almost entirely from fetal liver kinase-2+ (Flk-2+) progenitors, displayed typical dendritic-cell (DC) morphology, and showed long-term persistence in the skin. These results indicate that LCs are derived mainly from myeloid progenitors and are dependent on Flt3-ligand for their development.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2005-05-1878

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235296100026

    View details for PubMedID 16263793

  • Purified hematopoietic stem cell engraftment of rare niches corrects severe lymphoid deficiencies without host conditioning JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Bhattacharya, D., Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 203 (1): 73-85


    In the absence of irradiation or other cytoreductive conditioning, endogenous hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are thought to fill the unique niches within the bone marrow that allow maintenance of full hematopoietic potential and thus prevent productive engraftment of transplanted donor HSCs. By transplantation of purified exogenous HSCs into unconditioned congenic histocompatible strains of mice, we show that approximately 0.1-1.0% of these HSC niches are available for engraftment at any given point and find no evidence that endogenous HSCs can be displaced from the niches they occupy. We demonstrate that productive engraftment of HSCs within these empty niches is inhibited by host CD4+ T cells that recognize very subtle minor histocompatibility differences. Strikingly, transplantation of purified HSCs into a panel of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice leads to a rapid and complete rescue of lymphoid deficiencies through engraftment of these very rare niches and expansion of donor lymphoid progenitors. We further demonstrate that transient antibody-mediated depletion of CD4+ T cells allows short-term HSC engraftment and regeneration of B cells in a mouse model of B(-) non-SCID. These experiments provide a general mechanism by which transplanted HSCs can correct hematopoietic deficiencies without any host conditioning or with only highly specific and transient lymphoablation.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20051714

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235003600011

    View details for PubMedID 16380511

  • Hematopoietic stem cells - Expression profiling and beyond STEM CELL REVIEWS Forsberg, E. C., Bhattacharya, D., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 2 (1): 23-30


    This review focuses on the genomics of mouse hematopoiesis, but also draws parallels to other systems and discusses issues common to the analysis of rare populations such as stem cells. As examples from the mouse blood forming system are used to illustrate several points, the authors first give a brief introduction to mouse hematopoiesis as a model system. We review the multiple microarray analyses that have been performed on various mouse hematopoietic subpopulations and comment on both technical and biological aspects of such experiments. The concept of stemness is discussed, and the importance of biological function of gene products, protein-protein interactions and molecular pathways highlighted. Finally, the authors discuss some major unresolved issues in hematopoiesis and discuss the potential uses of future microarray analysis as well as other genomic and functional approaches that might prove useful to further our understanding of hematopoiesis and other stem cell systems.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240469100005

    View details for PubMedID 17142883

  • Stem cells are units of natural selection in a colonial ascidian CELL Laird, D. J., De Tomaso, A. W., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 123 (7): 1351-1360


    Stem cells are highly conserved biological units of development and regeneration. Here we formally demonstrate that stem cell lineages are also legitimate units of natural selection. In a colonial ascidian, Botryllus schlosseri, vascular fusion between genetically distinct individuals results in cellular parasitism of somatic tissues, gametes, or both. We show that genetic hierarchies of somatic and gametic parasitism following fusion can be replicated by transplanting cells between colonies. We prospectively isolate a population of multipotent, self-renewing stem cells that retain their competitive phenotype upon transplantation. Their single-cell contribution to either somatic or germline fates, but not to both, is consistent with separate lineages of somatic and germline stem cells or pluripotent stem cells that differentiate according to the niche in which they land. Since fusion is restricted to individuals that share a fusion/histocompatibility allele, these data suggest that histocompatibility genes in Botryllus evolved to protect the body from parasitic stem cells usurping asexual or sexual inheritance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2005.10.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234584500021

    View details for PubMedID 16377573

  • Global analysis of proliferation and cell cycle gene expression in the regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fates JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Passegue, E., Wagers, A. J., Giuriato, S., Anderson, W. C., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 202 (11): 1599-1611


    Knowledge of the molecular networks controlling the proliferation and fate of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is essential to understand their function in maintaining blood cell production during normal hematopoiesis and upon clinical transplantation. Using highly purified stem and progenitor cell populations, we define the proliferation index and status of the cell cycle machinery at discrete stages of hematopoietic differentiation and during cytokine-mediated HSC mobilization. We identify distinct sets of cell cycle proteins that specifically associate with differentiation, self-renewal, and maintenance of quiescence in HSC and progenitor cells. Moreover, we describe a striking inequality of function among in vivo cycling and quiescent HSC by demonstrating that their long-term engraftment potential resides predominantly in the G(0) fraction. These data provide a direct link between HSC proliferation and function and identify discrete molecular targets in regulating HSC cell fate decisions that could have implications for both the therapeutic use of HSC and the understanding of leukemic transformation.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20050967

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233753900015

    View details for PubMedID 16330818

  • Identification of a novel gene involved in asexual organogenesis in the budding ascidian Botryllus schlosseri DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS Laird, D. J., Chang, W. T., Weissman, I. L., Lauzon, R. J. 2005; 234 (4): 997-1005


    Development via regeneration or budding shares some known genetic pathways with embryogenesis, but no concerted effort has been made to identify genes unique to asexual development. We have identified a novel gene that plays a role in cyclical bud formation and asexual organogenesis in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Athena mRNA is transcribed at high levels during the 24- to 36-hr interval of programmed cell death and new bud initiation at the conclusion of the budding cycle (takeover). Knockdown of Athena by RNAi and antisense morpholinos induced defects in the development of new buds ranging from retardation in growth and abnormal organogenesis to hollow buds lacking organs. As genetic intervention in this organism has not been possible, this study establishes the use of RNAi and morpholinos in Botryllus as well as describing the knockdown phenotype of a new gene.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/dvdy.20583

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233715500018

    View details for PubMedID 16193502

  • Isolation and characterization of a protochordate histocompatibility locus NATURE De Tomaso, A. W., Nyholm, S. V., Palmeri, K. J., Ishizuka, K. J., Ludington, W. B., Mitchel, K., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 438 (7067): 454-459


    Histocompatibility--the ability of an organism to distinguish its own cells and tissue from those of another--is a universal phenomenon in the Metazoa. In vertebrates, histocompatibility is a function of the immune system controlled by a highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which encodes proteins that target foreign molecules for immune cell recognition. The association of the MHC and immune function suggests an evolutionary relationship between metazoan histocompatibility and the origins of vertebrate immunity. However, the MHC of vertebrates is the only functionally characterized histocompatibility system; the mechanisms underlying this process in non-vertebrates are unknown. A primitive chordate, the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, also undergoes a histocompatibility reaction controlled by a highly polymorphic locus. Here we describe the isolation of a candidate gene encoding an immunoglobulin superfamily member that, by itself, predicts the outcome of histocompatibility reactions. This is the first non-vertebrate histocompatibility gene described, and may provide insights into the evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature04150

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233458200040

    View details for PubMedID 16306984

  • Identification of phenotypic neural stem cells in a pediatric astroblastoma JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Huhn, S. L., Yung, Y., Cheshier, S., Harsh, G., Ailles, L., Weissman, I., Vogel, H., Tse, V. 2005; 103 (5): 446-450


    The goal of this study was to illustrate the findings of a significant subpopulation of cells within a pediatric astroblastoma that have the specific cell surface phenotype found on known human neural stem cells.Cells with a cell surface marker profile characteristic of human neural stem cells were isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting from a mostly nonmitotic astroblastoma removed from the brain of an 11-year-old girl. An unusually high proportion (24%) of the cells were CD133 positive and CD24, CD34, and CD45 negative (CD133(+)CD24(-)CD34(-)CD45(-) cells), the phenotypic antigenic pattern associated with neural stem cells; very few CD133-positive cells were not also CD24, CD34, and CD45 negative. Some cells (12%) were CD34 positive, indicating the presence within the tumor of hematopoietic stem cells. Cells formed cytospheres that resembled neurospheres when seeded into stem cell media and coexpressed beta-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) but did not express the oligodendrocyte marker O4. Cell proliferation was demonstrated by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine. The cells lost their capacity for self-renewal in vitro after four to six passages, although they continued to coexpress beta-tubulin and GFAP. The cells did not differentiate into neurons or astrocytes when placed in differentiation medium.Although this astroblastoma contained a high proportion of phenotypic neural stemlike cells, the cells had limited proliferative capacity and multipotency. Their role in astroblastoma formation and growth is unknown.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233081900012

    View details for PubMedID 16302618

  • Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to perivascular endothelial-like cells during brain tumor angiogenesis STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT Udani, M., Santarelli, G., Yung, Y. C., Wagers, A. J., Cheshier, S. H., Weissman, I. L., Tse, V. 2005; 14 (5): 478-486


    Bone marrow (BM) cells have recently been shown to give rise to skeletal, hepatic, cardiac, neural, and vascular endothelial tissues. However, it has been shown that this is the result of cell fusion rather than transdifferentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). For this study, we established a mouse model of brain tumor growth to investigate the differentiation potential of HSC into endothelial cells during brain tumor-induced angiogenesis. Nontransgenic (GFP(neg)) recipient mice were lethally irradiated, and their hematopoietic cells were subsequently repopulated by transplantation of a single green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing HSC. Rat glioma (RT-2/RAG) cells were then injected into the striatum of the chimeric mice 6-8 weeks post-transplantation. The animals were sacrificed 3-9 days after tumor implantation, and the mobilization, temporal-spatial distribution, and lineage-specific marker expression profile of the GFP(+) cells within the growing tumor were analyzed. We saw that GFP(+) cells gave rise to elongated, CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) cells that incorporated into the endothelium of tumor blood vessels. However, all GFP(+) cells were also CD45(+), and the presence of CD45 on the HSC-derived endothelial-like cells supports the hypothesis that the hematopoietic cells were recruited into the tumor milieu. The fact that we failed to demonstrate the expression of von Willebrand factor in these cells argues against a true endothelial identity. Nevertheless, the recruitment of HSC-derived endothelial-like cells was an extremely rare event in normal brain parenchyma, and, thus, the permissive influence afforded by the growing tumor appeared to enhance the perivascular tropism and acquisition of an endothelial phenotypes by a population of HSC-derived cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233904500003

    View details for PubMedID 16305333

  • Stepwise development of committed progenitors in the bone marrow that generate functional T cells in the absence of the thymus JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Chatterjea-Matthes, D., Mukhopadhyay, A., Bitmansour, A., Weissman, I. L., Brown, J. M., Strober, S. 2005; 175 (7): 4363-4373


    We identified committed T cell progenitors (CTPs) in the mouse bone marrow that have not rearranged the TCRbeta gene; express a variety of genes associated with commitment to the T cell lineage, including GATA-3, T cell-specific factor-1, Cbeta, and Id2; and show a surface marker pattern (CD44+ CD25- CD24+ CD5-) that is similar to the earliest T cell progenitors in the thymus. More mature committed intermediate progenitors in the marrow have rearranged the TCR gene loci, express Valpha and Vbeta genes as well as CD3epsilon, but do not express surface TCR or CD3 receptors. CTPs, but not progenitors from the thymus, reconstituted the alphabeta T cells in the lymphoid tissues of athymic nu/nu mice. These reconstituted T cells vigorously secreted IFN-gamma after stimulation in vitro, and protected the mice against lethal infection with murine CMV. In conclusion, CTPs in wild-type bone marrow can generate functional T cells via an extrathymic pathway in athymic nu/nu mice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232092600027

    View details for PubMedID 16177077

  • Stem cell research - Paths to cancer therapies and regenerative medicine JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Weissman, I. 2005; 294 (11): 1359-1366


    Most tissues in complex metazoans contain a rare subset of cells that, at the single-cell level, can self-renew and also give rise to mature daughter cells. Such stem cells likely in development build tissues and are retained in adult life to regenerate them. Cancers and leukemias are apparently not an exception: rare leukemia stem cells and cancer stem cells have been isolated that contain all of the tumorigenicity of the whole tumor, and it is their properties that will guide future therapies. None of this was apparent just 20 years ago, yet this kind of stem cell thinking already provides new perspectives in medical science and could usher in new therapies. Today, political, religious, and ethical issues surround embryonic stem cell and patient-specific pluripotent stem cell research and are center stage in the attempts by governments to ban these fields for discovery and potential therapies. These interventions require physicians and physician-scientists to determine for themselves whether patient welfare or personal ethics will dominate in their practices, and whether all aspects of stem cell research can be pursued in a safe and regulated fashion.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231987800009

    View details for PubMedID 16174694

  • They are not stealthy in the heart: embryonic stem cells trigger cell infiltration, humoral and T- lymphocyte-based host immune response EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CARDIO-THORACIC SURGERY Kofidis, T., deBruin, J. L., Tanaka, M., Zwierzchoniewska, M., Weissman, I., Fedoseyeva, E., Haverich, A., Robbins, R. C. 2005; 28 (3): 461-466


    The in vivo immunogenicity of Embryonic Stem Cells is controversial. At present, there is only in vitro evidence of MHC I expression by this cell population but vivid speculation about their immune-privileged state. The immunology aspect of ESC transplantation deserves thorough investigation.We injected mouse ESC (expressing Green Fluorescent Protein, GFP) into injured myocardium of syngeneic, allogeneic and SCID recipients. Furthermore, we monitored host response for up to 4 weeks post cell transfer. We determined local response (CD 3, CD 11c expression by host cells), MHC I expression by donor cells, MHC-II expression within and around the graft, humoral response of allogeneic hosts using Flow Cytometry and evaluated the hosts' cytokine response using stimulated spleenocytes by means of ELISPOT. Cell survival was estimated by morphometry, by calculating the area of the GFP+ graft over the area of infarction at multiple sections of the harvested heart.There was significant cellular infiltration into and around the graft consisting of T-lymphocytes (CD3+) and dendritic cells (CD 11c). Infiltration was detectable at 1 week and progressed through 4 weeks following cell transplantation. The humoral Ab response was moderate at 2 weeks but frank at 4 weeks. ELISPOT demonstrated a Th1 pathway of donor specific T-lymphocyte response with strong IFN-gamma and Il-2 production (figure A). MHC I expression was significant within the graft and maximal in the allogeneic groups.An immune response against transplanted ESC was demonstrated and the future use of ESC will likely require the use of systemic immunosuppression.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejcts.2005.03.049

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232069300018

    View details for PubMedID 15990327

  • Differential expression of novel potential regulators in hematopoietic stem cells PLOS GENETICS Forsberg, E. C., Prohaska, S. S., Katzman, S., Heffner, G. C., Stuart, J. M., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 1 (3): 281-294


    The hematopoietic system is an invaluable model both for understanding basic developmental biology and for developing clinically relevant cell therapies. Using highly purified cells and rigorous microarray analysis we have compared the expression pattern of three of the most primitive hematopoietic subpopulations in adult mouse bone marrow: long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), short-term HSC, and multipotent progenitors. All three populations are capable of differentiating into a spectrum of mature blood cells, but differ in their self-renewal and proliferative capacity. We identified numerous novel potential regulators of HSC self-renewal and proliferation that were differentially expressed between these closely related cell populations. Many of the differentially expressed transcripts fit into pathways and protein complexes not previously identified in HSC, providing evidence for new HSC regulatory units. Extending these observations to the protein level, we demonstrate expression of several of the corresponding proteins, which provide novel surface markers for HSC. We discuss the implications of our findings for HSC biology. In particular, our data suggest that cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are major regulators of long-term HSC, and that HSC themselves play important roles in regulating their immediate microenvironment.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.0010028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234714300002

    View details for PubMedID 16151515

  • Identification of mast cell progenitors in adult mice PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Chen, C. C., Grimbaldeston, M. A., Tsai, M., Weissman, I. L., Galli, S. J. 2005; 102 (32): 11408-11413


    It is well known that mast cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. However, in adult hematopoiesis, a committed mast cell progenitor has not yet been identified in any species, nor is it clear at what point during adult hematopoiesis commitment to the mast cell lineage occurs. We identified a cell population in adult mouse bone marrow, characterized as Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(-)-Ly6c(-)FcepsilonRIalpha(-)CD27(-)beta7(+)T1/ST2+, that gives rise only to mast cells in culture and that can reconstitute the mast cell compartment when transferred into c-kit mutant mast cell-deficient mice. In addition, our experiments strongly suggest that these adult mast cell progenitors are derived directly from multipotential progenitors instead of, as previously proposed, common myeloid progenitors or granulocyte/macrophage progenitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0504197102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231253400051

    View details for PubMedID 16006518

  • Cell intrinsic alterations underlie hematopoietic stem cell aging PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Zahn, J. M., Ahlenius, H., Sonu, R., Wagers, A. J., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 102 (26): 9194-9199


    Loss of immune function and an increased incidence of myeloid leukemia are two of the most clinically significant consequences of aging of the hematopoietic system. To better understand the mechanisms underlying hematopoietic aging, we evaluated the cell intrinsic functional and molecular properties of highly purified long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) from young and old mice. We found that LT-HSC aging was accompanied by cell autonomous changes, including increased stem cell self-renewal, differential capacity to generate committed myeloid and lymphoid progenitors, and diminished lymphoid potential. Expression profiling revealed that LT-HSC aging was accompanied by the systemic down-regulation of genes mediating lymphoid specification and function and up-regulation of genes involved in specifying myeloid fate and function. Moreover, LT-HSCs from old mice expressed elevated levels of many genes involved in leukemic transformation. These data support a model in which age-dependent alterations in gene expression at the stem cell level presage downstream developmental potential and thereby contribute to age-dependent immune decline, and perhaps also to the increased incidence of leukemia in the elderly.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0503280102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230191400021

    View details for PubMedID 15967997

  • Stimulation of paracrine pathways with growth factors enhances embryonic stem cell engraftment and host-specific differentiation in the heart after ischemic myocardial injury CIRCULATION Kofidis, T., de Bruin, J. L., Yamane, T., Tanaka, M., Lebl, D. R., Swijnenburg, R. J., Weissman, I. L., Robbins, R. C. 2005; 111 (19): 2486-2493


    Growth factors play an essential role in organogenesis. We examine the potential of growth factors to enhance cell engraftment and differentiation and to promote functional improvement after transfer of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells into the injured heart.Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive embryonic stem cells derived from 129sv mice were injected into the ischemic area after left anterior descending artery ligation in allogenic (BALB/c) mice. Fifty nanograms of recombinant mouse vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) was added to the cell suspension. Separate control groups were formed in which only the growth factors were given. Echocardiography was performed 2 weeks later to evaluate heart function (fractional shortening [FS]), end-diastolic diameter, and left ventricular wall thickness). Hearts were harvested for histology (connexin 43, alpha-sarcomeric actin, CD3, CD11c, major histocompatability complex class I, hematoxylin-eosin). Degree of restoration (GFP-positive graft/infarct area ratio), expression of cardiac markers, host response, and tumorigenicity were evaluated. Cell transfer resulted in improved cardiac function. TGF-beta led to better restorative effect and a stronger expression of connexin 43, alpha-sarcomeric actin, and major histocompatability complex class I. TGF-beta and FGF retained left ventricular diameter. FS was better in the TGF-beta, FGF, and embryonic stem cells-only group compared with left anterior descending artery-ligated controls. Growth factors with cells (TGF-beta, FGF) resulted in higher FS and smaller end-diastolic diameter than growth factors alone.Growth factors can promote in vivo organ-specific differentiation of early embryonic stem cells and improve myocardial function after cell transfer into an area of ischemic lesion. TGF-beta should be considered as an adjuvant for myocardial restoration with the use of embryonic stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000165063.09283.A8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229126900012

    View details for PubMedID 15883216

  • Hematopoietic cells maintain hematopoietic fates upon entering the brain JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Massengale, M., Wagers, A. J., Vogel, H., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 201 (10): 1579-1589


    Several studies have reported that bone marrow (BM) cells may give rise to neurons and astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. To further test this hypothesis, we analyzed for incorporation of neural cell types expressing donor markers in normal or injured brains of irradiated mice reconstituted with whole BM or single, purified c-kit(+)Thy1.1(lo)Lin(-)Sca-1(+) (KTLS) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and of unirradiated parabionts with surgically anastomosed vasculature. Each model showed low-level parenchymal engraftment of donor-marker(+) cells with 96-100% immunoreactivity for panhematopoietic (CD45) or microglial (Iba1 or Mac1) lineage markers in all cases studied. Other than one arborizing structure in the olfactory bulb of one BM-transplanted animal, possibly representing a neuronal or glial cell process, we found no donor-marker-expressing astrocytes or non-Purkinje neurons among >10,000 donor-marker(+) cells from 21 animals. These data strongly suggest that HSCs and their progeny maintain lineage fidelity in the brain and do not adopt neural cell fates with any measurable frequency.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20050030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229476100006

    View details for PubMedID 15897275

  • Frizzled 9 knock-out mice have abnormal B-cell development BLOOD Ranheim, E. A., Kwan, H. C., Reya, T., Wang, Y. K., Weissman, I. L., FRANCKE, U. 2005; 105 (6): 2487-2494


    The binding of frizzled (Fzd) receptors by their Wnt ligands results in the inhibition of beta-catenin degradation and subsequent transcription of beta-catenin/LEF-inducible genes. The beta-catenin pathway is known to be involved in development, tumorigenesis, and stem cell self-renewal. In humans, the FZD9 gene lies in the region of chromosome 7q11.23 deleted in the neurodevelopmental disorder, Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). Fzd9-/- mice show no obvious features of WBS, but reveal a role for Fzd9 in lymphoid development and maturation. Fzd9-/- mice show pronounced splenomegaly, thymic atrophy, and lymphadenopathy with age, with accumulation of plasma cells in lymph nodes. There is a depletion of developing B cells in the bone marrow (BM), particularly in the pre-B stage where immunoglobulin heavy chains are expressed and the cells are undergoing clonal expansion prior to light chain rearrangement. The pre-B defect is partially intrinsic to the hematopoietic system; as in competitive BM reconstitution studies, Fzd9-/- -derived BM exhibits defective B-cell development when implanted into a wild-type host. Mature B cells are present in normal numbers in lymph node and spleen. These findings suggest a role for Fzd9 signaling in lymphoid development, particularly at points where B cells undergo self-renewal prior to further differentiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2004-06-2334

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227630500047

    View details for PubMedID 15572594

  • Enforced Bcl-2 expression overrides serum and feeder cell requirements for mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Yamane, T., Dylla, S. J., Muijtjens, M., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 102 (9): 3312-3317


    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is required, but not sufficient, for pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell expansion in vitro in the absence of serum or a feeder cell layer, suggesting that additional signals are provided by serum or feeders that are necessary to support self-renewal. Here we show that transgenic ES cell lines expressing Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, continue to self-renew in serum- and feeder-free conditions when supplemented with LIF; even in the absence of bone morphogenic proteins. Bcl-2-expressing clones sustain the characteristics of undifferentiated, pluripotent ES cells during long-term culture, and maintain their potential to differentiate into mature cell types. These results suggest that LIF and Bcl-2 overexpression are sufficient to expand these mouse pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0500167102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227423700028

    View details for PubMedID 15728354

  • Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment NATURE Conboy, I. M., Conboy, M. J., Wagers, A. J., Girma, E. R., Weissman, I. L., Rando, T. A. 2005; 433 (7027): 760-764


    The decline of tissue regenerative potential is a hallmark of ageing and may be due to age-related changes in tissue-specific stem cells. A decline in skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cell) activity due to a loss of Notch signalling results in impaired regeneration of aged muscle. The decline in hepatic progenitor cell proliferation owing to the formation of a complex involving cEBP-alpha and the chromatin remodelling factor brahma (Brm) inhibits the regenerative capacity of aged liver. To examine the influence of systemic factors on aged progenitor cells from these tissues, we established parabiotic pairings (that is, a shared circulatory system) between young and old mice (heterochronic parabioses), exposing old mice to factors present in young serum. Notably, heterochronic parabiosis restored the activation of Notch signalling as well as the proliferation and regenerative capacity of aged satellite cells. The exposure of satellite cells from old mice to young serum enhanced the expression of the Notch ligand (Delta), increased Notch activation, and enhanced proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, heterochronic parabiosis increased aged hepatocyte proliferation and restored the cEBP-alpha complex to levels seen in young animals. These results suggest that the age-related decline of progenitor cell activity can be modulated by systemic factors that change with age.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature03260

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227039200043

    View details for PubMedID 15716955

  • Developmental origin of interferon-alpha-producing dendritic cells from hematopoietic precursors EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY Karsunky, H., Merad, M., Mende, I., Manz, M. G., Engleman, E. G., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 33 (2): 173-181


    The aim of this study was to determine the lineage origin of interferon-alpha-producing cells (IPCs), also called plasmacytoid dendritic cells, in mice by evaluating the ability of common lymphoid (CLP) and myeloid (CMP) progenitors to give rise to IPCs.Sublethally irradiated C57Bl/6 mice were intravenously transplanted with rigorously purified lymphoid and myeloid progenitors from a congenic mouse strain. At various time points posttransplantation mice were analyzed for donor-derived cells by flow cytometry. The developmental potential of all progenitor populations was also tested in in vitro cultures. In addition, in vitro and in vivo derived IPCs were functionally assessed for their interferon-alpha production after virus challenge.Transplantation of 1 x 10(4) common myeloid progenitors, 1 x 10(4) common lymphoid progenitors or 2.5 x 10(4) granulocyte/macrophage progenitors all led to the generation of IPCs within 2 to 3 weeks. In general, IPC reconstitution in spleen and liver by CMPs was more efficient than by CLP. Adding Flt3L alone to in vitro cultures was sufficient to support the development of IPCs from myeloid progenitors whereas CLPs required additional survival factors provided either by stroma cells or by introduction of transgenic Bcl-2. Both myeloid- and lymphoid-derived IPC were indistinguishable by function, gene expression, and morphology.Surprisingly, our results clearly show that murine IPCs differentiate from both lineages but are mainly of myeloid origin. These results extend to IPCs the observation made originally in classical dendritic cells that cellular expression of so called lineage markers does not correlate with lineal origin.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exphem.2004.10.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227147000007

    View details for PubMedID 15676211

  • Normal and neoplastic stem cells. Novartis Foundation symposium Weissman, I. L. 2005; 265: 35-50


    Stem cells are cells that at the single cell level both self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny. Self renewal is the property that distinguishes stem cells and progenitors, and in the blood-forming system explains why haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), not progenitors, are the only cells capable of providing rapid and sustained regeneration of the blood-forming system after ablation by cancer chemo- and radiotherapies. Cancer-free prospectively purified HSCs regenerate the haematopoietic system of patients as rapidly as a marrow or mobilized blood transplant, but without the risk of re-seeding the body with cancer cells. Further, purified allogeneic HSCs can establish donor-specific tolerance to subsequent tissue grafts. However, in contrast to widely-publicized reports of HSC plasticity, we have not been able to show transdifferentiation of HSC to muscle, heart, brain or gut, and conclude that rare cell fusions and incomplete purifications are likely explanations for the other published results. The ability to self-renew is also potentially dangerous, as poorly regulated self renewal is, we believe, a central lesion in all cancers. We have recently shown that myeloid leukaemias in mouse and human are often driven by rare leukaemia (cancer) stem cells which are at the progenitor stage of differentiation, but have activated the self-renewing cell division pathway normally used only by HSCs. Similar cancer stem cells have been isolated in other tumours.

    View details for PubMedID 16050249

  • Preuss Resident Research Award: bone marrow-derived Flk-1-expressing CD34+ cells contribute to the endothelium of tumor vessels in mouse brain. Clinical neurosurgery Santarelli, J. G., Udani, V., Yung, C. Y., Cheshier, S., Wagers, A., Brekken, R. A., Weissman, I., Tse, V. 2005; 52: 384-388

    View details for PubMedID 16626098

  • Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells: Clinical and preclinical regeneration of the hematolymphoid system ANNUAL REVIEW OF MEDICINE Shizuru, J. A., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 56: 509-538


    A vast literature exists on the biology of blood formation and regeneration under experimental and clinical conditions. The field of hematopoiesis was recently advanced by the capacity to purify to homogeneity primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Isolation of cells at defined maturational stages has enhanced the understanding of the fundamental nature of stem cells, including how cell fate decisions are made, and this understanding is relevant to the development of other normal as well as malignant tissues. This review updates the basic biology of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and progenitors, the evolving use of purified HSC as grafts for clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) including immune tolerance induction, and the application of HSC biology to other stem cell fields.

    View details for DOI 10.1146/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227504100028

    View details for PubMedID 15660525

  • Chronic versus acute myelogenous leukemia: A question of self-renewal CANCER CELL Jamieson, C. H., Weissman, I. L., Passegue, E. 2004; 6 (6): 531-533


    Leukemia stem cells are defined as transformed hematopoietic stem cells or committed progenitor cells that have amplified or acquired the stem cell capacity for self-renewal, albeit in a poorly regulated fashion. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Huntly and colleagues report a striking difference in the ability of two leukemia-associated fusion proteins, MOZ-TIF2 and BCR-ABL, to transform myeloid progenitor populations. This rigorous study supports the idea of a hierarchy among leukemia-associated protooncogenes for their ability to endow committed myeloid progenitors with the self-renewal capacity driving leukemic stem cell propagation, and sheds new light on the pathogenesis of chronic and acute myelogenous leukemias.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226076600002

    View details for PubMedID 15607956

  • Incorporation of naive bone marrow derived cells into the vascular architecture of brain tumor MICROCIRCULATION Yung, Y. C., Cheshier, S., Santarelli, J. G., Huang, Z., Wagers, A., Weissman, I., Tse, V. 2004; 11 (8): 699-708


    Neovascularization is essential for tumor growth and invasion. Mounting evidence suggests that tumor cells recruit circulating endothelial progenitor cells to promote vasculogenesis to compliment tumor angiogenesis. This study examines the constitutive role of bone marrow-derived cells in this process.Rat glioma cells were implanted into brains of T-cell-depleted knockout mice. At various timepoints after tumor implantation, naïve bone marrow cells from ubiquitous transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were infused into these animals. The incorporation of GFP-positive cells into the vascular architecture was visualized by fluorescence confocal microscopy in conjunction with the transcription profiles of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 and -2 (Ang-1 and Ang-2).Of the cells infused, 8 days after tumor implantation, 0.49% were found exclusively sequestered in the vicinity of tumor vessels. This coincided with a decline in the expression of Ang-1 and a rise in the expression of VEGF and Ang-2. A few of these cells (0.66 of the 0.49%) localized onto the vascular wall. They resembled endothelial cells and expressed vWF.The incorporation of bone marrow-derived unpurified endothelial cells into the tumor vascular bed is both time-limited and infrequent. These cells may play a supportive rather than a constitutive role in tumor neovascularization.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10739680490521005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225641500007

    View details for PubMedID 15726837

  • Isolation of adult mouse myogenic progenitors: Functional heterogeneity of cells within and engrafting skeletal muscle CELL Sherwood, R. I., Christensen, J. L., Conboy, I. M., Conboy, M. J., Rando, T. A., Weissman, I. L., Wagers, A. J. 2004; 119 (4): 543-554


    Skeletal muscle regeneration in adults is thought to occur through the action of myogenic satellite cells located in close association with mature muscle fibers; however, these precursor cells have not been prospectively isolated, and recent studies have suggested that additional muscle progenitors, including cells of bone marrow or hematopoietic origin, may exist. To clarify the origin(s) of adult myogenic cells, we used phenotypic, morphological, and functional criteria to identify and prospectively isolate a subset of myofiber-associated cells capable at the single cell level of generating myogenic colonies at high frequency. Importantly, although muscle-engrafted cells from marrow and/or circulation localized to the same anatomic compartment as myogenic satellite cells and expressed some though not all satellite cell markers, they displayed no intrinsic myogenicity. Together, these studies describe the clonal isolation of functional adult myogenic progenitors and demonstrate that these cells do not arise from hematopoietic or other bone marrow or circulating precursors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225183200012

    View details for PubMedID 15537543

  • JunB deficiency leads to a myeloproliferative disorder arising from hematopoietic stem cells CELL Passegue, E., Wagner, E. F., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 119 (3): 431-443


    The AP-1 transcription factor JunB is a transcriptional regulator of myelopoiesis. Inactivation of JunB in postnatal mice results in a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) resembling early human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Here, we show that JunB regulates the numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). JunB overexpression decreases the frequency of long-term HSC (LT-HSC), while JunB inactivation specifically expands the numbers of LT-HSC and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMP) resulting in chronic MPD. Further, we demonstrate that junB inactivation must take place in LT-HSC, and not at later stages of myelopoiesis, to induce MPD and that only junB-deficient LT-HSC are capable of transplanting the MPD to recipient mice. These results demonstrate a stem cell-specific role for JunB in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis and provide experimental evidence that leukemic stem cells (LSC) can reside at the LT-HSC stage of development in a mouse model of MPD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224908300013

    View details for PubMedID 15507213

  • Telomerase maintained in self-renewing tissues during serial regeneration of the urochordate Botryllus schlosseri DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Laird, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 273 (2): 185-194


    Telomerase is critical for the protection of germ line and stem cell chromosomes from fatal shortening during replication. In most organisms, telomerase activity is suppressed in progressively committed cells and falls to basal rates in terminally differentiated lineages. The colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri propagates asexually and sexually, presumably from pools of stem cells that self-renew throughout the 2- to 5-year colony life span. Asexual budding takes place continuously from the parental body wall. When the colony reaches a critical size, sexual reproduction commences with the generation of gonads. Here, we establish the existence of 6-15 kb telomeres on the ends of Botryllus chromosomes. We develop a real-time quantitative PCR telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay that reliably detects 0.2-100 TPG units in cells and tissues. We find highest levels of enzymatic activity in the gonads, developing embryos, and tissues containing the earliest asexual buds. Telomerase activity appears to be suppressed in later buds during organogenesis and falls to basal rates in mature zooids. We postulate that this pattern reflects maximum telomere restoration in somatic stem cells of early buds and suppression of telomerase activity in progenitors and terminally differentiated cells, indicative of an alternate role for stem cells as repeated body regenerators in colonial life histories.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.05.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223681000002

    View details for PubMedID 15328006

  • Granulocyte-macrophage progenitors as candidate leukemic stem cells in blast-crisis CML NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Jamieson, C. H., Ailles, L. E., Dylla, S. J., Muijtjens, M., Jones, C., Zehnder, J. L., Gotlib, J., Li, K., Manz, M. G., Keating, A., Sawyers, C. L., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 351 (7): 657-667


    The progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) to blast crisis is supported by self-renewing leukemic stem cells. In normal mouse hematopoietic stem cells, the process of self-renewal involves the beta-catenin-signaling pathway. We investigated whether leukemic stem cells in CML also use the beta-catenin pathway for self-renewal.We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate hematopoietic stem cells, common myeloid progenitors, granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors from marrow during several phases of CML and from normal marrow. BCR-ABL, beta-catenin, and LEF-1 transcripts were compared by means of a quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay in normal and CML hematopoietic stem cells and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and a lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor reporter assay were used to detect nuclear beta-catenin in these cells. In vitro replating assays were used to identify self-renewing cells as candidate leukemic stem cells, and the dependence of self-renewal on beta-catenin activation was tested by lentiviral transduction of hematopoietic progenitors with axin, an inhibitor of the beta-catenin pathway.The granulocyte-macrophage progenitor pool from patients with CML in blast crisis and imatinib-resistant CML was expanded, expressed BCR-ABL, and had elevated levels of nuclear beta-catenin as compared with the levels in progenitors from normal marrow. Unlike normal granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, CML granulocyte-macrophage progenitors formed self-renewing, replatable myeloid colonies, and in vitro self-renewal capacity was reduced by enforced expression of axin.Activation of beta-catenin in CML granulocyte-macrophage progenitors appears to enhance the self-renewal activity and leukemic potential of these cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223225500008

    View details for PubMedID 15306667

  • Transplanted human fetal neural stem cells survive, migrate, and differentiate in ischemic rat cerebral cortex PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Kelly, S., Bliss, T. M., Shah, A. K., Sun, G. H., Ma, M., Foo, W. C., Masel, J., Yenari, M. A., Weissman, I. L., Uchida, N., Palmer, T., Steinberg, G. K. 2004; 101 (32): 11839-11844


    We characterize the survival, migration, and differentiation of human neurospheres derived from CNS stem cells transplanted into the ischemic cortex of rats 7 days after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Transplanted neurospheres survived robustly in naive and ischemic brains 4 wk posttransplant. Survival was influenced by proximity of the graft to the stroke lesion and was negatively correlated with the number of IB4-positive inflammatory cells. Targeted migration of the human cells was seen in ischemic animals, with many human cells migrating long distances ( approximately 1.2 mm) predominantly toward the lesion; in naive rats, cells migrated radially from the injection site in smaller number and over shorter distances (0.2 mm). The majority of migrating cells in ischemic rats had a neuronal phenotype. Migrating cells between the graft and the lesion expressed the neuroblast marker doublecortin, whereas human cells at the lesion border expressed the immature neuronal marker beta-tubulin, although a small percentage of cells at the lesion border also expressed glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). Thus, transplanted human CNS (hCNS)-derived neurospheres survived robustly in naive and ischemic brains, and the microenvironment influenced their migration and fate.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0404474101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223276700056

    View details for PubMedID 15280535

  • Varicella-zoster virus infection of human neural cells in vivo PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Baiker, A., Fabel, K., Cozzio, A., Zerboni, L., Fabel, K., Sommer, M., Uchida, N., He, D. P., Weissman, I., Arvin, A. M. 2004; 101 (29): 10792-10797


    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establishes latency in sensory ganglia and causes herpes zoster upon reactivation. These investigations in a nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mouse-human neural cell model showed that VZV infected both neurons and glial cells and spread efficiently from cell to cell in vivo. Neural cell morphology and protein synthesis were preserved, in contrast to destruction of epithelial cells by VZV. Expression of VZV genes in neural cells was characterized by nuclear retention of the major viral transactivating protein and a block in synthesis of the predominant envelope glycoprotein. The attenuated VZV vaccine strain retained infectivity for neurons and glial cells in vivo. VZV gene expression in differentiated human neural cells in vivo differs from neural infection by herpes simplex virus, which is characterized by latency-associated transcripts, and from lytic VZV replication in skin. The chimeric nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mouse model may be useful for investigating other neurotropic human viruses.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0404016101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222842700055

    View details for PubMedID 15247414

  • Depletion of host Langerhans cells before transplantation of donor alloreactive T cells prevents skin graft-versus-host disease NATURE MEDICINE Merad, M., Hoffmann, P., Ranheim, E., Slaymaker, S., Manz, M. G., Lira, S. A., Charo, I., Cook, D. N., Weissman, I. L., Strober, S., Engleman, E. G. 2004; 10 (5): 510-517


    Skin is the most commonly affected organ in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To explore the role of Langerhans cells in GVHD, the principal dendritic cells of the skin, we studied the fate of these cells in mice transplanted with allogeneic bone marrow. In contrast to other dendritic cells, host Langerhans cells were replaced by donor Langerhans cells only when donor T cells were administered along with bone marrow, and the extent of Langerhans cell chimerism correlated with the dose of donor T cells injected. Donor T cells depleted host Langerhans cells through a Fas-dependent pathway and induced the production in skin of CCL20, which was required for the recruitment of donor Langerhans cells. Administration of donor T cells to bone marrow-chimeric mice with persistent host Langerhans cells, but not to mice whose Langerhans cells had been replaced, resulted in marked skin GVHD. These findings indicate a crucial role for donor T cells in host Langerhans cell replacement, and show that host dendritic cells can persist in nonlymphoid tissue for the duration of an animal's life and can trigger GVHD despite complete blood chimerism.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm1038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221242400029

    View details for PubMedID 15098028

  • Leukemic transformation of hematopoietic progenitors by MLL-GAS7 in the absence of Hoxa7 or Hoxa9 BLOOD So, C. W., Karsunky, H., Wong, P., Weissman, I. L., Cleary, M. L. 2004; 103 (8): 3192-3199


    Differential expression of Hox genes is associated with normal hematopoiesis, whereas inappropriate maintenance of Hox gene expression, particularly Hoxa7 and Hoxa9, is a feature of leukemias harboring mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) mutations. To understand the pathogenic roles of Hox genes in MLL leukemias, we assessed the impact of Hoxa7 or Hoxa9 nullizygosity on hematopoietic progenitor compartments and their susceptibility to MLL-induced leukemias. Selective reductions in the absolute numbers of committed progenitors, but not of hematopoietic stem cells, distinguished Hoxa7- and Hoxa9-deficient mice. Megakaryocytic/erythroid progenitor (MEP) reductions in Hoxa7(-/-) mice correlated with reticulocytosis and thrombocytopenia without anemia. Conversely, Hoxa9(-/-) mice displayed marked lymphopenia and substantial reductions of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and lymphoid precursors, in addition to significant reductions of common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMPs). In retroviral transduction/transplantation assays, Hoxa7- and Hoxa9-deficient progenitors remained susceptible to transformation by MLL-GAS7, which activates MLL through a dimerization-dependent mechanism. However, Hoxa7(-/-) or Hoxa9(-/-) progenitors were less efficient in generating transformed blast colony-forming units (CFUs) in vitro and induced leukemias with longer disease latencies, reduced penetrance, and less mature phenotypes. Thus, Hoxa7 and Hoxa9 contribute to hematopoietic progenitor homeostasis but are not necessary for MLL-GAS7-mediated leukemogenesis, yet they appear to affect disease latency, penetrance, and phenotypes consistent with their critical roles as downstream targets of MLL fusion proteins.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222163500056

    View details for PubMedID 15070702

  • Haematopoietic stem cells adopt mature haematopoietic fates in ischaemic myocardium NATURE Balsam, L. B., Wagers, A. J., Christensen, J. L., Kofidis, T., Weissman, I. L., Robbins, R. C. 2004; 428 (6983): 668-673


    Under conditions of tissue injury, myocardial replication and regeneration have been reported. A growing number of investigators have implicated adult bone marrow (BM) in this process, suggesting that marrow serves as a reservoir for cardiac precursor cells. It remains unclear which BM cell(s) can contribute to myocardium, and whether they do so by transdifferentiation or cell fusion. Here, we studied the ability of c-kit-enriched BM cells, Lin- c-kit+ BM cells and c-kit+ Thy1.1(lo) Lin- Sca-1+ long-term reconstituting haematopoietic stem cells to regenerate myocardium in an infarct model. Cells were isolated from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and injected directly into ischaemic myocardium of wild-type mice. Abundant GFP+ cells were detected in the myocardium after 10 days, but by 30 days, few cells were detectable. These GFP+ cells did not express cardiac tissue-specific markers, but rather, most of them expressed the haematopoietic marker CD45 and myeloid marker Gr-1. We also studied the role of circulating cells in the repair of ischaemic myocardium using GFP+-GFP- parabiotic mice. Again, we found no evidence of myocardial regeneration from blood-borne partner-derived cells. Our data suggest that even in the microenvironment of the injured heart, c-kit-enriched BM cells, Lin- c-kit+ BM cells and c-kit+ Thy1.1(lo) Lin- Sca-1+ long-term reconstituting haematopoietic stem cells adopt only traditional haematopoietic fates.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature02460

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220697200048

    View details for PubMedID 15034594

  • Plasticity of adult stem cells CELL Wagers, A. J., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 116 (5): 639-648


    Recent years have seen much excitement over the possibility that adult mammalian stem cells may be capable of differentiating across tissue lineage boundaries, and as such may represent novel, accessible, and very versatile effectors of therapeutic tissue regeneration. Yet studies proposing such "plasticity" of adult somatic stem cells remain controversial, and in general, existing evidence suggests that in vivo such unexpected transformations are exceedingly rare and in some cases can be accounted for by equally unexpected alternative explanations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221499700005

    View details for PubMedID 15006347

  • Circulation and chemotaxis of fetal hematopoietic stem cells. PLoS biology Christensen, J. L., Wright, D. E., Wagers, A. J., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 2 (3): E75-?


    The major site of hematopoiesis transitions from the fetal liver to the spleen and bone marrow late in fetal development. To date, experiments have not been performed to evaluate functionally the migration and seeding of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during this period in ontogeny. It has been proposed that developmentally timed waves of HSCs enter the bloodstream only during distinct windows to seed the newly forming hematopoietic organs. Using competitive reconstitution assays to measure HSC activity, we determined the localization of HSCs in the mid-to-late gestation fetus. We found that multilineage reconstituting HSCs are present at low numbers in the blood at all timepoints measured. Seeding of fetal bone marrow and spleen occurred over several days, possibly while stem cell niches formed. In addition, using dual-chamber migration assays, we determined that like bone marrow HSCs, fetal liver HSCs migrate in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha); however, unlike bone marrow HSCs, the migratory response of fetal liver HSCs to SDF-1alpha is greatly increased in the presence of Steel factor (SLF), suggesting an important role for SLF in HSC homing to and seeding of the fetal hematopoietic tissues. Together, these data demonstrate that seeding of fetal organs by fetal liver HSCs does not require large fluxes of HSCs entering the fetal bloodstream, and that HSCs constitutively circulate at low levels during the gestational period from 12 to 17 days postconception. Newly forming hematopoietic tissues are seeded gradually by HSCs, suggesting initial seeding is occurring as hematopoietic niches in the spleen and bone marrow form and become capable of supporting HSC self-renewal. We demonstrate that fetal and adult HSCs exhibit specific differences in chemotactic behavior. While both migrate in response to SDF-1alpha, fetal HSCs also respond significantly to the cytokine SLF. In addition, the combination of SDF-1alpha and SLF results in substantially enhanced migration of fetal HSCs, leading to migration of nearly all fetal HSCs in this assay. This finding indicates the importance of the combined effects of SLF and SDF-1alpha in the migration of fetal HSCs, and is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a synergistic effect of two chemoattractive agents on HSCs.

    View details for PubMedID 15024423

  • Continuous development precludes radioprotection in a colonial ascidian DEVELOPMENTAL AND COMPARATIVE IMMUNOLOGY Laird, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 28 (3): 201-209


    Colonial organisms provide a unique experimental system for stem cell biology. The colonial Urochordate Botryllus schlosseri reproduces sexually as well as by continuous asexual budding. Adjacent colonies with a shared histocompatibility allele undergo vascular fusion and establish a common blood circulation, performing natural transplantation. Fused colonies become chimeras, often with complete somatic replacement of the host cell genotype by the fused parabiont. We attempted to establish a radioprotection assay for the somatic stem cells that induce long-term chimerism in Botryllus. We demonstrate over a range of radiation doses that neither autologous nor allogeneic cell transplantation enhances survival of host colonies. This suggests that high mitotic index associated with continuous asexual development leads to radiosensitivity of organs and structures essential to survival during engraftment. We observe that radiation induces uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation in abnormally terminated buds, suggesting that stem cells are not required for the initial stages of bud development.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.dci.2003.08.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188375700003

    View details for PubMedID 14642887

  • Evolution of a protochordate allorecognition locus SCIENCE De Tomaso, A. W., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 303 (5660): 977-977

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188918000035

    View details for PubMedID 14963321

  • Shifting foci of hematopoiesis during reconstitution from single stem cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Cao, Y. A., Wagers, A. J., Beilhack, A., Dusich, J., Bachmann, M. H., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L., Contag, C. H. 2004; 101 (1): 221-226


    To reveal the early events and dynamics of hematopoietic reconstitution in living animals in real-time, we used bioluminescence imaging to monitor engraftment from single luciferase-labeled hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in irradiated recipients. Transplanted HSC generated discrete foci in the spleen and bone marrow (BM), at a frequency that correlated with BM compartment size. Initially detected foci could expand locally, seed other sites in BM or spleen, and/or recede with different kinetics. These studies reveal dynamic and variable patterns of engraftment from highly purified HSC and indicate that the final overall contribution of individual HSC to hematopoietic chimerism does not depend on the specific site of initial engraftment and expansion.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187937200042

    View details for PubMedID 14688412

  • Insulin-like growth factor promotes engraftment, differentiation, and functional improvement after transfer of embryonic stem cells for myocardial restoration STEM CELLS Kofidis, T., de Bruin, J. L., Yamane, T., Balsam, L. B., Lebl, D. R., Swijnenburg, R. J., Tanaka, M., Weissman, I. L., Robbins, R. C. 2004; 22 (7): 1239-1245


    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes myocyte proliferation and can reverse cardiac abnormalities when it is administered in the early fetal stage. Supplementation of a mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) suspension with IGF-1 might enhance cellular engraftment and host organ-specific differentiation after injection in the area of acute myocardial injury. In the study reported here, we sought to enhance the restorative effect of ESCs in the injured heart by adding IGF-1 to the injected cell population. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled sv129 ESCs (2.5 x 10(5)) were injected into the ischemic area after left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation in BalbC mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1 (25 ng) was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection (n = 5). Echocardiography was performed before organ harvest 2 weeks later. The degree of restoration (ratio of GFP+ to infarct area), expression of cardiac markers by GFP+ cells, inflammatory response, and tumorigenicity were evaluated. Mice with LAD ligation only (n = 5) and ESC transfer without IGF-1 (n = 5) served as controls. ESCs formed viable grafts and improved cardiac function. Left ventricular wall thickness was higher in the IGF-1 group (p = .025). There was a trend toward higher fractional shortening in the IGF-treated group. Histological analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 promoted expression of alpha-sarcomeric actin (p = .015) and major histocompatibility complex class I (p = .01). IGF did not affect the cellular response to the donor cells or tumorigenicity. IGF-1 promotes expression of cardiomyocyte phenotype in ESCs in vivo. It should be considered as an adjuvant to cell transfer for myocardial restoration.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stem-cells.2004-0127

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225759300011

    View details for PubMedID 15579642

  • Determinants of skeletal muscle contributions from circulating cells, bone marrow cells, and hematopoietic stem cells STEM CELLS Sherwood, R. I., Christensen, J. L., Weissman, I. L., Wagers, A. J. 2004; 22 (7): 1292-1304


    To investigate the factors that regulate incorporation into uninjured or damaged skeletal muscle of donor markers derived from unfractionated bone marrow (BM) cells or from highly purified c-kit+ Thy1.1lo Lin- Sca-1+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we evaluated myofiber chimerism of multiple muscle groups in irradiated and transplanted recipient mice and in unirradiated parabiotic animals. Uninjured panniculus carnosus, diaphragm, and abdominal muscles infrequently incorporated donor markers into myofibers in a subset of animals after either BM or HSC transplantation; however, acute muscle injury was essential to elicit contributions to triceps surae (TS) and tibialis anterior muscles. The low level of incorporation of donor marker-expressing myofibers could not be enhanced either by transplantation into newborn recipients or by induced migration of HSCs into the periphery. Analysis of muscle chimerism in unirradiated animals joined surgically by parabiosis revealed that contributions of circulating cells to myofibers in the TS were injury dependent and that at least some circulating cells with the potential to contribute to regenerating muscle derive from BM, suggesting that hematoablative preconditioning is not required for such contributions. In all cases tested, donor-derived myofibers expressed both donor-specific and host-specific markers, suggesting that they arise by low-level fusion into skeletal muscle of cells that can include the progeny of HSCs. It is not yet clear whether such events represent a normal myogenic pathway or a pathological response to muscle damage.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2004-0090

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225759300016

    View details for PubMedID 15579647

  • Similar MLL-associated leukemias arising from self-renewing stem cells and short-lived myeloid progenitors GENES & DEVELOPMENT Cozzio, A., Passegue, E., Ayton, P. M., Karsunky, H., Cleary, M. L., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 17 (24): 3029-3035


    We have used the hematopoietic system as a model to investigate whether acute myeloid leukemia arises exclusively from self-renewing stem cells or also from short-lived myeloid progenitors. When transduced with a leukemogenic MLL fusion gene, prospectively isolated stem cells and myeloid progenitor populations with granulocyte/macrophage differentiation potential are efficiently immortalized in vitro and result in the rapid onset of acute myeloid leukemia with similar latencies following transplantation in vivo. Regardless of initiating cell, leukemias displayed immunophenotypes and gene expression profiles characteristic of maturation arrest at an identical late stage of myelomonocytic differentiation, putatively a monopotent monocytic progenitor stage. Our findings unequivocally establish the ability of transient repopulating progenitors to initiate myeloid leukemias in response to an MLL oncogene, and support the existence of cancer stem cells that do not necessarily overlap with multipotent stem cells of the tissue of origin.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.1143403

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187803000006

    View details for PubMedID 14701873

  • Initial characterization of a protochordate histocompatibility locus IMMUNOGENETICS De Tomaso, A. W., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 55 (7): 480-490


    The colonial protochordate, Botryllus schlosseri, undergoes a natural transplantation reaction which is controlled by a single, highly polymorphic locus called the Fu/HC. We are using map-based cloning to identify Fu/HC gene(s), and have currently delineated their location to an approximately 1-cM region of the B. schlosseri genome. The Fu/HC physical map currently consists of 85 sequence-tagged sites mapped on a minimum tiling path of 800 kb which consists of five contigs, with four gaps remaining to be crossed, and is estimated to be 75% completed. Approximately half this region has been sequenced throughout the locus, allowing the first analysis of a metazoan histocompatibility locus outside of vertebrates. This has resulted in the identification of 18 predicted genes, a number of which have been found to be expressed. Several of these genes are well conserved among the chordates; however, none of the predicted or expressed genes are linked within the genome of any organism in the databases. In addition, the Fu/HC is one of the most polymorphic loci ever described, and physical mapping has revealed that the locus is quite dynamic, and includes features such as hotspots of recombination.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00251-003-0612-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186201200006

    View details for PubMedID 14520503

  • Normal and leukemic hematopoiesis: Are leukemias a stem cell disorder or a reacquisition of stem cell characteristics? PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Passegue, E., Jamieson, C. H., Ailles, L. E., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 100: 11842-11849


    Leukemia can be viewed as a newly formed, abnormal hematopoietic tissue initiated by a few leukemic stem cells (LSCs) that undergo an aberrant and poorly regulated process of organogenesis analogous to that of normal hematopoietic stem cells. A hallmark of all cancers is the capacity for unlimited self-renewal, which is also a defining characteristic of normal stem cells. Given this shared attribute, it has been proposed that leukemias may be initiated by transforming events that take place in hematopoietic stem cells. Alternatively, leukemias may also arise from more committed progenitors caused by mutations and/or selective expression of genes that enhance their otherwise limited self-renewal capabilities. Identifying the LSCs for each type of leukemia is a current challenge and a critical step in understanding their respective biologies and may provide key insights into more effective treatments. Moreover, LSC identification and purification will provide a powerful diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tool in the clinic.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2034201100

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185805000006

    View details for PubMedID 14504387

  • Expression of BCR/ABL and BCL-2 in myeloid progenitors leads to myeloid leukemias PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Jaiswal, S., Traver, D., Miyamoto, T., Akashi, K., Lagasse, E., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 100 (17): 10002-10007


    Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) that, over time, progresses to acute leukemia. Both processes are closely associated with the t(9;22) chromosomal translocation that creates the BCR/ABL fusion gene in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their progeny. Chronic myelogenous leukemia is therefore classified as an HSC disorder in which a clone of multipotent HSCs is likely to be malignantly transformed, although direct evidence for malignant t(9;22)+ HSCs is lacking. To test whether HSC malignancy is required, we generated hMRP8p210BCR/ABL transgenic mice in which expression of BCR/ABL is absent in HSCs and targeted exclusively to myeloid progenitors and their myelomonocytic progeny. Four of 13 BCR/ABL transgenic founders developed a chronic MPD, but only one progressed to blast crisis. To address whether additional oncogenic events are required for progression to acute disease, we crossed hMRP8p210BCR/ABL mice to apoptosis-resistant hMRP8BCL-2 mice. Of 18 double-transgenic animals, 9 developed acute myeloid leukemias that were transplantable to wild-type recipients. Taken together, these data indicate that a MPD can arise in mice without expression of BCR/ABL in HSCs and that additional mutations inhibiting programmed cell death may be critical in the transition of this disease to blast-crisis leukemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1633833100

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184926000069

    View details for PubMedID 12890867

  • Early defect prethymic in bone marrow T cell progenitors in athymic nu/nu mice JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Chatterjea-Matthes, D., Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Jerabek, L., Manz, M. G., Weissman, I. L., Strober, S. 2003; 171 (3): 1207-1215


    nu/nu mice fail to develop a thymus and mature T cells due to a defect in the whn gene encoding a transcription factor necessary for terminal epithelial cell differentiation. We investigated whether early T cell progenitor development in the nu/nu bone marrow is also defective. We demonstrated a maturation arrest of nu/nu marrow T cell progenitors associated with a lack of pTalpha gene expression and a failure to give rise to mature T cells in adoptive euthymic hosts. Wild-type hemopoietic stem cells rapidly matured into functional T cell progenitors in the marrow of euthymic or thymectomized but not nu/nu hosts. We show that defects in bone marrow prethymic T cell development can also contribute to T cell deficiency in nu/nu mice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184327600012

    View details for PubMedID 12874207

  • Flt3 ligand regulates dendritic cell development from Flt3(+) lymphoid and myeloid-committed progenitors to Flt3(+) dendritic cells in vivo JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Karsunky, H., Merad, M., Cozzio, A., Weissman, I. L., Manz, M. G. 2003; 198 (2): 305-313


    Stimulation of Flt3 receptor tyrosine kinase through its cognate ligand expands early hematopoietic progenitor and dendritic cells (DCs) in humans and mice. The exact developmental stages at which hematopoietic progenitors express Flt3, are responsive to its ligand, and subsequently develop to DCs, are not known. Here we show that common lymphoid and common myeloid progenitors, as well as steady state DCs in thymus, spleen, and epidermis, express Flt3. The receptor is down-regulated once definitive B cell, T cell, and megakaryocyte/erythrocyte commitment occurs, and Flt3 is not detectable on other steady state hematopoietic cell populations. Upon in vivo Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) administration, Flt3+ progenitor cells and their progeny DCs are expanded, whereas Flt3- downstream progenitors are not, or are only slightly increased. Transplantation of common lymphoid and common myeloid progenitors and subsequent Flt3L injection increases progeny DCs of both precursor populations. These findings provide a definitive map of Flt3 expression in the hematopoietic hierarchy and directly demonstrate that Flt3L can drive DC development along both the lymphoid and myeloid developmental pathways from Flt3+ progenitors to Flt3+ DCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20030323

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184368200012

    View details for PubMedID 12874263

  • Common lymphoid progenitors rapidly engraft and protect against lethal murine cytomegalovirus infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation BLOOD Arber, C., Bitmansour, A., Sparer, T. E., Higgins, J. P., Mocarski, E. S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A., Brown, J. M. 2003; 102 (2): 421-428


    Lymphoid deficiency after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) results in increased susceptibility to infection; however, transplantation of mature lymphocytes frequently results in a serious complication known as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here we demonstrate in mice that both congenic as well as allogeneic transplantation of low numbers of highly purified common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs)-a rare population of lymphoid-lineage-committed bone marrow cells-accelerates immune reconstitution after lethal irradiation and rescue with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). After congenic transplantation, 3 x 10(3) CLPs protected against murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection at a level roughly equivalent to 107 unfractionated lymph node cells. In the allogeneic model of matched unrelated donor HSC transplantation, cotransplantation of 3 x 10(3) CLPs protected thymus-bearing as well as thymectomized hosts from MCMV infection and attenuated disease severity. Immunohistochemistry in combination with antibody depletion of T and natural killer (NK) cells confirmed that CLP-derived as well as residual host lymphocytes contribute to antiviral protection. Importantly, transplantation of allogeneic CLPs provided a durable antiviral immunity without inducing GVHD. These data support the potential for composing grafts with committed progenitors to reduce susceptibility to viral infection following HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-12-3834

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184083500010

    View details for PubMedID 12663447

  • Telomerase is required to slow telomere shortening and extend replicative lifespan of HSCs during serial transplantation BLOOD Allsopp, R. C., Morin, G. B., DePinho, R., Harley, C. B., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 102 (2): 517-520


    Telomere shortening ultimately limits the replicative life span of cultured human somatic cells. Telomeres also shorten during replicative aging in vivo in hematopoietic cells, including early hematopoietic progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), from humans and mice, despite readily detectable levels of telomerase in these cells. To assess the relevance of telomerase to the long-term replicative capacity of HSCs in vivo, we serially transplanted HSCs from wild-type and telomerase-deficient mice until exhaustion and monitored telomere length in HSCs during this process. Telomerase-deficient HSCs could be serially transplanted for only 2 rounds, whereas wild-type HSCs could be serially transplanted for at least 4 rounds. Furthermore, the rate of telomere shortening was increased approximately 2-fold during serial transplantation of telomerase-deficient HSCs. These findings suggest that one role for telomerase in the HSC is to partially counter the rate of telomere shortening during division of HSCs, thereby preventing premature loss of telomere function and providing added replicative capacity.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-07-2334

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184083500024

    View details for PubMedID 12663456

  • Gene expression analysis of purified hematopoietic stem cells and committed progenitors BLOOD Terskikh, A. V., Miyamoto, T., Chang, C., Diatchenko, L., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 102 (1): 94-101


    Lifelong self-renewal is a unique property of somatic stem cells. Recently, several primitive multipotent yet committed (non-self-renewing) hematopoietic progenitor populations were identified in mouse bone marrow. We have characterized the expression of 1200 selected mouse genes using the Atlas cDNA array in highly purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and 6 closely related progenitor populations: common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), and pro-T and pro-B cells. Cluster analysis revealed that nearly half of all differentially expressed transcripts are associated with HSCs, supporting the notion of an active transcriptional status of HSCs. Genes found enriched in the HSC cluster encompass many developmentally regulated genes, some previously associated with HSC self-renewal. In contrast, genes that are enriched in committed progenitors are mostly associated with hematopoietic differentiation, immune regulation, and metabolism. Thus, the transition from HSCs toward committed progenitors correlates with the down-regulation of a large number of HSC-associated genes and progressive up-regulation of a limited number of lineage-specific genes. These genetic analyses revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences between the transcripts associated with HSCs versus downstream progenitors and produced a list of the candidate genes, potentially involved in HSC self-renewal.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-08-2509

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183820300023

    View details for PubMedID 12623852

  • Wnt proteins are lipid-modified and can act as stem cell growth factors NATURE Willert, K., BROWN, J. D., Danenberg, E., Duncan, A. W., Weissman, I. L., Reya, T., Yates, J. R., Nusse, R. 2003; 423 (6938): 448-452


    Wnt signalling is involved in numerous events in animal development, including the proliferation of stem cells and the specification of the neural crest. Wnt proteins are potentially important reagents in expanding specific cell types, but in contrast to other developmental signalling molecules such as hedgehog proteins and the bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnt proteins have never been isolated in an active form. Although Wnt proteins are secreted from cells, secretion is usually inefficient and previous attempts to characterize Wnt proteins have been hampered by their high degree of insolubility. Here we have isolated active Wnt molecules, including the product of the mouse Wnt3a gene. By mass spectrometry, we found the proteins to be palmitoylated on a conserved cysteine. Enzymatic removal of the palmitate or site-directed and natural mutations of the modified cysteine result in loss of activity, and indicate that the lipid is important for signalling. The purified Wnt3a protein induces self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells, signifying its potential use in tissue engineering.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature01611

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183012000044

    View details for PubMedID 12717451

  • Construction and characterization of large-insert genomic libraries (BAC and fosmid) from the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri and initial physical mapping of a histocompatibility locus MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY De Tomaso, A. W., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 5 (2): 103-115


    The colonial protochordate Botryllus schlosseri is genetically manipulable and represents a potential model organism for a variety of biological disciplines, including immunology, stem cell biology and development. This article presents the construction and characterization of both BAC and fosmid genomic libraries of the 725-Mbp B. schlosseri genome. The BAC library currently consists of 2x genome coverage with an average insert size of 80 kb. The fosmid library is at 11x genome coverage with an average insert of 40 kb. B. schlosseri is a small organism containing a large number of compounds that hinder DNA purification. Thus a number of protocols had to be modified in order to make purified, high molecular weight inserts for cloning, including both gel purification and insert concentration techniques. Both libraries were characterized by using them in initial physical mapping of a single histocompatibility locus, and were found to be representative and functional. These libraries are important tools for physical mapping and positional cloning in the B. schlosseri genome, and the techniques adapted to make them are suitable for use on other organisms in which high molecular weight DNA is difficult to purify.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10126-002-0071-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182588700001

    View details for PubMedID 12876644

  • MLL-GAS7 transforms multipotent hematopoietic progenitors and induces mixed lineage leukemias in mice CANCER CELL So, C. W., Karsunky, H., Passegue, E., Cozzio, A., Weissman, I. L., Cleary, M. L. 2003; 3 (2): 161-171


    A specific association with mixed lineage leukemias suggests that MLL oncoproteins may selectively target early multipotent hematopoietic progenitors or stem cells. We demonstrate here that a representative MLL fusion protein, MLL-GAS7, impairs the differentiation and enhances the in vitro growth of murine hematopoietic cells with multipotent features. The multilineage differentiation potential of these cells was suggested by their immuno-phenotypes and transcriptional programs and confirmed by their ability to induce three pathologically distinct leukemias in mice, including an acute biphenotypic leukemia (ABL) that recapitulates the distinctive hallmark features of many MLL-associated leukemias in humans. This experimental modeling of ABL in mice highlights its origin from multipotential progenitors that arrest at a bipotential stage specifically targeted or induced by MLL oncogenes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181240100009

    View details for PubMedID 12620410

  • Characterization of mouse clonogenic megakaryocyte progenitors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Nakorn, T. N., Miyamoto, T., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 100 (1): 205-210


    Although it has been shown that unfractionated bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells, common myeloid progenitors, and bipotent megakaryocyteerythrocyte progenitors can give rise to megakaryocyte colonies in culture, monopotent megakaryocyte-committed progenitors (MKP) have never been prospectively isolated from the bone marrow of adult mice. Here, we use a monoclonal antibody to the megakaryocyte-associated surface protein, CD9, to purify MKPs from the c-kit(+)Sca-1(-)IL7Ralpha(-)Thy1.1(-)Lin(-) fraction of adult C57BLKa-Thy1.1 bone marrow. The CD9(+) fraction contained a subset of CD41(+)FcgammaR(lo)CD34(+)CD38(+) cells that represent approximately 0.01% of the total nucleated bone marrow cells. They give rise mainly to colony-forming unit-megakaryocytes and occasionally burst-forming unit-megakaryocytes, with a plating efficiency >60% at the single-cell level. In vivo, MKPs do not have spleen colony-forming activity nor do they contribute to long-term multilineage hematopoiesis; they give rise only to platelets for approximately 3 weeks. Common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocyteerythrocyte progenitors can differentiate into MKPs after 72 h in stromal cultures, indicating that MKPs are downstream of these two progenitors. These isolatable MKPs will be very useful for further studies of megakaryopoiesis as well as the elucidation of their gene expression patterns.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.262655099

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180307100038

    View details for PubMedID 12490656

  • Purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation blocks diabetes pathogenesis in NOD mice DIABETES Beilhack, G. F., Scheffold, Y. C., Weissman, I. L., TAYLOR, C., Jerabek, L., Burge, M. J., Masek, M. A., Shizuru, J. A. 2003; 52 (1): 59-68


    Purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were transplanted into NOD mice to test whether development of hyperglycemia could be prevented. Engraftment of major histocompatibility complex-mismatched HSCs was compared with bone marrow (BM) grafts. HSCs differed from BM because HSCs were more strongly resisted and HSC recipients retained significant levels of NOD T-cells, whereas BM recipients were full donor chimeras. Despite persistent NOD T-cells, all HSC chimeras were protected from hyperglycemia, and attenuation of islet lesions was observed. T-cell selection was altered in allogeneic HSC recipients as demonstrated by deletion of both donor and host superantigen-specific T-cells. Syngeneic and congenic hematopoietic cell transplants were also performed to differentiate the influence of the preparative regimen(s) versus the allografts. Unlike the allogeneic HSC transplantations, syngeneic or congenic grafts did not retard diabetes development. In a pilot study, overtly diabetic NOD mice were cured by co-transplantation of allogeneic HSCs and donor-matched islets. We conclude that allogeneic HSC transplants block allo- and autoimmunity, despite residual host T-cell presence. These data demonstrate for the first time that purified HSC grafts block development of autoimmune diabetes and illuminate how HSC grafts alter thymic and peripheral T-cell responses against auto- and alloantigens.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180157300009

    View details for PubMedID 12502494

  • Myeloid progenitors protect against invasive aspergillosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation BLOOD Bitmansour, A., Burns, S. M., Traver, D., Akashi, K., Contag, C. H., Weissman, I. L., Brown, J. M. 2002; 100 (13): 4660-4667


    Myelotoxic treatments for oncologic diseases are often complicated by neutropenia, which renders patients susceptible to potentially lethal infections. In these studies of murine hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), cotransplantation of lineage-restricted progenitors known as common myeloid progenitors (CMP) and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMP) protects against death following otherwise lethal challenge with either of 2 pathogens associated with neutropenia: Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cotransplantation of CMP/GMP resulted in a significant and rapid increase in the absolute number of myeloid cells in the spleen, most of which were derived from the donor CMP/GMP. Despite persistent peripheral neutropenia, improved survival correlated with the measurable appearance of progenitor-derived myeloid cells in the spleen. A marked reduction or elimination of tissue pathogen load was confirmed by culture and correlated with survival. Localization of infection by P aeruginosa and extent of disease was also assessed by in vivo bioluminescent imaging using a strain of P aeruginosa engineered to constitutively express a bacterial luciferase. Imaging confirmed that transplantation with a graft containing hematopoietic stem cells and CMP/GMP reduced the bacterial load as early as 18 hours after infection. These results demonstrate that enhanced reconstitution of a tissue myeloid pool offers protection against lethal challenge with serious fungal and bacterial pathogens.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-05-1552

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179759800058

    View details for PubMedID 12393415

  • Telomerase activation and rejuvenation of telomere length in stimulated T cells derived from serially transplanted hematopoietic stem cells JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Allsopp, R. C., Cheshier, S., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 196 (11): 1427-1433


    Telomeres shorten in hematopoietic cells, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), during aging and after transplantation, despite the presence of readily detectable levels of telomerase in these cells. In T cells, antigenic stimulation has been shown to result in a marked increase in the level of telomerase activity. We now show that stimulation of T cells derived from serially transplanted HSC results in a telomerase-dependent elongation of telomere length to a size similar to that observed in T cells isolated directly from young mice. Southern analysis of telomere length in resting and anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated donor-derived splenic T cells revealed an increase in telomere size by approximately 7 kb for the population as a whole. Stimulation of donor-derived T cells from recipients of HSCs from telomerase-deficient mice did not result in regeneration of telomere length, demonstrating a dependence on telomerase. Furthermore, clonal anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of donor-derived T cells followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of telomeric signal intensity showed that telomeres had increased in size by approximately 50% for all clonal expansions. Together, these results imply that one role for telomerase in T cells may be to renew or extend replicative potential via the rejuvenation of telomere length.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20021003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179682000004

    View details for PubMedID 12461078

  • Developmental plasticity of lymphoid progenitors SEMINARS IN IMMUNOLOGY Prohaska, S. S., Scherer, D. C., Weissman, I. L., Kondo, M. 2002; 14 (6): 377-384


    The identification of the common lymphoid progenitors in mouse bone marrow allows us to directly assess the regulatory mechanisms of lymphoid lineage commitment. The unexpected finding of a latent myeloid differentiation potential in lymphoid progenitors sheds light on the importance of cytokine receptor expression at this stage. We will discuss the biological nature of common lymphoid progenitors as a model of differentiation from multipotent to lineage committed progenitors. Elucidation of this hidden differentiation potential in progenitors will help further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control the cell fate determination of not only common lymphoid progenitors, but also their ancestors, hematopoietic stem cells, and their descendents such as committed T and B cell progenitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1044-5323(02)00072-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179881000004

    View details for PubMedID 12457610

  • Langerhans cells renew in the skin throughout life under steady-state conditions NATURE IMMUNOLOGY Merad, M., Manz, M. G., Karsunky, H., Wagers, A., Peters, W., Charo, I., Weissman, I. L., Cyster, J. G., Engleman, E. G. 2002; 3 (12): 1135-1141


    Langerhans cells (LCs) are bone marrow (BM)-derived epidermal dendritic cells (DCs) that represent a critical immunologic barrier to the external environment, but little is known about their life cycle. Here, we show that in lethally irradiated mice that had received BM transplants, LCs of host origin remained for at least 18 months, whereas DCs in other organs were almost completely replaced by donor cells within 2 months. In parabiotic mice with separate organs, but a shared blood circulation, there was no mixing of LCs. However, in skin exposed to ultraviolet light, LCs rapidly disappeared and were replaced by circulating LC precursors within 2 weeks. The recruitment of new LCs was dependent on their expression of the CCR2 chemokine receptor and on the secretion of CCR2-binding chemokines by inflamed skin. These data indicate that under steady-state conditions, LCs are maintained locally, but inflammatory changes in the skin result in their replacement by blood-borne LC progenitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ni852

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179467800010

    View details for PubMedID 12415265

  • Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells SCIENCE Wagers, A. J., Sherwood, R. I., Christensen, J. L., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 297 (5590): 2256-2259


    To rigorously test the in vivo cell fate specificity of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we generated chimeric animals by transplantation of a single green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked HSC into lethally irradiated nontransgenic recipients. Single HSCs robustly reconstituted peripheral blood leukocytes in these animals, but did not contribute appreciably to nonhematopoietic tissues, including brain, kidney, gut, liver, and muscle. Similarly, in GFP+:GFP- parabiotic mice, we found substantial chimerism of hematopoietic but not nonhematopoietic cells. These data indicate that "transdifferentiation" of circulating HSCs and/or their progeny is an extremely rare event, if it occurs at all.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1074807

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178222000046

    View details for PubMedID 12215650

  • Prospective isolation of human clonogenic common myeloid progenitors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Manz, M. G., Miyamoto, T., Akashi, K., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 99 (18): 11872-11877


    The hierarchical development from hematopoietic stem cells to mature cells of the hematolymphoid system involves progressive loss of self-renewal capacity, proliferation ability, and lineage potentials. Here we show the prospective isolation of early developmental intermediates, the human clonogenic common myeloid progenitors and their downstream progeny, the granulocyte/macrophage and megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitors. All three populations reside in the lineage-negative (lin(-)) CD34(+)CD38(+) fraction of adult bone marrow as well as in cord blood. They are distinguishable by the expression of the IL-3R alpha chain, the receptor of an early-acting hematopoietic cytokine, and CD45RA, an isoform of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase involved in negative regulation of cytokine signaling. Multipotent progenitors, early lymphoid progenitors, and the here-defined myeloid progenitors express distinct profiles of hematopoiesis-affiliated genes. The isolation of highly purified hematopoietic intermediates provides tools to better understand developmental programs underlying normal and leukemic hematopoiesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.172384399

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177843100061

    View details for PubMedID 12193648

  • The road ended up at stem cells IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Weissman, I. L. 2002; 185: 159-174


    For me the search for hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) actually started with the discovery by Till, McCulloch, and colleagues (1-3) that bone marrow contained single cells that could give rise to myeloerythroid colonies in the spleen, and sometimes these colonies contained cells that made more spleen colonies as well as radioprotected and reconstituted lethally irradiated mice (3). But in retrospect, it should have started with the remarkable observation of Ray Owen in 1945 that bovine fraternal twins sharing a single placenta and blood circulation retained production of blood cells genetically defined to be from both throughout their life (4). It could be argued that this was the experiment that began both modern experimental hematology as well as modern cellular immunology. The Till, McCulloch, Wu, Becker, and Simonovitch experiments were elegant demonstrations that single, genetically marked cells existed (random DNA breaks and translocations induced by sublethal irradiation of the donor bone marrow) that could both self-renew and differentiate (2, 5). But these experiments did not put the pure cells in the hands of scientists, and so most of their functions for the next 25 years were implied rather than directly analyzed. Just as genetics is the complement to biochemistry (when one considers genes and gene products), cell marking is the complement to cell purification in the fields of developmental and cellular biology. The first attempts at such cellular purification came from the 'school' of Till & McCulloch (6, 7), and independently the school of Van Bekkum in the Netherlands (8). But what was lacking in those experiments and at that time were both a comprehensive approach that would take into account the clonal activity of stem cells in both self-renewal and differentiation to all blood cell outcomes, and the tools with which one could separate what turned out to be an extremely rare population in the bone marrow. And, it wasn't known until much later that most day 8-10 spleen colonies were the progeny of progenitors, not stem cells (9). Two inventions facilitated the technology of purification of HSC: the advent of monoclonal antibody technology by Kohler & Milstein (10), and the development of the multiparameter fluorescence activated cell sorter by the Herzenberg group (11). My laboratory had established assays for the clonal precursors of T cells and B cells, and we had been using the Till-McCulloch spleen colony clonal assays since the mid-1960s. In the late 1970s and early 1980s we began in earnest the search for mouse early hematopoietic progenitors, including HSCs (12-16). The purification of HSCs proved to be much like the purification of an enzyme, or a cell surface receptor, or a gene. Successive enrichments finally led to the isolation of a population, which could no longer be subdivided and which contained precursors that read out in all clonal assays as well as in radioprotection of lethally irradiated hosts (17). Our first experiments transplanting single HSC in 1991 and 1992, led to the definitive demonstration that these were indeed HSCs (18-20). But these experiments and the ideas that led to them were developed in the context of immunology and experimental hematology as they were emerging in the 1950s and 60 s. This volume of Immunological Reviews is a rich testimony to the kinds of ideas and experiments that, at least in retrospect, turned out to be critical. Many roads were taken, but only one ended up at stem cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177588900014

    View details for PubMedID 12190929

  • Myeloid or lymphoid promiscuity as a critical step in hematopoietic lineage commitment DEVELOPMENTAL CELL Miyamoto, T., Iwasaki, H., Reizis, B., Ye, M., Graf, T., Weissman, I. L., Akashi, K. 2002; 3 (1): 137-147


    We demonstrate here that "promiscuous" expression of myeloid or lymphoid genes precedes lineage commitment in hematopoiesis. Prospectively purified single common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) coexpress myelo-erythroid but not lymphoid genes, whereas single common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) coexpress T and B lymphoid but not myeloid genes. Genes unrelated to the adopted lineage are downregulated in bipotent and monopotent descendants of CMPs and CLPs. Promiscuous gene expression does not alter the biological potential of multipotent progenitors: CMPs with an activated endogenous M lysozyme locus yield normal proportions of myelo-erythroid colonies, and CLPs expressing the pre-T cell receptor alpha gene differentiate into normal numbers of B cells. Thus, the accessibility for multiple myeloid or lymphoid programs promiscuously may allow flexibility in fate commitments at these multipotent stages.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176769500016

    View details for PubMedID 12110174

  • Myeloerythroid-restricted progenitors are sufficient to confer radioprotection and provide the majority of day 8 CFU-S JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Nakorn, T. N., Traver, D., Weissman, I. L., Akashi, K. 2002; 109 (12): 1579-1585


    Whole-body irradiation at the minimal lethal dose causes bone marrow failure and death within 12-18 days. To identify the principal components of the hematopoietic system that are radioprotective, we transplanted lethally irradiated mice with purified progenitors: common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), megakaryocyte/erythrocyte-restricted progenitors (MEPs), or granulocyte/monocyte-restricted progenitors (GMPs). Transplanted CMPs gave rise to cells both of the granulocyte/monocyte (GM) series and the megakaryocyte/erythrocyte series, whereas GMPs or MEPs showed reconstitution of only GM or ME cells, respectively. CMPs and MEPs but not GMPs protected mice in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that erythrocytes, platelets, or both are the critical effectors of radioprotection. Accordingly, CMPs and MEPs formed robust colonies in recipient bone marrow and spleen, whereas GMPs formed small colonies that rapidly disappeared. Direct comparisons of spleen CFU (CFU-S) potentials among each progenitor subset showed that MEPs contain the vast majority of day 8 CFU-S activity, suggesting that day 8 CFU-S are the precursors of radioprotective cell subsets. All animals radioprotected for 30 days subsequently survived for at least 6 months post-transplant, and showed only host-derived hematopoiesis after 30 days. These findings suggest that rare hematopoietic stem cells survive myeloablation that can eventually repopulate irradiated hosts if myeloerythroid-restricted progenitors transiently rescue ablated animals through the critical window of bone marrow failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI200215272

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176318600011

    View details for PubMedID 12070305

  • Stem cells - Scientific, medical, and political issues NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Weissman, I. L. 2002; 346 (20): 1576-1579

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175563900012

    View details for PubMedID 11994551

  • Replicative senescence of hematopoietic stem cells during serial transplantation: does telomere shortening play a role? ONCOGENE Allsopp, R. C., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 21 (21): 3270-3273


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have a finite proliferative lifespan, based upon the limited number of times they can be serially transplanted in mice. Telomeres have been shown to shorten during the division of many normal somatic cells in humans, and the attrition of telomeres has been shown to ultimately cause replicative senescence in vitro for a number of different human cell strains. Whereas most human cell types have little to no detectable levels of telomerase activity, hematopoietic cells, including HSC, express low to moderate levels of telomerase, and yet telomeres shorten considerably during replicative aging of these cells. Here we consider the role telomerase may play in the hematopoietic system as well as the effect that over-expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase may have on the replicative capacity of hematopoietic stem cells during transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj/onc/1205314

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175633300003

    View details for PubMedID 12032768

  • Hematopoietic stem cells are uniquely selective in their migratory response to chemokines JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Wright, D. E., Bowman, E. P., Wagers, A. J., BUTCHER, E. C., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 195 (9): 1145-1154


    Although hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) migration into and out of sites of active hematopoiesis is poorly understood, it is a critical process that underlies modern clinical stem cell transplantation and may be important for normal hematopoietic homeostasis. Given the established roles of chemotactic cytokine (chemokine)-directed migration of other leukocyte subsets, the migration of murine HSC to a large panel of CC and CXC chemokines was investigated. HSC migrated only in response to stromal derived factor-1alpha, the ligand for the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). CXCR4 expression by HSC was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Surprisingly, HSC also expressed mRNA for CCR3 and CCR9, although they failed to migrate to the ligands for these receptors. The sharply restricted chemotactic responsiveness of HSC is unique among leukocytes and may be necessary for the specific homing of circulating HSC to bone marrow, as well as for the maintenance of HSC in hematopoietic microenvironments.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20011284

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176110700006

    View details for PubMedID 11994419

  • Cell fate determination from stem cells GENE THERAPY Wagers, A. J., Christensen, J. L., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 9 (10): 606-612


    In the adult, tissue-specific stem cells are thought to be responsible for the replacement of differentiated cells within continuously regenerating tissues, such as the liver, skin, and blood system. In this review, we will consider the factors that influence stem cell fate, taking as a primary example the cell fate determination of hematopoietic stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj/gt/3301717

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175525800002

    View details for PubMedID 12032706

  • Lineage infidelity in myeloid cells with TCR gene rearrangement: A latent developmental potential of proT cells revealed by ectopic cytokine receptor signaling PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA King, A. G., Kondo, M., Scherer, D. C., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 99 (7): 4508-4513


    The most immature lymphoid-committed progenitors in both the bone marrow (common lymphoid progenitor) and thymus (proT1) maintain a latent granulocyte/macrophage (G/M) differentiation potential that can be initiated by signals emanating from exogenously expressed IL-2 receptors. In this study, we investigate at which developmental stage thymocytes lose this G/M differentiation potential. We demonstrate that the next maturational stage after proT1 cells (proT2), but not preT (TN3) cells, can convert cell fate from lymphoid to myeloid in response to ectopic IL-2 receptor signaling in human IL-2Rbeta transgenic mice. It is significant that approximately 10% of clonogenic G/M colonies derived from proT cells of IL-2Rbeta transgenic mice have DJ rearrangement specifically at the Dbeta1 but not Dbeta2 segment in the TCRbeta locus. No TCR gene rearrangement is observed in G/M cells from nontransgenic mice, suggesting that the G/M cells we observe in this system were truly lymphoid-committed before stimulation with IL-2. In addition, Dbeta1 and Dbeta2 DJ rearrangement of the TCRbeta gene may be differentially regulated and thus serve as markers for distinct proT cell maturational stages.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.072087899

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174856000068

    View details for PubMedID 11917122

  • Changes in integrin expression are associated with altered homing properties of Lin(-/lo)Thy(1.1lo)Sca-1(+) (+)c-kit(+) hematopoietic stem cells following mobilization by cyclophosphamide/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY Wagers, A. J., Allsopp, R. C., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 30 (2): 176-185


    Although migration of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is essential for normal hematopoiesis and successful hematopoietic cell transplantation, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this movement. We have sought to characterize the factors that regulate HSC migration by analyzing changes in expression of particular adhesion receptors associated with cyclophosphamide/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Cy/G-CSF)-induced HSC mobilization.Expression by Lineage(-/lo)Thy1.1(lo)Sca-1(+)c-kit(+) HSC of members of the beta1 integrin family of adhesion molecules was assessed in untreated or Cy/G-CSF-treated mice by multiparameter flow cytometry. In parallel, the in vivo homing properties of normal and mobilized HSC were compared following intravenous transfer of fluorescently marked HSC.Normal adult HSC express high levels of several beta1 integrin family members. Following Cy/G treatment, bone marrow HSC selectively downregulate alpha 2 integrin expression and upregulate alpha 5 expression. HSC found in the blood following Cy/G-CSF treatment express significantly lower levels of multiple integrins than their bone marrow and/or splenic counterparts. Changes in integrin expression by blood-borne HSC correlate with a 50% decrease in their ability to home to the bone marrow in short-term assays, and with previously observed defects in competitive engraftment by these HSC. Similar reductions in bone marrow (BM) homing are observed for BM HSC treated with alpha 4 integrin function blocking mAb prior to injection. Modulation of integrin expression induced by mobilization was not associated with cell-cycle progression.Changes in integrin expression and function are associated with HSC mobilization and likely significantly affect the engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174129400010

    View details for PubMedID 11823053

  • Intrathymic injection for analysis of T-cell progenitor activity. Methods in molecular medicine Jerabek, L., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 63: 161-165


    Within our field, improvement in fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and molecular technologies has led to various types of correlative studies that imply the developmental sequence and subsequent emigration of thymic-lymphocyte subsets. Unfortunately, the implied conclusions are often accepted unequivocally by most of the immunology community. In fact, direct demonstration of precursor progeny relationships by specific cell marking within the thymus, or specific delivery of purified cells at a particular stage of isolation back into the thymus, are the only methods that reproducibly identify cell stages and intermediates (1-11).

    View details for DOI 10.1385/1-59259-140-X:161

    View details for PubMedID 21437807

  • Flk-2 is a marker in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation: A simple method to isolate long-term stem cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Christensen, J. L., Weissman, I. L. 2001; 98 (25): 14541-14546


    Clonogenic multipotent mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells are contained within the c-kit(+) (K) lineage(-/lo) (L) Sca-1(+) (S) population of hematopoietic cells; long-term (LT) and short-term (ST) HSCs are Thy-1.1(lo). c-kit is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, a class of receptors that are important in the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. To establish whether the Flk-2/Flt3 receptor tyrosine kinase was expressed on the most primitive LT-HSCs, we sorted highly purified multipotent stem and progenitor cells on the basis of Flk-2 surface expression and used them in competitive reconstitution assays. Low numbers of Flk-2(-) HSCs gave rise to long-term multilineage reconstitution in the majority of recipients, whereas the transfer of Flk-2(+) multipotent cells resulted in mostly short-term multilineage reconstitution. The KLS subset of adult mouse bone marrow was analyzed for Flk-2 and Thy-1.1 expression. Three phenotypically and functionally distinct populations were isolated: Thy(lo) Flk-2(-) (LT-HSCs), Thy(lo) Flk-2(+) (ST-HSCs), and Thy(-) Flk-2(+) multipotent progenitors. The loss of Thy-1.1 and gain of Flk-2 expression marks the loss of self-renewal in HSC maturation. The addition of Flk-2 antibody to the lineage mix allows direct isolation of LT-HSC from adult bone marrow as c-kit(+) lin(-) Sca-1(+) Flk-2(-) from many strains of mice. Fetal liver HSCs are contained within Flk-2(-) and Flk-2(+) KTLS cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172576900065

    View details for PubMedID 11724967

  • Physiological migration of hematopoietic stem and progenitor Celts SCIENCE Wright, D. E., Wagers, A. J., Gulati, A. P., Johnson, F. L., Weissman, I. L. 2001; 294 (5548): 1933-1936


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside predominantly in bone marrow, but low numbers of HSCs are also found in peripheral blood. We examined the fate of blood-borne HSCs using genetically marked parabiotic mice, which are surgically conjoined and share a common circulation. Parabionts rapidly established stable, functional cross engraftment of partner-derived HSCs and maintained partner-derived hematopoiesis after surgical separation. Determination of the residence time of injected blood-borne progenitor cells suggests that circulating HSCs/progenitors are cleared quickly from the blood. These data demonstrate that HSCs rapidly and constitutively migrate through the blood and play a physiological role in, at least, the functional reengraftment of unconditioned bone marrow.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172465000061

    View details for PubMedID 11729320

  • Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem cells NATURE Reya, T., Morrison, S. J., Clarke, M. F., Weissman, I. L. 2001; 414 (6859): 105-111


    Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells is that of self-renewal. Through this property, striking parallels can be found between stem cells and cancer cells: tumours may often originate from the transformation of normal stem cells, similar signalling pathways may regulate self-renewal in stem cells and cancer cells, and cancer cells may include 'cancer stem cells' - rare cells with indefinite potential for self-renewal that drive tumorigenesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171898900054

    View details for PubMedID 11689955

  • Lymphocyte development from hematopoietic stem cells CURRENT OPINION IN GENETICS & DEVELOPMENT Kondo, M., Scherer, D. C., King, A. G., Manz, M. G., Weissman, I. L. 2001; 11 (5): 520-526


    The recent application of new techniques, such as multi-color cell sorting and the production of transgenic and gene-knockout mice, has contributed to a better understanding of lymphocyte development from hematopoietic stem cells. Now that we can purify progenitors at different maturational stages during lymphocyte development, the challenge is to understand the processes that govern each developmental stage transition.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171477500005

    View details for PubMedID 11532393

  • Immunity to infections following hematopoietic cell transplantation CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY Brown, J. M., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2001; 13 (4): 451-457


    Hematopoietic cell transplantation has progressed from the use of unpurified bone marrow cells or mobilized peripheral blood cells to the use of purified stem cells and progenitor cells. These kinds of transplants can be designed to provide not only hematopoietic rescue but also augmented innate and acquired immunity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169648600010

    View details for PubMedID 11498301

  • Fetal liver myelopoiesis occurs through distinct, prospectively isolatable progenitor subsets BLOOD Traver, D., Miyamoto, T., Christensen, J., Iwasaki-Arai, J., Akashi, K., Weissman, I. L. 2001; 98 (3): 627-635


    Hematopoietic fate maps in the developing mouse embryo remain imprecise. Definitive, adult-type hematopoiesis first appears in the fetal liver, then progresses to the spleen and bone marrow. Clonogenic common lymphoid progenitors and clonogenic common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) in adult mouse bone marrow that give rise to all lymphoid and myeloid lineages, respectively, have recently been identified. Here it is shown that myelopoiesis in the fetal liver similarly proceeds through a CMP equivalent. Fetal liver CMPs give rise to megakaryocyte-erythrocyte-restricted progenitors (MEPs) and granulocyte-monocyte-restricted progenitors (GMPs) that can also be prospectively isolated by cell surface phenotype. MEPs and GMPs generate mutually exclusive cell types in clonogenic colony assays and in transplantation experiments, suggesting that the lineage restriction observed within each progenitor subset is absolute under normal conditions. Purified progenitor populations were used to analyze expression profiles of various hematopoiesis-related genes. Expression patterns closely matched those of the adult counterpart populations. These results suggest that adult hematopoietic hierarchies are determined early in the development of the definitive immune system and suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying cell fate decisions within the myeloerythroid lineages are conserved from embryo to adult. (Blood. 2001;98:627-635)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170094800022

    View details for PubMedID 11468160

  • The Hox cofactor and proto-oncogene Pbx1 is required for maintenance of definitive hematopoiesis in the fetal liver BLOOD DiMartino, J. F., SELLERI, L., Traver, D., Firpo, M. T., Rhee, J., Warnke, R., O'Gorman, S., Weissman, I. L., Cleary, M. L. 2001; 98 (3): 618-626


    Pbx1 is the product of a proto-oncogene originally discovered at the site of chromosomal translocations in acute leukemias. It binds DNA as a complex with a broad subset of homeodomain proteins, but its contributions to hematopoiesis have not been established. This paper reports that Pbx1 is expressed in hematopoietic progenitors during murine embryonic development and that its absence results in severe anemia and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 15 (E15) or E16. Definitive myeloerythroid lineages are present in Pbx1(-/-) fetal livers, but the total numbers of colony-forming cells are substantially reduced. Fetal liver hypoplasia reflects quantitative as well as qualitative defects in the most primitive multilineage progenitors and their lineage-restricted progeny. Hematopoietic stem cells from Pbx1(-/-) embryos have reduced colony-forming activity and are unable to establish multilineage hematopoiesis in competitive reconstitution experiments. Common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), the earliest known myeloerythroid-restricted progenitors, are markedly depleted in Pbx1(-/-) embryos at E14 and display clonogenic defects in erythroid colony formation. Comparative cell-cycle indexes suggest that these defects result largely from insufficient proliferation. Megakaryocyte- and erythrocyte-committed progenitors are also reduced in number and show decreased erythroid colony-forming potential. Taken together, these data indicate that Pbx1 is essential for the function of hematopoietic progenitors with erythropoietic potential and that its loss creates a proliferative constriction at the level of the CMP. Thus, Pbx1 is required for the maintenance, but not the initiation, of definitive hematopoiesis and contributes to the mitotic amplifications of progenitor subsets through which mature erythrocytes are generated. (Blood. 2001;98:618-626)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170094800021

    View details for PubMedID 11468159

  • From hematopoiesis to neuropoiesis: Evidence of overlapping genetic programs PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Terskikh, A. V., Easterday, M. C., Li, L. H., Hood, L., Kornblum, H. I., Geschwind, D. H., Weissman, I. L. 2001; 98 (14): 7934-7939


    It is reasonable to propose that gene expression profiles of purified stem cells could give clues for the molecular mechanisms of stem cell behavior. We took advantage of cDNA subtraction to identify a set of genes selectively expressed in mouse adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) as opposed to bone marrow (BM). Analysis of HSC-enriched genes revealed several key regulatory gene candidates, including two novel seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors. Furthermore, by using cDNA microarray techniques we found a large set of HSC-enriched genes that are expressed in mouse neurospheres (a population greatly enriched for neural progenitor cells), but not present in terminally differentiated neural cells. In situ hybridization demonstrated that many of them, including one HSC-enriched 7TM receptor, were selectively expressed in the germinal zones of fetal and adult brain, the regions harboring mouse neural stem cells. We propose that at least some of the transcripts that are selectively and commonly expressed in two or more types of stem cells define a functionally conserved group of genes evolved to participate in basic stem cell functions, including stem cell self-renewal.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169744200054

    View details for PubMedID 11438738

  • Dendritic cell potentials of early lymphoid and myeloid progenitors BLOOD Manz, M. G., Traver, D., Miyamoto, T., Weissman, I. L., Akashi, K. 2001; 97 (11): 3333-3341


    It has been proposed that there are at least 2 classes of dendritic cells (DCs), CD8alpha(+) DCs derived from the lymphoid lineage and CD8alpha(-) DCs derived from the myeloid lineage. Here, the abilities of lymphoid- and myeloid-restricted progenitors to generate DCs are compared, and their overall contributions to the DC compartment are evaluated. It has previously been shown that primitive myeloid-committed progenitors (common myeloid progenitors [CMPs]) are efficient precursors of both CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs in vivo. Here it is shown that the earliest lymphoid-committed progenitors (common lymphoid progenitors [CLPs]) and CMPs and their progeny granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) can give rise to functional DCs in vitro and in vivo. CLPs are more efficient in generating DCs than their T-lineage descendants, the early thymocyte progenitors and pro-T cells, and CMPs are more efficient DC precursors than the descendant GMPs, whereas pro-B cells and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors are incapable of generating DCs. Thus, DC developmental potential is preserved during T- but not B-lymphoid differentiation from CLP and during granulocyte-macrophage but not megakaryocyte-erythrocyte development from CMP. In vivo reconstitution experiments show that CLPs and CMPs can reconstitute CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs with similar efficiency on a per cell basis. However, CMPs are 10-fold more numerous than CLPs, suggesting that at steady state, CLPs provide only a minority of splenic DCs and approximately half the DCs in thymus, whereas most DCs, including CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) subtypes, are of myeloid origin. (Blood. 2001;97:3333-3341)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168927900004

    View details for PubMedID 11369621

  • Telomere shortening accompanies increased cell cycle activity during serial transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Allsopp, R. C., Cheshier, S., Weissman, I. L. 2001; 193 (8): 917-924


    Reactivation of telomerase and maintenance of telomere length can lead to the prevention of replicative senescence in some human somatic cells grown in vitro. To investigate whether telomere shortening might also play a role in the limitation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) division capacity in vivo, we analyzed telomere length during serial transplantation of murine HSCs. Southern blot analysis of telomere length in donor bone marrow cells revealed extensive shortening ( approximately 7 kb) after just two rounds of HSC transplantation. The number of cycling HSCs increased after transplantation and remained elevated for at least 4 mo, while the frequency of HSCs in the bone marrow was completely regenerated by 2 mo after transplantation. Direct analysis of telomeres in HSCs by fluorescent in situ hybridization during serial transplantation also revealed a reduction in telomere size. Together, these data show that telomeres shorten during division of HSCs in vivo, and are consistent with the hypothesis that telomere shortening may limit the replicative capacity of HSCs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168199900004

    View details for PubMedID 11304552

  • Cyclophosphamide/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor causes selective mobilization of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells into the blood after M phase of the cell cycle BLOOD Wright, D. E., Cheshier, S. H., Wagers, A. J., Randall, T. D., Christensen, J. L., Weissman, I. L. 2001; 97 (8): 2278-2285


    Cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (MPB HSC) are widely used for transplantation in the treatment of malignancies, but the mechanism of HSC mobilization is unclear. Although many HSC in bone marrow (BM) cycle rapidly and expand their numbers in response to cytoreductive agents, such as cyclophosphamide (CY), and cytokines, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), MPB HSC are almost all in the G(0) or G(1) phase of the cell cycle. This has raised the question of whether a subset of noncycling BM HSC is selectively released, or whether cycling BM HSC are mobilized after M phase, but before the next S phase of the cell cycle. To distinguish between these possibilities, mice were treated with one dose of CY followed by daily doses of G-CSF, and dividing cells were marked by administration of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) during the interval that BM HSC are expanding. After CY and 4 days of G-CSF, 98.5% of the 2n DNA content long-term repopulating MPB (LT)-HSC stained positively for BrdU, and therefore derived from cells that divided during the treatment interval. Next, LT-HSC from mice previously treated with a single dose of CY, which kills cycling cells, and 3 daily doses of G-CSF, were nearly all killed by a second dose of CY, suggesting that CY/G-CSF causes virtually all LT-HSC to cycle. Analysis of cyclin D2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and total RNA content of MPB HSC suggests that these cells are mostly in G(1) phase. After CY/G-CSF treatment, virtually all BM LT-HSC enter the cell cycle; some of these HSC then migrate into the blood, specifically after M phase, and are rapidly recruited to particular hematopoietic organs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168516100011

    View details for PubMedID 11290588

  • L-selectin can facilitate metastasis to lymph nodes in a transgenic mouse model of carcinogenesis PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Qian, F., Hanahan, D., Weissman, I. L. 2001; 98 (7): 3976-3981


    L-selectin mediates homing of lymphocytes to lymph nodes (LN). Transgenic mice that express rat insulin promoter regulated simian virus 40 Tag (RIP-Tag) develop large, local cancers that metastasize to liver but not LN. To test whether this lack of LN metastases reflects their absence from the circulation, transgenic mice were produced that express Tag (T), L-selectin (L), and Escherichia coli LacZ (Z), in pancreatic beta cells. LTZ mice developed insulinomas that specifically had LN metastases; metastasis was blocked by an anti L-selectin mAb. LacZ(+) tumor cells from these LN homed to secondary LN upon transfer. These results suggest that the highly vascularized islet carcinomas are shedding tumor cells into the bloodstream, which is a necessary but insufficient condition for metastasis to occur; L-selectin can facilitate homing of such tumor cells to LN, resulting in metastasis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167833700067

    View details for PubMedID 11274419

  • Stem and progenitor cells: Origins, phenotypes, lineage commitments, and transdifferentiations ANNUAL REVIEW OF CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Weissman, I. L., Anderson, D. J., Gage, F. 2001; 17: 387-403


    Multipotent stem cells are clonal cells that self-renew as well as differentiate to regenerate adult tissues. Whereas stem cells and their fates are known by unique genetic marker studies, the fate and function of these cells are best studied by their prospective isolation. This review is about the properties of various highly purified tissue-specific multipotent stem cells and purified oligolineage progenitors. We contend that unless the stem or progenitor cells in question have been purified to near homogeneity, one cannot know whether their generation of expected (or unexpected) progeny is a property of a known cell type. It is interesting that in the hematopoietic system the only long-term self-renewing cells in the stem and progenitors pool are the hematopoietic stem cells. This fact is discussed in the context of normal and leukemic hematopoiesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172448800013

    View details for PubMedID 11687494

  • Hematopoietic stem cells need two signals to prevent apoptosis; BCL-2 can provide one of these, Kitl/c-Kit signaling the other JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Domen, J., Weissman, I. L. 2000; 192 (12): 1707-1718


    Growth factors can cause cells to proliferate, differentiate, survive, or die. Distinguishing between these responses is difficult in multicellular, multiparameter systems. Yet this is essential to understand the impact on cells like hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which have strict and still poorly understood growth factor requirements. Single cell plating in serum-free medium allows direct assessment of growth factor responses. The range of tested factors can be expanded if the cells are protected from growth factor deprivation-induced apoptosis. BCL-2 is overexpressed in HSCs of H2K-BCL-2 transgenic mice, protecting them from many apoptotic stimuli. The response of single wild-type and transgenic HSCs to stimulations with individual factors was tested. Surprisingly, we find that high level BCL-2 expression does not prevent rapid death under serum-free conditions, even though it does in the presence of serum. We also find that transgenic, but not wild-type cells, survive and proliferate rapidly in response to steel factor (Kit ligand). These studies show that two separate signals are necessary to prevent apoptosis in HSCs, and that Kit ligand by itself provides a strong proliferative stimulus to HSCs. However, the proliferative response does not result in self-renewal, but in differentiation to all known hematopoietic oligolineage progenitors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166013100004

    View details for PubMedID 11120768

  • Development of CD8 alpha-positive dendritic cells from a common myeloid progenitor SCIENCE Traver, D., Akashi, K., Manz, M., Merad, M., Miyamoto, T., Engleman, E. G., Weissman, I. L. 2000; 290 (5499): 2152-2154


    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical in both initiating adaptive immune responses and maintaining tolerance to self antigens. These apparently contradictory roles have been suggested to depend on different subsets of DCs that arise from either myeloid or lymphoid hematopoietic origins, respectively. Although DC expression of CD8alpha is attributed to a lymphoid origin, here we show that both CD8alpha+ and CD8alpha- DCs can arise from clonogenic common myeloid progenitors in both thymus and spleen. Thus, expression of CD8alpha is not indicative of a lymphoid origin, and phenotypic and functional differences among DC subsets are likely to reflect maturation status rather than ontogeny.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165870600058

    View details for PubMedID 11118150

  • "Fluorescent timer": Protein that changes color with time SCIENCE Terskikh, A., Fradkov, A., Ermakova, G., Zaraisky, A., Tan, P., Kajava, A. V., Zhao, X. N., Lukyanov, S., Matz, M., Kim, S., Weissman, I., Siebert, P. 2000; 290 (5496): 1585-1588


    We generated a mutant of the red fluorescent protein drFP583. The mutant (E5) changes its fluorescence from green to red over time. The rate of color conversion is independent of protein concentration and therefore can be used to trace time-dependent expression. We used in vivo labeling with E5 to measure expression from the heat shock-dependent promoter in Caenorhabditis elegans and from the Otx-2 promoter in developing Xenopus embryos. Thus, E5 is a "fluorescent timer" that can be used to monitor both activation and down-regulation of target promoters on the whole-organism scale.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165446200053

    View details for PubMedID 11090358

  • Cell-fate conversion of lymphoid-committed progenitors by instructive actions of cytokines NATURE Kondo, M., Scherer, D. C., Miyamoto, T., King, A. G., Akashi, K., Sugamura, K., Weissman, I. L. 2000; 407 (6802): 383-386


    The primary role of cytokines in haemato-lymphopoiesis is thought to be the regulation of cell growth and survival. But the instructive action of cytokines in haematopoiesis has not been well addressed. Here we show that a clonogenic common lymphoid progenitor, a bone marrow-resident cell that gives rise exclusively to lymphocytes (T, B and natural killer cells), can be redirected to the myeloid lineage by stimulation through exogenously expressed interleukin (IL)-2 and GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) receptors. Analysis of mutants of the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor revealed that the granulocyte- and monocyte-differentiation signals are triggered by different cytoplasmic domains, showing that the signalling pathway(s) responsible for these unique developmental outcomes are separable. Finally, we show that the endogenous myelomonocytic cytokine receptors for GM-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) are expressed at low to moderate levels on the more primitive haematopoietic stem cells, are absent on common lymphoid progenitors, and are upregulated after myeloid lineage induction by IL-2. We conclude that cytokine signalling can regulate cell-fate decisions and propose that a critical step in lymphoid commitment is downregulation of cytokine receptors that drive myeloid cell development.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089390700048

    View details for PubMedID 11014194

  • Purified hematopoietic stem cell grafts induce tolerance to alloantigens and can mediate positive and negative T cell selection PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Shizuru, J. A., Weissman, I. L., Kernoff, R., Masek, M., Scheffold, Y. C. 2000; 97 (17): 9555-9560


    Engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow (BM) has been shown to induce tolerance to organs genotypically matched with the BM donor. Immune reconstitution after BM transplantation therefore involves re-establishment of a T cell pool tolerant to antigens present on both donor and host tissues. However, how hematopoietic grafts exert their influence over the regenerating immune system is not completely understood. Prior studies suggest that education of the newly arising T cell pool involves distinct contributions from donor and host stromal elements. Specifically, negative selection is thought to be mediated primarily by donor BM-derived antigen-presenting cells, whereas positive selection is dictated by radio-resistant host-derived thymic stromal cells. In this report we studied the effect of highly purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) on organ transplantation tolerance induction and immune reconstitution. In contrast to engraftment of BM that results in near-complete donor T cell chimerism, HSC engraftment results in mixed T cell chimerism. Nonetheless we observed that HSC grafts induce tolerance to donor-matched neonatal heart grafts, and one way the HSC grafts alter host immune responses is via deletion of newly arising donor as well as radiation-resistant host T cells. Furthermore, using an in vivo assay of graft rejection to study positive selection we made the unexpected observation that T cells in chimeric mice rejected grafts only in the context of the donor MHC type. These latter findings conflict with the conventionally held view that radio-resistant host elements primarily dictate positive selection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088840500041

    View details for PubMedID 10920206

  • Inactivation of a GFP retrovirus occurs at multiple levels in long-term repopulating stem cells and their differentiated progeny BLOOD Klug, C. A., Cheshier, S., Weissman, I. L. 2000; 96 (3): 894-901


    Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy holds promise for the treatment of many hematologic disorders. One major variable that has limited the overall success of gene therapy to date is the lack of sustained gene expression from viral vectors in transduced stem cell populations. To understand the basis for reduced gene expression at a single-cell level, we have used a murine retroviral vector, MFG, that expresses the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to transduce purified populations of long-term self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSC) isolated using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Limiting dilution reconstitution of lethally irradiated recipient mice with 100% transduced, GFP(+) LT-HSC showed that silencing of gene expression occurred rapidly in most integration events at the LT-HSC level, irrespective of the initial levels of GFP expression. When inactivation occurred at the LT-HSC level, there was no GFP expression in any hematopoietic lineage clonally derived from silenced LT-HSC. Inactivation downstream of LT-HSC that stably expressed GFP( )in long-term reconstituted animals was restricted primarily to lymphoid cells. These observations suggest at least 2 distinct mechanisms of silencing retrovirally expressed genes in hematopoietic cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088394000017

    View details for PubMedID 10910902

  • AML1/ETO-expressing nonleukemic stem cells in acute myelogenous leukemia with 8;21 chromosomal translocation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Miyamoto, T., Weissman, I. L., Akashi, K. 2000; 97 (13): 7521-7526


    Leukemia-specific AML1/ETO transcripts are detectable in most patients with t(8;21) acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in long-term remission. To understand the inconsistency between the clinical cure and the presence of "residual disease" at a molecular level, we separated and identified the cells expressing AML1/ETO by phenotype and function. Here we demonstrate that AML1/ETO transcripts are present in a fraction of stem cells, monocytes, and B cells in remission marrow, and in a fraction of B cells in leukemic marrow, but not in T cells. AML1/ETO transcripts also were demonstrated in a fraction of colony-forming cells of erythroid, granulocyte-macrophage, and/or megakaryocyte lineages in both leukemic and remission marrow. These data strongly suggest that the acquisition of the t(8;21) occurs at the level of stem cells capable of differentiating into B cells as well as all myeloid lineages, and that a fraction of the AML1/ETO-expressing stem cells undergo additional oncogenic event(s) that ultimately leads to transformation into AML.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087811600106

    View details for PubMedID 10861016

  • 50 million years of chordate evolution: Seeking the origins of adaptive immunity PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Laird, D. J., De Tomaso, A. W., COOPER, M. D., Weissman, I. L. 2000; 97 (13): 6924-6926

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087811600002

    View details for PubMedID 10860947

  • B lymphopoiesis in the thymus JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Akashi, K., Richie, L. I., Miyamoto, T., Carr, W. H., Weissman, I. L. 2000; 164 (10): 5221-5226


    The thymus has been regarded as the major site of T cell differentiation. We find that in addition to alphabeta and gammadelta T cells, a significant number (approximately 3 x 104 per day) of B220+IgM+ mature B cells are exported from the thymus of C57BL/6 mice. Of these emigrating B cells, we estimate that at least approximately 2 x 104 per day are cells which developed intrathymically, whereas a maximum of approximately 0.8 x 104 per day are cells which circulated through the thymus from the periphery. The thymus possesses a significant number of pro-B and pre-B cells that express CD19, VpreB, lambda5, and pax-5. These B cell progenitors were found in the thymic cortex, whereas increasingly mature B cells were found in the corticomedullar and medullary regions. Other lymphoid cells, including NK cells and lymphoid dendritic cells, are not exported from the thymus at detectable levels. Thus, the thymus contributes to the formation of peripheral pools of B cells as well as of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086947900034

    View details for PubMedID 10799882

  • Lymphoid precursors CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY Akashi, K., Reya, T., Dalma-Weiszhausz, D., Weissman, I. L. 2000; 12 (2): 144-150


    Lymphopoiesis of mature and diverse populations of T, B and NK (natural killer) cells from multipotent hematopoietic stem cells is an ideal model of tissue generation and regeneration. Identification and isolation of hematolymphoid stem and progenitor cells in several laboratories over the past several years have provided populations that can be studied biologically for lineage commitment and biochemically for receptor function, signal transduction and selective gene expression. These studies may ultimately provide candidate genes involved in lineage commitment, cell death or survival, self-renewal and migratory capacities of progenitors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085786300002

    View details for PubMedID 10712944

  • A clonogenic common myeloid progenitor that gives rise to all myeloid lineages NATURE Akashi, K., Traver, D., Miyamoto, T., Weissman, I. L. 2000; 404 (6774): 193-197


    Haematopoietic stem cells give rise to progeny that progressively lose self-renewal capacity and become restricted to one lineage. The points at which haematopoietic stem cell-derived progenitors commit to each of the various lineages remain mostly unknown. We have identified a clonogenic common lymphoid progenitor that can differentiate into T, B and natural killer cells but not myeloid cells. Here we report the prospective identification, purification and characterization, using cell-surface markers and flow cytometry, of a complementary clonogenic common myeloid progenitor that gives rise to all myeloid lineages. Common myeloid progenitors give rise to either megakaryocyte/erythrocyte or granulocyte/macrophage progenitors. Purified progenitors were used to provide a first-pass expression profile of various haematopoiesis-related genes. We propose that the common lymphoid progenitor and common myeloid progenitor populations reflect the earliest branch points between the lymphoid and myeloid lineages, and that the commitment of common myeloid progenitors to either the megakaryocyte/erythrocyte or the granulocyte/macrophage lineages are mutually exclusive events.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085870900054

    View details for PubMedID 10724173

  • Translating stem and progenitor cell biology to the clinic: Barriers and opportunities SCIENCE Weissman, I. L. 2000; 287 (5457): 1442-1446


    Stem cells are the natural units of embryonic generation, and also adult regeneration, of a variety of tissues. Recently, the list of tissues that use the model of differentiation from stem to progenitor to mature cell has increased from blood to include a variety of tissues, including both central and peripheral nervous systems and skeletal muscle; it is also possible that all organs and tissues are derived from, and still contain, stem cells. Because the number and activities of stem cells and their progeny are homeostatically regulated, clinical stem cell transplantation could greatly add to the physician's armamentarium against degenerative diseases.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085531600039

    View details for PubMedID 10688785

  • The role of apoptosis in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cells: Overexpression of BCL-2 increases both their number and repopulation potential JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Domen, J., Cheshier, S. H., Weissman, I. L. 2000; 191 (2): 253-263


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) give rise to cells of all hematopoietic lineages, many of which are short lived. HSC face developmental choices: self-renewal (remain an HSC with long-term multilineage repopulating potential) or differentiation (become an HSC with short-term multilineage repopulating potential and, eventually, a mature cell). There is a large overcapacity of differentiating hematopoietic cells and apoptosis plays a role in regulating their numbers. It is not clear whether apoptosis plays a direct role in regulating HSC numbers. To address this, we have employed a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses BCL-2 in all hematopoietic cells, including HSC: H2K-BCL-2. Cells from H2K-BCL-2 mice have been shown to be protected against a wide variety of apoptosis-inducing challenges. This block in apoptosis affects their HSC compartment. H2K-BCL-2-transgenic mice have increased numbers of HSC in bone marrow (2.4x wild type), but fewer of these cells are in the S/G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle (0.6x wild type). Their HSC have an increased plating efficiency in vitro, engraft at least as well as wild-type HSC in vivo, and have an advantage following competitive reconstitution with wild-type HSC.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084908000006

    View details for PubMedID 10637270

  • Stem cells: Units of development, units of regeneration, and units in evolution CELL Weissman, I. L. 2000; 100 (1): 157-168

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084722600014

    View details for PubMedID 10647940

  • Transplantation of highly purified CD34(+)Thy-I+ hematopoietic stem cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Negrin, R. S., Atkinson, K., Leemhuis, T., Hanania, E., Juttner, C., Tierney, K., Hu, W. W., JOHNSTON, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Blume, K. G., Weissman, I. L., Bower, S., Baynes, R., Dansey, R., Karanes, C., Peters, W., Klein, J. 2000; 6 (3): 262-271


    We report here the transplantation of extensively purified "mobilized" peripheral blood CD34Thy-1 hematopoietic stem cells from 22 patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Patients were mobilized with either high-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or cyclophosphamide plus G-CSE Median purity of the stem cell product at cryopreservation was 95.3% (range, 91.1%-98.3%), and viability was 98.6% (range, 96.5%-100%). After high-dose chemotherapy with carmustine, cisplatin, and cyclophosphamide, CD34+Thy-1 cells at a median dose of 11.3 x 10(5) per kilogram (range, 4.7-163 x 10(5) per kilogram) were infused. No infusion-related toxicity was observed. Neutrophil recovery was prompt, with median absolute neutrophil count >500/microL by day 10 (range, 8-15 days) and >1000/microL by day 11 (range, 8-17 days). Median platelet recovery (>20,000/microL) was observed by day 14 (range, 9-42 days) and >50,000/microL by day 17 (range, 11-49 days). Tumor cell depletion below the limits of detection of a sensitive immunofluorescence-based assay was accomplished in all patients who had detectable tumor cells in apheresis products before processing. Although CD4+ T-cell reconstitution was slow, no unusual infections were observed. Neither early nor late graft failure was observed, and no patient required infusion of unmanipulated backup cells. At a median follow-up of approximately 1.4 years and a maximum follow-up of 2.5 years, 16 of the 22 patients remain alive, with 9 free of disease progression, and have stable blood counts. In summary, highly purified CD34+Thy-1+ cells used as the sole source of the hematopoietic graft result in rapid and sustained hematopoietic engraftment.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000090022300006

    View details for PubMedID 10871151

  • CD8(+)TCR(+) and CD8(+)TCR(-) cells in whole bone marrow facilitate the engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells across allogeneic barriers IMMUNITY Gandy, K. L., Domen, J., Aguila, H., Weissman, I. L. 1999; 11 (5): 579-590


    Although purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are sufficient to engraft irradiated allogeneic recipients, bone marrow (BM) contains other cells that facilitate engraftment. Here, several candidate facilitators were tested by cotransplantation with HSC. Both TCR+ and TCR- CD8alpha+ BM subpopulations have facilitative potential. CD8+TCR+ cells are typical T lymphocytes. CD8+TCR- facilitators are CD3 , not CD3+, have a granular morphology, and are CD8beta- and CD11c+; they share phenotypic characteristics with CD8(alpha)alpha lymphoid dendritic cells and veto cells. We also demonstrate that lytic function is nqt necessary for facilitation and that the CD8alpha molecule is either important for facilitation or in the development of facilitators.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083952200010

    View details for PubMedID 10591183

  • Heritable germ and somatic cell lineage competitions in chimeric colonial protochordates PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Stoner, D. S., Rinkevich, B., Weissman, I. L. 1999; 96 (16): 9148-9153


    Theories of evolution that state natural selection acts on individuals have been modified to include multiple levels of selection. Here we demonstrate in chimeric protochordates that primitive germ cell (pgc) and somatic cell (psc) lineages have traits that also make them likely units of natural selection. Specifically, by using microsatellites to determine the genetic identity of various somatic and gametic tissues within vascularly fused Botryllus schlosseri chimeras, we show that genetically distinct pgc and psc can compete for access to developing gonads and somatic organs, and that this competition is hierarchical, reproducible, and heritable. Given that a single, highly polymorphic locus (Fu/HC) controls whether two contacting colonies fuse or reject, our findings also support a leading hypothesis for why the highly polymorphic histocompatibility loci common to many metazoa may have arisen or been maintained: to limit supercompetitor lineages to histocompatible kin.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081835500068

    View details for PubMedID 10430910

  • Lymphoid development from hematopoietic stem cells INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY Akashi, K., Traver, D., Kondo, M., Weissman, I. L. 1999; 69 (4): 217-226


    Mechanisms and pathways for commitment to the lymphoid lineage from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) remain controversial. The interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) transduces nonredundant signals for both T- and B-cell development. Recently, we identified a clonogenic common lymphoid progenitor population in mouse bone marrow that can give rise to T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells, but lacks myeloid differentiation capacity. These cells are not self-renewing stem cells, but progenitors that have a limited life span. HSC do not express IL-7R, and the upregulation of the IL-7R occurs at the stage of common lymphoid progenitors. The IL-7R mediates nonredundant signals to reinforce the survival of developing T cells, and to promote rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in B-cell progenitors. Thus, common lymphoid progenitors exist in early hematopoiesis, and expression of the IL-7R is a critical step in the initiation of lymphoid development from HSC.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085346900001

    View details for PubMedID 10407577

  • Self-renewal, differentiation or death: regulation and manipulation of hematopoietic stem cell fate MOLECULAR MEDICINE TODAY Domen, J., Weissman, I. L. 1999; 5 (5): 201-208


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the rare cells from which all hematopoietic cells are derived. The absence of HSCs is not compatible with life because many essential cells, such as myeloid and erythroid cells, are short lived. The hematopoietic system is the first essential organ system that fails following cytotoxic treatments. It is the vulnerability of HSCs that prevents regeneration following treatment and thus long-term survival. Because HSCs have the capacity to regenerate a functional hematopoietic system, the manipulation of these cells in vitro holds many promises for gene-therapeutic and other applications; however, these are severely curtailed by current difficulties in maintaining and expanding HSCs in culture. This review focuses on recent approaches towards understanding how the HSC compartment is regulated in vivo and discusses how this knowledge might be applied to manipulating HSC numbers.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081646700007

    View details for PubMedID 10322312

  • In vivo proliferation and cell cycle kinetics of long-term self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Cheshier, S. P., Morrison, S. J., Liao, X. S., Weissman, I. L. 1999; 96 (6): 3120-3125


    A rare set of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) must undergo a massive expansion to produce mature blood cells. The phenotypic isolation of HSC from mice offers the opportunity to determine directly their proliferation kinetics. We analyzed the proliferation and cell cycle kinetics of long-term self-renewing HSC (LT-HSC) in normal adult mice. At any one time, approximately 5% of LT-HSC were in S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle and another 20% were in G1 phase. BrdUrd incorporation was used to determine the rate at which different cohorts of HSC entered the cell cycle over time. About 50% of LT-HSC incorporated BrdUrd by 6 days and >90% incorporated BrdUrd by 30 days. By 6 months, 99% of LT-HSC had incorporated BrdUrd. We calculated that approximately 8% of LT-HSC asynchronously entered the cell cycle per day. Nested reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed cyclin D2 expression in a high proportion of LT-HSC. Although approximately 75% of LT-HSC are quiescent in G0 at any one time, all HSC are recruited into cycle regularly such that 99% of LT-HSC divide on average every 57 days.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079224500101

    View details for PubMedID 10077647

  • Cyclophilin C-associated protein: A normal secreted glycoprotein that down-modulates endotoxin and proinflammatory responses in vivo PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Trahey, M., Weissman, I. L. 1999; 96 (6): 3006-3011


    Mouse cyclophilin C-associated protein (CyCAP) is a member of the scavenger-receptor cysteine-rich domain superfamily and is 69% identical to the human Mac-2 binding protein. Here, we show that CyCAP is a widely expressed secreted glycoprotein that modulates the host response to endotoxin. Gene-targeted CyCAP-deficient mice are more sensitive to the lethal effects of endotoxin. In response to endotoxin, CyCAP-deficient mice overproduced interleukin 12 and interferon-gamma systemically and tumor necrosis factor alpha locally; these are proinflammatory molecules that also promote T helper 1 responses. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated in vitro with endotoxin in serum deficient in CyCAP secreted more tumor necrosis factor alpha, supporting the proposal that CyCAP specifically down-modulates endotoxin signaling.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079224500081

    View details for PubMedID 10077627

  • Allorecognition in colonial tunicates: protection against predatory cell lineages? IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Magor, B. G., De Tomaso, A., Rinkevich, B., Weissman, I. L. 1999; 167: 69-79


    The MHC molecules have been historically perceived as transplantation antigens, though it is now recognized that their primary, if not sole, role is in eliminating parasites and in surveillance and clearance of aberrant self. Indeed, pregnancy in mammals would represent the closest to a natural transplantation process that occurs in vertebrates. However, among the immediate ancestors to the vertebrates, natural intraspecific allorecognition processes are common. Among members of the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri, two individuals that share a single allele of the highly polymorphic fusibility/histocompatibility (Fu/HC) locus are able to fuse with one another. Could this Fu/HC be related to the MHC such that the MHC really did have its origins as a transplantation antigen? Presently we review the genetics and biology of natural transplantation processes in colonial tunicates, comparing it with allorecognition as mediated through the vertebrate T-cell receptor, killer cell inhibitory receptor/Ly49, and MHC. Experimental approaches to determining if the molecules regulating allorecognition in tunicates have any ancestral relationship to the vertebrate MHC are discussed, as is a genomic approach to isolating novel mediators of allorecognition. We also explore the biological basis for allorecognition in colonial tunicates and recent work that highlights the costs of not maintaining a system for allorecognition.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079851100006

    View details for PubMedID 10319252

  • Role of interleukin-7 in T-cell development from hematopoietic stem cells IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Akashi, K., Kondo, M., Weissman, I. L. 1998; 165: 13-28


    All lymphocytes are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). The interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) transduces non-redundant signals for both T and B-cell development from HSC. The upregulation of the IL-7R occurs at the stage of the clonogenic common lymphoid progenitor, a recently identified population that can give rise to all lymphoid lineages (T, B and natural killer cells) at a single cell level. The IL-7R plays a critical role in the rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes required for B-cell development. IL-7R expression is critically regulated in developing thymocytes; thymocytes that fail the positive selection process downregulate the IL-7R, but those undergoing positive selection upregulate or maintain IL-7R expression. Recent data indicate that IL-7 signaling enhances the survival of developing thymocytes and mature T cells, presumably by its upregulating Bcl-2. Detailed analysis of the signaling cascades activated by the IL-7R may help to reveal the differential roles of IL-7 signaling in T and B-cell development.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077188400002

    View details for PubMedID 9850848

  • Characterization of a polymorphic protein localized to vascular epithelium in Botryllus schlosseri: role in tunic synthesis? MOLECULAR MARINE BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY Fagan, M. B., Weissman, I. L. 1998; 7 (3): 204-213


    To develop an antibody-based screen for epitopes involved in botryllid historecognition, BALB/c mice were immunized with whole Botryllus schlosseri colonies. Resulting monoclonal antibodies were screened for alpha or beta fusibility types using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemical staining. One monoclonal antibody (109) that recognized a polymorphic epitope was further analyzed by Western blotting. It binds a species-specific epitope localized to the atrial siphon and blood vessels. The epitope does not cosegregate with fusibility type. A complementary DNA clone encoding this antigen contains an endoplasmic reticulum retention motif. Polymorphism observed on Western blots was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. This antigen provides a new polymorphic marker that may be useful in studies of tunic formation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075452000006

    View details for PubMedID 9701615

  • Mice defective in two apoptosis pathways in the myeloid lineage develop acute myeloblastic leukemia IMMUNITY Traver, D., Akashi, K., Weissman, I. L., Lagasse, E. 1998; 9 (1): 47-57


    Fas-deficient (Fas(lpr/lpr)) mice constitutively expressing Bcl-2 in myeloid cells by the hMRP8 promoter often develop a fatal disease analogous to human acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML-M2). Hematopoietic cells from leukemic Fas(lpr/lpr)hMRP8bcl-2 animals form clonogenic blast colonies in vitro and can transfer disease to wild-type mice. In vitro ligation of Fas on Fas+/+ hMRP8bcl-2 marrow cells depletes approximately 50% of myeloid progenitor activity, demonstrating that Bcl-2 can only partially block Fas-mediated death signals in myelomonocytic progenitors. In addition, Fas(lpr/lpr) marrow contains greatly increased numbers of myeloid colony-forming cells as compared to Fas+/+ controls. Taken together, these data suggest that Fas has a novel role in the regulation of myelopoiesis and that Fas may act as a tumor suppressor to control leukemogenic transformation in myeloid progenitor cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075066600005

    View details for PubMedID 9697835

  • An alternate pathway for T cell development supported by the bone marrow microenvironment: Recapitulation of thymic maturation JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Weissman, I. L., Strober, S. 1998; 187 (11): 1813-1823


    In the principal pathway of alpha/beta T cell maturation, T cell precursors from the bone marrow migrate to the thymus and proceed through several well-characterized developmental stages into mature CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This study demonstrates an alternative pathway in which the bone marrow microenvironment also supports the differentiation of T cell precursors into CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The marrow pathway recapitulates developmental stages of thymic maturation including a CD4+CD8+ intermediary cell and positive and negative selection, and is strongly inhibited by the presence of mature T cells. The contribution of the marrow pathway in vivo requires further study in mice with normal and deficient thymic or immune function.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074120200009

    View details for PubMedID 9607922

  • Linkage analysis of HSP70 genes and historecognition locus in Botryllus schlosseri IMMUNOGENETICS Fagan, M. B., Weissman, I. L. 1998; 47 (6): 468-476


    The protochordate allorecognition system has long invited comparison with the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In the colonial species Botryllus schlosseri, a rapid fusion or rejection response resembling graft acceptance or rejection in vertebrates is controlled by a single highly polymorphic genetic region. Because linkage between heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) genes and the MHC appears to be conserved within the vertebrate lineage, linkage relationships between two HSP70 genes (HSP70.1 and HSP70.2) and the historecognition locus (FuHC) have been analyzed in B. schlosseri. Segregation patterns of restriction fragment length polymorphisms located in the 3' flanking regions of HSP70.1 and HSP70.2 were determined for progeny of defined crosses. These progeny were also analyzed for fusibility type by an in vivo cut colony assay. No close linkage was detected between any of the three loci. These results do not support the hypothesis that the allorecognition response in B. schlosseri is determined by an MHC homologue. However, it remains a possibility that orthologues of other MHC-linked genes will be linked to the B. schlosseri FuHC.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073621900006

    View details for PubMedID 9553153

  • Mapping the genome of a model protochordate. I. A low resolution genetic map encompassing the fusion/histocompatibility (Fu/HC) locus of Botryllus schlosseri GENETICS De Tomaso, A. W., Saito, Y., Ishizuka, K. J., Palmeri, K. J., Weissman, I. L. 1998; 149 (1): 277-287


    The colonial protochordate, Botryllus schlosseri, undergoes a genetically defined, natural transplantation reaction when the edges of two growing colonies interact. Peripheral blood vessels of each colony touch and will either fuse together to form a common vasculature between the colonies, or reject each other in an active blood-based inflammatory process in which the interacting vessels are cut off and the two colonies no longer interact. Previous studies have demonstrated that allorecognition in Botryllus is principally controlled by a single Mendelian locus named the fusion/histocompatibility (Fu/HC) locus, with multiple codominantly expressed alleles. However, identification and cloning of this locus has been difficult. We are taking a genomic approach in isolating this locus by creating a detailed genetic linkage map of the 725 Mbp Botryllus genome using DNA polymorphisms (primarily identified as AFLPs) as molecular genetic markers. DNA polymorphisms are identified in inbred laboratory strains of Fu/HC defined Botryllus, and their segregation and linkage is analyzed in a series of defined crosses. Using bulk segregant analysis, we have focused our mapping efforts on the Fu/HC region of the genome, and have generated an initial map which delineates the Fu/HC locus to a 5.5 cM region.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073672500022

    View details for PubMedID 9584102

  • Systemic overexpression of BCL-2 in the hematopoietic system protects transgenic mice from the consequences of lethal irradiation BLOOD Domen, J., Gandy, K. L., Weissman, I. L. 1998; 91 (7): 2272-2282


    A new transgenic mouse has been generated in which the proto-oncogene BCL-2 is ubiquitously overexpressed. H2K-BCL-2 transgenic mice overexpress BCL-2 in all cells of the hematolymphoid system and have been used to assess the role of BCL-2 in protecting cells of the hematolymphoid system from the consequences of ionizing radiation. We have expanded on previous studies that have demonstrated protection for specific (lymphoid) cell populations and show that systemic overexpression of BCL-2 can protect the hematopoietic system as a whole, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), thus increasing the radioresistance of the animal. The increase in radioresistance in H2K-BCL-2 transgenic mice has two components: an increase in the radioresistance of individual cells and, to a lesser extent, an increase in the size of certain critically important cell populations, such as HSC. Bone marrow transplantation experiments show that the increased radioresistance of the transgenic animals is provided by cells of the hematopoietic system. Protection against the consequences of irradiation is not limited to the increased expression levels of BCL-2 in transgenic mice; levels of endogenous BCL-2 are higher in lymphocyte populations that survive irradiation in wild-type mice. We show that ubiquitous overexpression of BCL-2 in the hematopoietic system can be used to increase the resistance of animals to lethal challenges such as irradiation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072671900008

    View details for PubMedID 9516125

  • Two distinct pathways of positive selection for thymocytes PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Akashi, K., Kondo, M., Weissman, I. L. 1998; 95 (5): 2486-2491


    Most mouse thymocytes undergoing positive selection are found on one of two pathways; the c-Kit+ and the c-Kit- pathways. Here, we show that c-Kit and interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R)-mediated signals support positive selection during the transition from the subpopulation that first expresses cell surface T cell receptor (TCR)-the TCRalpha/betaloCD4(int)/CD8(int) (DPint) c-Kit+ cells to TCRalpha/betamedc-Kit+ transitional intermediate cells (the c-Kit+ pathway). Cells that fail positive selection on the c-Kit+ pathway become TCRalpha/betaloc-Kit- (DPhi) blasts that appear to undergo alternative TCRalpha rearrangements. The rare DPhic-Kit- blast cells that thus are salvaged for positive selection by expressing a self-major histocompatibility complex selectable TCRalpha/beta up-regulate IL-7R, but not c-Kit, and are the principal progenitors on the c-Kit- pathway; this c-Kit-IL-7R+ pathway is mainly CD4 lineage committed. Cell division is a feature of the TCRlo-medc-Kit+ transition, but is not essential for CD4 lineage maturation from DPhic-Kit- blasts. In this view, positive selection on the c-Kit- path results from a salvage of cells that failed positive selection on the c-Kit+ path.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072366600098

    View details for PubMedID 9482912

  • Tolerance of allogeneic heart grafts in mice simultaneously reconstituted with purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells TRANSPLANTATION Gandy, K. L., Weissman, I. L. 1998; 65 (3): 295-304


    Animals reconstituted with allogeneic whole bone marrow (WBM) are often tolerant of donor-specific solid organ grafts. Clinical application of bone marrow transplantation in solid organ transplantation has been limited, however, principally by graft-versus-host disease. We previously demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reconstitute lethally irradiated allogeneic mice without producing graft-versus-host disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tolerance to solid organ grafts could be induced in mice reconstituted with HSCs.BALB/c mice were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with allogeneic C57BL/Ka, Thy-1.1 WBM or HSCs. An isolated group was given a limited number of HSCs (250 cells) and a subpopulation of allogeneic cells known to facilitate HSC engraftment (facilitators). C57BL/Ka, Thy-1.1 neonatal heart grafts were placed in reconstituted animals either at the time of hematopoietic transplant or 35 days later. Third-party C3H grafts were placed over 2 months after hematopoietic reconstitution. Tolerance was defined as the persistence of cardiac contraction for the duration of evaluation (125-270 days).All surviving mice that were reconstituted with C57BL/Ka, Thy-1.1 HSCs, WBM, or HSCs and facilitators were tolerant of C57BL/Ka grafts long-term. Third-party C3H grafts placed in reconstituted animals were rejected by day 12, whereas those placed in unmanipulated mice were rejected by day 9.These data indicate that tolerance to concurrently or subsequently placed solid organ grafts can be reliably achieved with limited numbers of purified HSCs in a model where immunocompetence to third-party major histocompatibility complex antigens is delayed but intact.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072089100001

    View details for PubMedID 9484743

  • Hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid progenitors express different Ikaros isoforms, and Ikaros is localized to heterochromatin in immature lymphocytes PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Klug, C. A., Morrison, S. J., Masek, M., Hahm, K., Smale, S. T., Weissman, I. L. 1998; 95 (2): 657-662


    The generation of lymphoid cells in mice depends on the function of the Ikaros protein. Ikaros has been characterized as a lymphoid-restricted, zinc-finger transcription factor that is derived from an alternatively spliced message. Ikaros knockout mice have defects in multiple cell lineages, raising the question of whether the protein regulates multiple committed progenitors and/or multipotent stem cells. To address this issue, we examined Ikaros expression in purified populations of multipotent cells and more committed progenitors. We found that the DNA-binding isoforms of Ikaros were localized in the nucleus of the most primitive hematopoietic stem cell subset. Changes in the RNA splicing pattern of Ikaros occurred at two stages: (i) as long-term self-renewing stem cells differentiated into short-term self-renewing stem cells and (ii) as non-self-renewing multipotent progenitors differentiated into lymphoid-committed progenitors. Unexpectedly, we found Ikaros localized to heterochromatin in Abelson-transformed pre-B lymphocytes by using immunogold electron microscopy. These observations suggest a complex role for Ikaros in lymphoid development.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071606000041

    View details for PubMedID 9435248

  • Characterization of a population of cells in the bone marrow that phenotypically mimics hematopoietic stem cells: Resting stem cells or mystery population? STEM CELLS Randall, T. D., Weissman, I. L. 1998; 16 (1): 38-48


    We have identified a population of cells in murine bone marrow that has many of the phenotypic characteristics attributed to resting hematopoietic stem cells but does not reconstitute irradiated mice. These cells express high levels of Sca-1, H-2K and CD38 and low levels of Thy-1.1, but do not express CD34 nor any of the lineage markers including CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8 NK1.1, I-A, B220, Ig(MGA), CD40, kappa, Mac-1, Gr-1 or Ter119. In addition, this population can be found at normal frequency in nu/nu as well as rag-1-/- mice. These cells incorporate only low levels of Rh123, are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil and, consistent with their resting phenotype, less than 2% of these cells are in the S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle. The only phenotypic characteristic that distinguishes these cells from the lineage- Sca-1+, Thy-1.1low long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cell population is their lack of c-kit expression. Here we have explored the possibility that these cells represent a truly resting population of hematopoietic stem cells. We found that the lineage-, Sca-1+, c-kit- cells do not respond to hematopoietic growth factors in vitro, either alone or in combination with stromal layers. Furthermore, these cells do not form in vivo spleen colonies nor do they have the ability to reconstitute irradiated mice. Thus, this population may represent either a population of resting stem cells for which we lack the appropriate activating stimulus, or simply represent a "mystery population" that phenotypically mimics most of the physical properties of resting stem cells. Given the close phenotypic similarity of the c-kit- mystery population cells to the c-kit+ long-term reconstituting stem cells, investigators must be rigorous to exclude their effects from other stem cell assays.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071663000006

    View details for PubMedID 9474746

  • Identification of clonogenic common lymphoid progenitors in mouse bone marrow CELL Kondo, M., Weissman, I. L., Akashi, K. 1997; 91 (5): 661-672


    The existence of a common lymphoid progenitor that can only give rise to T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells remains controversial and constitutes an important gap in the hematopoietic lineage maps. Here, we report that the Lin(-)IL-7R(+)Thy-1(-)Sca-1loc-Kit(lo) population from adult mouse bone marrow possessed a rapid lymphoid-restricted (T, B, and NK) reconstitution capacity in vivo but completely lacked myeloid differentiation potential either in vivo or in vitro. A single Lin(-)IL-7R(+)Thy-1(-)Sca-1loc-Kit(lo) cell could generate at least both T and B cells. These data provide direct evidence for the existence of common lymphoid progenitors in sites of early hematopoiesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YH96000013

    View details for PubMedID 9393859

  • Highly polymorphic microsatellite loci in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri MOLECULAR MARINE BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY Stoner, D. S., Quattro, O. M., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 6 (3): 163-171


    Five mircosatellite loci are characterized for the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Within one population from Monterey, California, these loci have 3 to 17 alleles, observed heterozygosities from 0.40 to 0.63, expected heterozygosities from 0.52 to 0.84, and an overall paternity exclusion rate (QT) of 0.78. Three of the five loci demonstrated Mendelian patterns of inheritance in laboratory crosses. The size distribution of alleles suggests that most allelic diversity within these loci is generated by single-step and less frequently multistep mutations. However, several alleles may also have been generated by single based insertions or deletions. Mutation rates for the five microsatellite loci are less than 1 x 10(-2) per generation. Because or their highly polymorphic nature, these loci should prove useful for exploring issues of identity, kinship, population structure, and phylogenetics.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XT50600002

    View details for PubMedID 9284556

  • Bcl-2 rescues T lymphopoiesis, but not B or NK cell development, in common gamma chain-deficient mice IMMUNITY Kondo, M., Akashi, K., Domen, J., Sugamura, K., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 7 (1): 155-162


    The common cytokine receptor gamma chain (gamma(c)) is an indispensable subunit for the formation of lymphoid-related cytokine receptors, including IL-7 and IL-15 receptors, that mediate nonredundant or critical signals for the differentiation of T and B cells and natural killer (NK) cells, respectively. We introduced the bcl-2 transgene driven by E mu or H-2K promoters into gamma(c)-deficient mice that lack all three lymphoid subclasses. The forced expression of Bcl-2 restored all stages of T lymphopoiesis, but not B or NK cell development, indicating that a primary function of gamma(c)-mediated signals in the T lineage might be to maintain cell survival. Therefore, the development of T, B, and NK cells may be influenced by distinct intracytoplasmic signaling cascades that are activated by coupling of gamma(c)-related receptors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XN69300014

    View details for PubMedID 9252128

  • Enforced expression of Bcl-2 in monocytes rescues macrophages and partially reverses osteopetrosis in op/op mice CELL Lagasse, E., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 89 (7): 1021-1031


    Osteopetrotic (op/op) mice lack functional M-CSF and have depressed levels of macrophages and osteoclasts. We prepared transgenic mice (hMRP8bcl-2) that express human Bcl-2 in monocytes. In vitro hMRP8bcl-2 monocytes do not undergo apoptosis in the absence of serum and M-CSF, while op/op and wild-type monocytes die. These Bcl-2-expressing monocytes spontaneously undergo macrophage differentiation. In vivo, the op/op hMRP8bcl-2 mice show significant replenishment of tissue macrophages. Their long bone osteopetrosis is largely reversed, and extensive medullary hematopoiesis appears in the bone marrow. We propose that M-CSF augments monocyte survival, permitting them to respond to internal and external cues for their differentiation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XG83000007

    View details for PubMedID 9215625

  • Bcl-2 rescues T lymphopoiesis in interleukin-7 receptor-deficient mice CELL Akashi, K., Kondo, M., VONFREEDENJEFFRY, U., Murray, R., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 89 (7): 1033-1041


    Mice lacking functional IL-7 or IL-7R alpha genes are severely deficient in developing thymocytes, T cells, and B cells. IL-7 and IL-7 receptor functions are believed to result in lymphoid cell proliferation and cell maturation, implying signal transduction pathways directly involved in mitogenesis and elaboration of developmentally specific new gene programs. Here, we show that enforced expression of the bcl-2 gene in T-lymphoid cells (by crossing in the Emu-bcl-2 transgene) in IL-7R alpha-deficient mice results in a significant restoration of thymic positive selection and T cell numbers and function. We propose cell survival signals to be the principal function of IL-7R engagement in thymic and T cell development.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XG83000008

    View details for PubMedID 9215626

  • From stem cells to lymphocytes: Biology and transplantation IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Aguila, H. L., Akashi, K., Domen, J., Gandy, K. L., Lagasse, E., Mebius, R. E., Morrison, S. J., Shizuru, J., Strober, S., Uchida, N., Wright, D. E., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 157: 13-40


    We review the development of the hematopoietic system, focusing on the transition from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to T cells. This includes the isolation of HSCs, and recent progress in understanding their ontogeny, homing properties, and differentiation. HSC transplantation is reviewed, including the kinetics of reconstitution, engraftment across histocompatibility barriers, the facilitation of allogeneic engraftment, and the mechanisms of graft rejection. We describe progress in understanding T-cell development in the bone marrow and thymus as well as the establishment of lymph nodes. Finally, the role of bcl-2 in regulating homeostasis in the hematopoietic system is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XL05000002

    View details for PubMedID 9255619

  • Phenotypic and functional changes induced at the clonal level in hematopoietic stem cells after 5-fluorouracil treatment BLOOD Randall, T. D., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 89 (10): 3596-3606


    A significant fraction of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been shown to be resistant to the effects of cytotoxic agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is thought to eliminate many of the rapidly dividing, more committed progenitors in the bone marrow and to provide a relatively enriched population of the most primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. Although differences between 5-FU-enriched progenitor populations and those from normal bone marrow have been described, it remained unclear if these differences reflected characteristics of the most primitive stem cells that were revealed by 5-FU, or if there were changes in the stem-cell population itself. Here, we have examined some of the properties of the stem cells in the bone marrow before and after 5-FU treatment and have defined several activation-related changes in the stem-cell population. We found that long-term reconstituting stem cells decrease their expression of the growth factor receptor c-kit by 10-fold and increase their expression of the integrin Mac-1 (CD11b). These changes begin as early as 24 hours after 5-FU treatment and are most pronounced within 2 to 3 days. This activated phenotype of HSCs isolated from 5-FU-treated mice is similar to the phenotype of stem cells found in the fetal liver and to the phenotype of transiently repopulating progenitors in normal bone marrow. We found that cell cycle is induced concomitantly with these physical changes, and within 2 days as many as 29% of the stem-cell population is in the S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Furthermore, when examined at a clonal level, we found that 5-FU did not appear to eliminate many of the transient, multipotent progenitors from the bone marrow that were found to be copurified with long-term repopulating, activated stem cells. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of the hematopoietic system to changes in its homeostasis and correlate the expression of several important surface molecules with the activation state of HSCs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XD97600012

    View details for PubMedID 9160664

  • Identification of a lineage of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors DEVELOPMENT Morrison, S. J., WANDYCZ, A. M., Hemmati, H. D., Wright, D. E., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 124 (10): 1929-1939


    All multipotent hematopoietic progenitors in C57BL-Thy-1.1 bone marrow are divided among three subpopulations of Thy-1.1(lo) Sca-1+ Lin(-/lo) c-kit+ cells: long-term reconstituting Mac-1- CD4- c-kit+ cells and transiently reconstituting Mac-1(lo) CD4- or Mac-1(lo) CD4(lo) cells. This study shows that the same populations, with similar functional activities, exist in mice whose hematopoietic systems were reconstituted by hematopoietic stem cells after lethal irradiation. We demonstrate that these populations form a lineage of multipotent progenitors from long-term self-renewing stem cells to the most mature multipotent progenitor population. In reconstituted mice, Mac-1- CD4- c-kit+ cells gave rise to Mac-1(lo) CD4- cells, which gave rise to Mac-1(lo) CD4(lo) cells. Mac-1- CD4- c-kit+ cells had long-term self-renewal potential, with each cell being capable of giving rise to more than 10(4) functionally similar Mac-1- CD4- c-kit+ cells. At least half of Mac-1(lo) CD4- cells had transient self-renewal potential, detected in the spleen 7 days after reconstitution. Mac-1(lo) CD4(lo) cells did not have detectable self-renewal potential. The identification of a lineage of multipotent progenitors provides an important tool for identifying genes that regulate self-renewal and lineage commitment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XD82500009

    View details for PubMedID 9169840

  • Cyclophosphamide/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor induces hematopoietic stem cells to proliferate prior to mobilization PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Morrison, S. J., Wright, D. E., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 94 (5): 1908-1913


    We isolated hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CY) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). All mobilized multipotent progenitor activity was contained in two populations: Thy-1(lo) Sca-1+ Lin- Mac-1- CD4- c-kit+ long-term reconstituting progenitors and Thy-1(lo) Sca-1+ Lin- Mac-1(lo) CD4- transiently reconstituting progenitors. CY/G-CSF treatment drove both long-term and transient multipotent progenitors into cycle, leading to a more than 12-fold expansion in the number of long-term self-renewing HSC prior to mobilization. After CY and 2 days of G-CSF treatment the number of bone marrow HSC began to decline and the number of blood and splenic HSC increased. HSC continued to proliferate in the bone marrow and spleen through 8 days of G-CSF treatment, but HSC released into the blood tended to be in G0/G1 phase. Mobilized multipotent progenitors isolated from the spleen were less efficient than normal bone marrow multipotent progenitors in engrafting irradiated mice but did not differ in colony forming unit-spleen (CFU-S) activity or single cell in vitro assays of primitive progenitor activity. The data suggest that mobilized HSC isolated from the spleen are less efficient at homing to and engrafting the bone marrow of irradiated recipient mice.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WM05900058

    View details for PubMedID 9050878

  • HSP70 genes and historecognition in Botryllus schlosseri: Implications for MHC evolution HEREDITAS Fagan, M. B., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 127 (1-2): 25-35


    The colonial protochordate Botryllus schlosseri possesses a historecognition system which has long invited comparison to the vertebrate MHC. Upon contact, colonies either fuse or reject one another in a manner resembling graft acceptance or rejection in vertebrates. This response is controlled by a single highly polymorphic genetic region, the FuHC locus. Colonial protochordates such as B. schlosseri are among the closest relatives of the vertebrate lineage, and therefore may possess a recognizable MHC homologue. Since linkage between heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) genes and MHC appears to be conserved within the vertebrate lineage, we have analyzed HSP70 genes from B. schlosseri as a first step toward isolating the historecognition locus. Two HSP70 genes (HSP70.1 and HSP70.2) have been cloned and sequenced, and exhibit 93.6% sequence identity within the predicted coding regions. The B. schlosseri genes share a number of characteristics with vertebrate MHC-linked HSP70 genes: Northern blotting and sequence analysis suggest that the protochordate genes are cytoplasmically-expressed heat-inducible members of the HSP70 gene family (FAGAN and WEISSMAN 1996). However, unlike vertebrate MHC-linked HSP70 genes, HSP70.1 and HSP70.2 are not closely linked (FAGAN and WEISSMAN 1997). Furthermore, neither is closely linked to the locus determining historecognition (FAGAN and WEISSMAN 1997). These results do not support the hypothesis that the B. schlosseri FuHC locus is an MHC homolog. A discussion of the implications of these results for evolution of the vertebrate MHC is included.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071313300006

    View details for PubMedID 9420467

  • Somatic and germ cell parasitism in a colonial ascidian: Possible role for a highly polymorphic allorecognition system PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Stoner, D. S., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 93 (26): 15254-15259


    A colonial protochordate, Botryllus schlosseri, undergoes a natural transplantation reaction in the wild that results alternatively in colony fusion (chimera formation) or inflammatory rejection. A single, highly polymorphic histocompatibility locus (called Fu/HC) is responsible for rejection versus fusion. Gonads are seeded and gametogenesis can occur in colonies well after fusion, and involves circulating germ-line progenitors. Buss proposed that colonial organisms might develop self/non-self histocompatibility systems to limit the possibility of interindividual germ cell "parasitism" (GCP) to histocompatible kin [Buss, L. W. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 5337-5341 and Buss, L. W. (1987) The Evolution of Individuality (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton]. Here we demonstrate in laboratory and field experiments that both somatic cell and (more importantly) germ-line parasitism are a common occurrence in fused chimeras. These experiments support the tenet in Buss's hypothesis that germ cell and somatic cell parasitism can occur in fused chimeras and that a somatic appearance may mask the winner of a gametic war. They also provide an interesting challenge to develop formulas that describe the inheritance of competing germ lines rather than competing individuals. The fact that fused B. schlosseri have higher rates of GCP than unfused colonies additionally provides a rational explanation for the generation and maintenance of a high degree of Fu/HC polymorphism, largely limiting GCP to sibling offspring.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996WC20400049

    View details for PubMedID 8986797

  • Flow cytometric identification of murine neutrophils and monocytes JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS Lagasse, E., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 197 (1-2): 139-150


    Flow cytometry and cell sorting have been employed in order to identify and purify murine neutrophils and monocytes. Using a combination of antibodies, we were able to distinguish between these two subsets of myeloid cells. The method described in this paper is simple to perform and can be applied to characterize myeloid cells from blood, spleen, bone marrow and after an induced inflammation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VM82600013

    View details for PubMedID 8890901

  • A developmental switch in lymphocyte homing receptor and endothelial vascular addressin expression regulates lymphocyte homing and permits CD4+CD3- cells to colonize lymph nodes PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Mebius, R. E., STREETER, P. R., Michie, S., BUTCHER, E. C., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 93 (20): 11019-11024


    IN adult mice, the dominant adhesion molecules involved in homing to lymph nodes are L-selectin homing receptors on lymphocytes and the peripheral lymph node addressins on specialized high endothelial venules. Here we show that, from fetal life through the first 24 hr of life, the dominant adhesion molecules are the mucosal addressin MAdCAM-1 on lymph node high endothelial venules and its counterreceptor, the Peyer's patch homing receptor, integrin alpha 4 beta 7 on circulating cells. Before birth, 40-70% of peripheral blood leukocytes are L-selectin-positive, while only 1-2% expresses alpha 4 beta 7. However, the fetal lymph nodes preferentially attract alpha 4 beta 7-expressing cells, and this can be blocked by fetal administration of anti-MAdCAM-1 antibodies. During fetal and early neonatal life, when only MAdCAM-1 is expressed on high endothelial venules, an unusual subset of CD4 + CD3- cells, exclusively expressing alpha 4 beta 7 as homing receptors, enters the lymph nodes. Beginning 24 hr after birth a developmental switch occurs, and the peripheral node addressins are upregulated on high endothelial venules in peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes. This switch in addressin expression facilitates tissue-selective lymphocyte migration and mediates a sequential entry of different cell populations into the lymph nodes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VL33300091

    View details for PubMedID 8855301

  • The aging of hematopoietic stem cells NATURE MEDICINE Morrison, S. J., WANDYCZ, A. M., Akashi, K., Globerson, A., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 2 (9): 1011-1016


    We have purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the bone marrow of old mice and compared their properties to HSCs in young and middle-aged mice. Single, reconstituting HSCs (by limit dilution) from old and young mice exhibited indistinguishable progenitor activities in vivo. HSCs were five times as frequent in the bone marrow of old mice; however, HSCs from old mice were only one-quarter as efficient at homing to and engrafting the bone marrow of irradiated recipients. HSCs in young and middle-aged mice rarely were in the S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle, but HSCs in old mice were frequently in cycle. We speculate that the unexpected proliferation of HSCs in old mice might be related to the increased incidence of leukemia in old mice. HSCs change with age, but it is unknown whether these changes are determined intrinsically or caused by the aging of their environment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VF49700036

    View details for PubMedID 8782459

  • Telomerase activity in hematopoietic cells is associated with self-renewal potential IMMUNITY Morrison, S. J., Prowse, K. R., Ho, P., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 5 (3): 207-216


    It has been proposed that the biological clock underlying the limited division potential of eukaryotic cells is telomere length. We assayed telomerase activity in single cells of the hematopoietic and immune systems. We examined hematopoietic stem cells at four stages of differentiation, lineage-committed progenitors, and mature myeloid and lymphoid cells. The frequency of telomerase-expressing cells within each population was proportional to the frequency of cells thought to have self-renewal potential. Among bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, 70% exhibited detectable telomerase activity. The telomerase-expressing somatic cells observed in this study are not thought to be immortal, and expression was not correlated with cell cycle distribution or differentiation state. This study demonstrates that the developmental characteristic most consistently associated with telomerase expression is self-renewal potential.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VJ79700003

    View details for PubMedID 8808676

  • The c-kit(+) maturation pathway in mouse thymic T cell development: Lineages and selection IMMUNITY Akashi, K., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 5 (2): 147-161


    Positive selection of T cells begins with TCR alpha beta lo thymic progenitors. Here, we show that the most efficient TCRlo progenitors are c-kit+ with intermediate levels of CD4 and CD8 (DPint). Positive selection of DPint TCRlo c-kit+ cells results in TCRmed CD69+ c-kit+ transitional intermediates that show increased TCRV beta frequencies to selecting superantigen (SAg) that are committed to the CD4 or CD8 pathway. The cells on the c-kit+ maturation pathway maintain Bcl-2 expression. Most DPint c-kit+ progenitors fail positive selection, and become DPhi c-kit- cells that lose Bcl-2 expression. Some DPhi c-kit blast cells can be salvaged to produce mature single-positive (SP) cells. DPint c-kit+ maturation to SP cells can occur in <12 hr in vitro on thymic stromal monolayers.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VE58900005

    View details for PubMedID 8769478

  • Activation of physiological cell death mechanisms by a necrosis-causing agent MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE Vaux, D. L., Whitney, D., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 34 (3): 259-266


    Cell death is an important physiological process, but it can be triggered by both physiological and nonphysiological stimuli. The product of the bcl-2 gene has the ability to inhibit a physiological cell death process that can be activated by a variety of physiological signals, such as growth factor deprivation. This report describes the use of electron microscopy to examine the effects of two cytotoxic drugs on factor-dependent cells that constitutively express the human bcl-2 gene. Although all cells treated with sodium azide showed changes typical of necrosis, in the absence of Bcl-2 the cells died more rapidly and also displayed features of apoptosis. The fact that Bcl-2 could delay cell death argues that cells can activate internal cell death mechanisms to commit suicide before they are killed by a cytotoxin. Northern analysis showed that growth factor did not preserve viability of the cells through induction of bcl-2. However, growth factor may prevent activation of the physiological cell death mechanisms that bcl-2 can control. This process may constitute a primitive defense response, and blocking it may provide a means of limiting damage caused by otherwise sublethal injuries.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UL95900008

    View details for PubMedID 8743413

  • Expression of murine CD38 defines a population of long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells BLOOD Randall, T. D., Lund, F. E., Howard, M. C., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 87 (10): 4057-4067


    Using a monoclonal antibody to murine CD38, we showed that a population of adult bone marrow cells that expressed the markers Sca-1 and c-kit but lacked the lineage markers Mac-1, GR-1, B220, IgM, CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD5 could be subdivided by the expression of CD38. We showed that CD38high c-kit+ Sca-1+, linlow/-cells sorted from adult bone marrow cultured with interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-6, and kit-L produced much larger colonies in liquid culture at a greater frequency than their CD38low/- counterparts. In addition, we found that CD36low/ - cells contained most of the day-12 colony-forming units-spleen (CFU-S) but were not long-term reconstituting cells, whereas the population that expressed higher levels of CD38 contained few, but significant, day-12 CFU-S and virtually all the long-term reconstituting stem cells. Interestingly, the CD38high Sca-1+ c-kit+ linlow/- cells isolated from day-E14.5 fetal liver were also found to be long-term reconstituting stem cells. This is in striking contrast to human hematopoietic progenitors in which the most primitive hematopoietic cells from fetal tissues lack the expression of CD38. Furthermore, because antibodies to CD38 could functionally replace antibodies to Thy-1.1 in a stem cell purification procedure, the use of anti-CD38 may be more generally applicable to the purification of hematopoietic stem cells from mouse strains that do not express the Thy-1.1 allele.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UK87900004

    View details for PubMedID 8639761

  • Searching for hematopoietic stem cells .2. The heterogeneity of Thy-1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca-1(+) mouse hematopoietic stem cells separated by counterflow centrifugal elutriation EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY Uchida, N., Jerabek, L., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 24 (5): 649-659


    Mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are highly enriched in the rare (approximately 0.05%) Thy-1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca-1+ fraction of hematopoietic tissues. It has been demonstrated that Thy-1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca-1+ cells are the only HSCs in C57BL/Ka-Thy-1.1 bone marrow. In this study, we separated C57/Ka-Thy-1.1 bone marrow cells by counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) into four fractions and characterized Thy-1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca-1+ cells in each eluted fraction. The peak number of Thy-1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca-1+ cells was highly enriched in one eluted fraction, which was also highly enriched for day-12 to -13 CFU-S. Activities for day-13 CFU-S, radioprotection, and long-term multilineage reconstitution correlated with, and could be generally predicted by determining, the frequency of Thy-1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca-1+ cells in a given eluted fraction. However, the fraction that was highly enriched for blast cells and contained a low frequency of Thy-1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca-1+ cells, only provided short-term but not long-term radioprotection, with a predicted cell number (100 cells) that should have protected > or = 95% (PD95) of hosts. Still, when 300 Thy-1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca-1+ cells from this fraction (3 X PD95 for unfractionated HSCs) were injected, mice were radioprotected and donor cells provided long-term multilineage reconstitution. We propose that such blast cells may contain two Thy-1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca-1+ subsets, one providing short-term and the other long-term multilineage sustained hematopoiesis, the latter presumably due to HSC self-renewal.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UE81400009

    View details for PubMedID 8605970

  • From thymic lineages back to hematopoietic stem cells, sometimes using homing receptors JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Weissman, I. L. 1996; 156 (6): 2019-2025

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TZ28100001

    View details for PubMedID 8690888

  • Hematopoietic stem cells are not direct cytotoxic targets of natural killer cells BLOOD Aguila, H. L., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 87 (4): 1225-1231


    Bone marrow (BM) transplants from one individual to an irradiated histoincompatible individual of the same species are rejected. In mice, the primary host barrier cells that recognize bone marrow grafts bearing hematopoietic histocompatibility antigens bear surface markers of natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. Because of the innate ability of NK cells to kill susceptible targets, it has been proposed that the cytotoxic bone marrow graft rejection. To test this hypothesis, we purified hematopoietic stem cells from mice and incubated them with purified populations of actively cytotoxic allogeneic and semisyngeneic NK cells, followed by analysis of the ability of the treated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to rescue lethally irradiated syngeneic animals. Such rescue was unimpaired. Also, HSC allografts were transplanted into transgenic mice deficient in NK and killer T-cell cytotoxicity generated by expressing diphtheria toxin A chain under the control of granzyme A promoter. Allogeneic HSCs were susceptible to allogeneic restriction in these mice, implying that the effector functions of NK marker-positive cells do not require NK cell cytotoxicity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TV52300003

    View details for PubMedID 8608208

  • Transplantation of purified hematopoietic stem cells: requirements for overcoming the barriers of allogeneic engraftment. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation Shizuru, J. A., Jerabek, L., Edwards, C. T., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 2 (1): 3-14


    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation currently plays a critical role in the treatment of leukemias and inherited disorders of hematopoiesis, and it shows great promise for the treatment of numerous other diseases. The problems of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and failure to engraft, however, remain formidable obstacles to the widespread use of this therapy. Successful transplantation of purified populations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can theoretically avoid the problem of GVHD, since purified HSCs lack the mature elements that allow the graft to mount a response against the host. In previous studies from our laboratory, a population of purified HSCs (Thy-1loLin-/loSca-1+) was isolated from mouse bone marrow (BM). These cells represent approximately 0.05% of BM cells and are capable of self-renewal and long-term reconstitution of all blood lineages. Here we report long-term engraftment of these purified HSCs transplanted in mice across successively more difficult allogeneic-histocompatibility barriers. Transplantation of purified HSCs were quantitatively compared with whole bone marrow (WBM) grafts containing equivalent numbers of stem cells. The mouse strain combinations tested were parent transplanted into F1 (Hh disparate), minor histocompatibility complex (mHC), and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plus mHC disparities. One of the recipient strains studied for MHC-disparate transplantations was that of spontaneously autoimmune diabetic mice. Recipient mice were administered lethal doses of whole-body irradiation in the presence or absence of antibodies directed against natural killer (NK) cell-associated determinants and/or monoclonal antibodies against the CD4+ T cell subset. We find that as the barrier to transplantation increases, greater numbers of HSCs are required for radioprotection and engraftment. In all cases, stable hematopoietic chimeras were generated with HSCs alone, but 10-60 times the number of HSCs was required for radioprotection of mice transplanted across allogeneic or semiallogeneic disparities as compared to Ly-5 congenic differences. Furthermore, we demonstrate a clear advantage of WBM vs HSCs with regard to tha ability to engraft [corrected]. Chimeric mice showed no symptoms of GVHD, and their T cells were unable to induce GVHD in neonatal mice expressing H-2 antigens of donor and host. These data confirm that a cell population resident in WBM and distinct from purified stem cells is important in facilitating hematopoietic engraftment, in this case, of purified allogeneic HSCs. The differences in engraftment between WBM and HSCs could be reduced significantly by the addition of antibodies directed against NK determinants to the host preparative regimen. Similarly, since antibodies directed against host NK-associated antigens can reduce the barrier to allogeneic HSC engraftment, an interaction between the facilitating population within donated WBM and a resistant host population with NK determinants is implied.

    View details for PubMedID 9078349

  • Sequence and characterization of two HSP70 genes in the colonial protochordate Botryllus schlosseri IMMUNOGENETICS Fagan, M. B., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 44 (2): 134-142


    Two genes belonging to the heat shock protein 70 gene family have been cloned from the colonial protochordate Botryllus schlosseri. The two intronless genes (HSP70.1 and HSP70.2) exhibit 93.6% sequence identity within the predicted coding region, and 83.3% and 81.7% sequence identity in the 5' and 3' flanking regions, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences are 95% identical and contain several signatures characteristic of cytoplasmic eukaryotic HSP70 genes (Gupta et al. 1994; Rensing and Maier 1994). Northern blotting and sequence analysis suggest that both genes are heat-inducible members of the HSP70 gene family. Given these characteristics, HSP70.1 and HSP70.2 appear to be good candidates for protochordate homologues of the major histocompatibility complex-linked HSP70 genes of human, mouse, and rat (Milner and Campbell 1990; Walter et al. 1994). Further experiments to determine whether there is functional evidence for such similarity are in progress.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UP88100008

    View details for PubMedID 8662076



    Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic cells generated by incubation of peripheral blood lymphocytes with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (MoAb), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-1, and interferon-gamma. Cells with the greatest effector function in CIK cultures coexpress CD3 and CD56 surface molecules. CIK cell cytotoxicity can be blocked by MoAbs directed against the cell surface protein leukocyte function associated antigen-1 but not by anti-CD3 MoAbs. CIK cells undergo release of cytoplasmic cytotoxic granule contents to the extracellular space upon stimulation with anti-CD3 MoAbs or susceptible target cells. Maximal granule release was observed from the CD3+ CD56+ subset of effector cells. The cytoplasmic granule contents are lytic to target cells. Treatment of the effector cells with a cell-permeable analog of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) inhibited anti-CD3 MoAb and target cell-induced degranulation and cytotoxicity of CIK cells. The immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin (CsA) and FK506 inhibited anti-CD3-mediated degranulation, but did not affect cytotoxicity of CIK cells against tumor target cells. In addition, degranulation induced by target cells was unaffected by CsA and FK506. Our results indicate that two mechanisms of cytoplasmic granule release are operative in the CD3+ CD56+ killer cells; however, cytotoxicity proceeds through a cAMP-sensitive, CsA- and FK506-insensitive pathway triggered by yet-to-be-identified target cell surface molecules.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TB16300028

    View details for PubMedID 7579455



    We have generated transgenic mice bearing the diphtheria toxin A chain (DTA) gene under the control of granzyme A (GrA) promoter sequences (GrA-DTA). GrA is expressed in activated cytotoxic cells but not in their immediate progenitors. These GrA-DTA mice are deficient in cytotoxic functions, indicating that most cytotoxic cells express GrA in vivo. Surprisingly, one founder strain containing a multicopy GrA-DTA insert show a marked and selective deficiency in CD8+ cells in peripheral lymphoid organs. This depletion was not observed in thymus, where the distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ cells is normal. Moreover, the emigration of T cells from thymus is normal, indicating that the depletion occurs in the periphery. GrA-DTA mice should be useful as models to dissect the role of cytotoxic cells in immune responses and as recipients of normal and neoplastic hematopoietic cells. The selective depletion of CD8+ cells in one founder strain could have implications for postthymic T-cell development.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TB46700053

    View details for PubMedID 7479752



    Thy-1loSca-1+Lin-Mac-1+CD4- cells have been isolated from the livers of C57BL-Thy-1.1 fetuses. This population appears to be an essentially pure population of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), in that injection of only six cells into lethally irradiated adult recipients yields a limit dilution frequency of donor cell-reconstituted mice. Sixty-seven to 77% of clones in this population exhibit long-term multilineage progenitor activity. This population appears to include all long-term multilineage reconstituting progenitors in the fetal liver. A high proportion of cells are in cycle, and the absolute number of cells in this population doubles daily in the fetal liver until 14.5 days postcoitum. At 15.5 days postcoitum, the frequency of this population falls dramatically. Long-term reconstituting HSC clones from the fetal liver give rise to higher levels of reconstitution in lethally irradiated mice than long-term reconstituting HSC from the bone marrow. The precise phenotypic and functional characteristics of HSC vary according to tissue and time during ontogeny.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TB46700075

    View details for PubMedID 7479772



    The object of the study was to determine whether alpha beta T cells can develop from hemopoietic stem cells in the absence of the thymus. C57BL/6 (Ly-5.1 and Thy-1.2) mice were thymectomized or sham-thymectomized at 4 wk of age, and received lethal whole body irradiation 2 wk later. These mice were reconstituted with an i.v. injection of 500 highly purified hemopoietic stem cells (Mac-1-, B220-, TER-119-, CD3-, CD4-, CD8-, Thy 1low, SCA-1+) obtained from the bone marrow of C57BL/6 (Ly-5.2 and Thy-1.1) donors. A similar percentage of Ly-5.2+ alpha beta T cells (donor) was found in the marrow of thymectomized recipients, sham-thymectomized recipients, and normal donor mice at least 3 mo after stem cell transplantation. The percentage of Ly-5.2+ alpha beta T cells in the spleens of sham-thymectomized and normal donor mice was similar. The percentage in the spleens of thymectomized recipients was reduced by about 50%, and approximately one-half of the latter T cells expressed the CD4-CD8- alpha beta+ phenotype. A purified population of Ly-5.2+ alpha beta- cells obtained from the marrow of thymectomized recipients was incubated in vitro for 48 h without exogenous growth factors. After the incubation procedure a proportion of the marrow cells acquired alpha beta TCR surface receptors. The results show that alpha beta T cells can develop from hemopoietic stem cells in the absence of the thymus.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RV93900010

    View details for PubMedID 7561027



    The colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri is a model organism for research on invertebrate histocompatibility, development, and evolutionary biology. Nonetheless, the basic life history of Pacific Ocean populations of the species remains unknown. We determined field rates of growth, reproduction, and senescence in four cohorts of B. schlosseri colonies in Monterey Bay, California. Colonies grew exponentially as juveniles and reached sizes of up to 1400 zooids within 69 days. After a juvenile phase lasting at least 49 days, the colonies began to reproduce sexually. Each zooid produced up to 10 clutches, each with a maximum of 5 eggs, resulting in very high fecundity of up to 8000 eggs per colony. Following a short period (maximum 70 days) of continuous sexual reproduction, colonies abruptly senesced and died while still bearing a full clutch of eggs. Senescence progressed through four distinct stages over 1-2 weeks, and inevitably led to the simultaneous death of all zooids in the colony. Although senescence was the main cause of mortality, some colonies died as a result of predation or undermined causes. Certain life history traits varied significantly between cohorts that settled at different times of year. For example, lifespans in the field varied from about 3 months for spring to 8 months for fall-born colonies, but the lifetime fecundity of colonies did not vary between cohorts. The morphologies and life histories of colonies monitored in the field and reported here differed from those of colonies cultured previously in the laboratory.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RN59900006

    View details for PubMedID 7654845


    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TF49800003

    View details for PubMedID 8624852

  • The biology of hematopoietic stem cells ANNUAL REVIEW OF CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Morrison, S. J., Uchida, N., Weissman, I. L. 1995; 11: 35-71


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the only cells in the blood-forming tissues that can give rise to all blood cell types and that can self-renew to produce more HSC. In mouse and human, HSC represent up to 0.05% of cells in the bone marrow. HSC are almost entirely responsible for the radioprotective and short- and long-term reconstituting effects observed after bone marrow transplantation. The subsets of HSC that give rise to short-term vs long-term multilineage reconstitution can be separated by phenotype, demonstrating that the fates of HSC are intrinsically determined. Here we review the ontogeny and biology of HSC, their expression of fate-determining genes, and the clinical importance of HSC for transplantation and gene therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TY44800003

    View details for PubMedID 8689561



    The Thy-1.1loSca-1hiLin-/lo population, representing 0.05% of C57BL/Ka-Thy-1.1 bone marrow, is highly enriched for hematopoietic stem cells and includes all multipotent progenitors in this mouse strain; however, the functional reconstituting activity of this fraction is heterogeneous. Only around 25% of clonal reconstitutions by cells from this population are long term; remaining clones yield transient multilineage reconstitutions. By fractionating based on lineage marker expression, the Thy-1.1loSca-1hiLin-/lo population has been resolved into three subpopulations: Lin-Mac-1-CD4-; Lin-Mac-1loCD4-; and Mac-1loCD4lo. Of these, only the Lin-Mac-1-CD4- population is highly enriched for long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells. A comparison of transient and long-term multipotent progenitors indicates that long-term progenitors have less CFU-S activity, are equally radioprotective, and are less frequently in cell cycle. The ability to predict the longevity of reconstitution based on lineage marker expression indicates that reconstitution potential is deterministic, not stochastic.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PT93000004

    View details for PubMedID 7541305


    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PN12700001

    View details for PubMedID 7600281

  • The common gamma (gamma c) chain for multiple cytokine receptors. Japanese journal of cancer research Weissman, I. L. 1994; 85 (10): inside front cover

    View details for PubMedID 7961100



    Mice that receive whole body split-dose irradiation develop thymic lymphomas after a long latent period. Before emergence of frank lymphomas, preneoplastic thymocytes, which are defined by their ability to progress to full malignancy on intrathymic transfer to congenic hosts, appear. A combination of mAb 1C11, which binds to a cell surface glycoprotein on lymphoma cells, and of Abs to the differentiation markers CD4 and CD8 (MHC co-receptors), and CD3 (TCR complex) was used to characterize the phenotypes of preneoplastic thymocytes and to place them within the scheme of normal T cell ontogeny. In the irradiated, preneoplastic thymus, the 1C11 molecule was found to be present on CD4-8-, CD4-8+, and CD4+8+, but not CD4+8-, cells. After intrathymic transfer to Thy-1 congenic recipients, 1C11highCD4-8- cells from irradiated mice showed the highest leukemogenic potential, followed by the 1C11highCD4-8+ and 1C11highCD4+8+ subsets. Within the 1C11highCD4-8- subset, CD3+ cells were more leukemogenic than CD3- cells. The resulting lymphomas were 1C11highCD3+4-8+ and 1C11highCD3+4+8+, phenotypes that are absent or very rare in the normal thymus, but similar to those of primary radiation-induced lymphomas. Examination of the TCR V beta repertoire in these lymphomas shows a highly significant bias, in that approximately 50% express the V beta 8 gene product. These results indicate, but do not prove, that the 1C11highCD3+4-8- cells, a very small subset of normal thymocytes, are either the target of neoplastic transformation after radiation or the earliest identifiable cell population after the transforming event. These results also suggest at least one possible pathway to define the process leading to overt lymphoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PB40600018

    View details for PubMedID 8046233

  • Infection and multiple sclerosis: a possible role for superantigens? Trends in microbiology Brocke, S., VEROMAA, T., Weissman, I. L., Gijbels, K., Steinman, L. 1994; 2 (7): 250-254


    The association of infection with autoimmune diseases is enigmatic, partly because cause and effect are difficult to establish in chronic diseases. Microorganisms might initiate multiple sclerosis and trigger relapses of disease. Superantigens might be involved in autoimmunity through the (re)activation of T cells, including autoreactive cells, expressing certain T cell receptor beta chain variable regions.

    View details for PubMedID 8081652



    To determine whether the destruction of salivary gland epithelial cells in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) could be mediated by granzyme A, a serine protease that is contained in the granules of activated lymphocytes.We used in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction amplification to determine the expression of granzyme A messenger RNA (mRNA) in salivary gland biopsy samples.Granzyme A mRNA expression was detected in salivary glands from SS patients, but not in those from normal controls. Granzyme A mRNA content was significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with the size of lymphocytic infiltrates in the salivary glands and with the clinical activity of the disease.Cells that express granzyme A mRNA may play a role in the destruction of the target organ (i.e., the salivary gland) in patients with SS. The strong association of granzyme A mRNA expression and larger lymphoid infiltrates in the patients' salivary glands suggests that granzyme A mRNA is expressed at a relatively late stage of the local inflammatory process. Therapies designed to modulate or block granzyme A induction and action should be investigated in SS patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NW27400010

    View details for PubMedID 8024614



    We have been unable to reproduce experiments suggesting the existence of three lineage-restricted progenitor populations from mouse bone marrow. Thy1.1loMac-1+B220+ cells were reported to give rise to greatly expanded numbers of myeloid and lymphoid cells, while Thy1.1loMac-1+B220- and Thy1.1loMac-1-B220+ cells were reported to be highly proliferative myeloid and B-lineage-restricted progenitors, respectively. Both Mac-1+ cell types appear to be much less frequent than previously reported, and we observed no activity consistent with their characterization as committed progenitors of expanded numbers of cells. The original identification of these populations may have resulted from a failure to distinguish bonafide signals from autofluorescent background and nonspecific staining. The progenitor activities originally associated with these populations may have been due to hematopoietic stem cell contamination. This study shows that low levels of Mac-1 are expressed on cells with multipotent progenitor activity. Thy1.1loB220+Mac-1- cells can be purified from bone marrow, but in these experiments they do not give rise to detectable levels of progeny on injection into lethally irradiated mice. Thy1.1loB220+Mac-1- cells appear to be pro-B cells without significant proliferation potential in vivo. The finding that the described populations do not have the reported progenitor activities leaves the pathways of stem cell differentiation open to further study.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NR90500010

    View details for PubMedID 7515713



    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are believed to play a critical role in the sustained repopulation of all blood cells after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, understanding the role of HSCs versus other hematopoietic cells in the quantitative reconstitution of various blood cell types has awaited methods to isolate HSCs. A candidate population of mouse HSCs, Thy-1.1lo Lin-Sca-1+ cells, was isolated several years ago and, recently, this population has been shown to be the only population of BM cells that contains HSCs in C57BL/Ka-Thy-1.1 mice. As few as 100 of these cells can radioprotect 95% to 100% of irradiated mice, resulting long-term multilineage reconstitution. In this study, we examined the reconstitution potential of irradiated mice transplanted with purified Thy-1.1lo Lin-Sca-1+ BM cells. Donor-derived peripheral blood (PB) white blood cells were detected as early as day 9 or 10 when 100 to 1,000 Thy-1.1lo Lin-Sca-1+ cells were used, with minor dose-dependent differences. The reappearance of platelets by day 14 and thereafter was also seen at all HSC doses (100 to 1,000 cells), with a slight dose-dependence. All studied HSC doses also allowed RBC levels to recover, although at the 100 cell dose a delay in hematocrit recovery was observed at day 14. When irradiated mice were transplanted with 500 Thy-1.1lo Lin-Sca-1+ cells compared with 1 x 10(6) BM cells (the equivalent amount of cells that contain 500 Thy-1.1lo Lin-Sca-1+ cells as well as progenitor and mature cells), very little difference in the kinetics of recovery of PB, white blood cells, platelets, and hematocrit was observed. Surprisingly, even when 200 Thy1.1lo Lin-Sca-1+ cells were mixed with 4 x 10(5) Sca-1- BM cells in a competitive repopulation assay, most of the early (days 11 and 14) PB myeloid cells were derived from the HSC genotype, indicating the superiority of the Thy-1.1lo Lin-Sca-1+ cells over Sca-1- cells even in the early phases of myeloid reconstitution. Within the Thy-1.1lo Lin-Sca-1+ population, the Rhodamine 123 (Rh123)hi subset dominates in PB myeloid reconstitution at 10 to 14 days, only to be overtaken by the Rh123lo subset at 3 weeks and thereafter. These findings indicate that HSCs can account for the early phase of hematopoietic recovery, as well as sustained hematopoiesis, and raise questions about the role of non-HSC BM populations in the setting of BMT.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NR90500041

    View details for PubMedID 7911343



    Cyclophilin C (cyp C) is a cyclosporin A (CsA) binding protein originally isolated from a mouse bone marrow stromal cell line. We have compared the expression patterns of the mammalian cyclophilins A, B, and C in mouse tissues using in situ hybridization. These studies reveal that cyp C is expressed in a restricted subset of tissues including mouse ovary, testis, bone marrow, and kidney. Within the kidney, cyp C is highly expressed in a narrow zone in the outer medulla. Using monoclonal antibodies reactive against cyp C, we find that the kidney cells expressing cyp C correspond to the S3 segment of the nephron. The S3 segment has been shown to sustain histopathological damage from high dosages of CsA, raising the possibility that cyp C may be involved in mediating this damage.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NQ32400015

    View details for PubMedID 8203464



    Integrins are cell-surface heterodimeric receptors with adhesive and transmembrane signaling properties. Their cytoplasmic domains can affect receptor avidity, cytoskeletal association, and post-receptor occupancy events. The alpha 4 beta 7 integrin mediates cell adhesion to Peyer's patch high walled endothelial venules (HEV), VCAM, and CS-1/fibronectin. To determine the role of the beta 7 cytoplasmic domain in these interactions, wild-type and truncated beta 7 subunits were stably expressed in the alpha 4+/beta 1-/beta 7- B cell lymphoma 38C13. The cell line delta 727 lacks the entire beta 7 cytoplasmic domain, delta 753 lacks the 34 C-terminal residues, and LXSN is vector-transfected 38C13. Cells expressing wild-type beta 7 bound Peyer's patch HEV, fibronectin, and immobilized VCAM constitutively and did not require prior activation with phorbol esters. Interestingly, delta 753 displayed no ligand binding activity, while delta 727 was constitutively active for all ligands and displayed greater avidity for fibronectin and Peyer's patch HEV than the wild-type beta 7. beta 7, delta 753, delta 727, and LXSN were also tested for the ability to bind soluble VCAM in the presence of various divalent cations. In the presence of Ca2+, but not Mg2+, delta 727 constitutively bound soluble VCAM, whereas beta 7, delta 753, and LXSN did not. beta 7 and delta 753 could bind soluble VCAM if first activated with Mn2+. The results suggest that: (i) alpha 4 beta 7 can be expressed in a constitutively active state, (ii) the beta 7 cytoplasmic domain regulates the avidity of alpha 4 beta 7, and (iii) 38C13 cell lines expressing wild-type and truncated beta 7 subunits define three stable activation states of alpha 4 beta 7: inactive (delta 753), partially active (beta 7), and fully active (delta 727) receptors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NM06500019

    View details for PubMedID 8182047



    Among a series of adhesion molecules, expression of integrin alpha 4 beta 1 showed a unique inverse correlation with the invasive potential of B16 melanoma cell lines. When an alpha 4 cDNA was introduced into an alpha 4-beta 1+ highly invasive melanoma line, alpha 4 beta 1 heterodimers were expressed on the surface. Matrigel invasion by the alpha 4+ beta 1+ cells was reduced. Pulmonary metastasis was also suppressed when the transfectants were placed subcutaneously, but not when injected intravenously. Expression of alpha 4 beta 1 promoted homotypic intercellular adhesion. The homotypic adhesion was abrogated, and the alpha 4+ beta 1+ (less invasive cell lines) increased matrigel invasion following the anti-alpha 4 MAb treatment. These results suggest that integrin alpha 4 beta 1 could play a role in controlling melanoma cell metastasis at the invasive stage.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NK97000005

    View details for PubMedID 8181055



    Neutrophils, the most common inflammatory leukocytes, have the most limited life span of all blood cells. After they undergo apoptosis, they are recognized and engulfed by macrophages. bcl-2, a proto-oncogene rearranged and deregulated in B cell lymphomas bearing the t(14;18) translocation, is known to inhibit programmed death. bcl-2 expression is localized in early myeloid cells of the bone marrow but is absent in mature neutrophils. Transgenic mice that expressed bcl-2 in mature neutrophils showed that bcl-2 blocked neutrophil apoptosis. Despite this, homeostasis of neutrophil population is essentially unaffected. In fact, macrophage uptake of neutrophils expressing bcl-2 still occurred. This transgenic model indicates that the mechanism that triggers phagocytosis of aging neutrophils operates independently of the process of apoptosis regulated by bcl-2.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MY48400032

    View details for PubMedID 8113673



    The developmental potentialities of early mouse fetal thymocytes were analyzed by in vitro culturing cell suspensions obtained from 12-15-gestational day thymus in contact with a bone marrow stroma clonal cell line that supports pre-B and myeloid cell differentiation. B cell and macrophage development from fetal thymocytes was observed at all fetal stages tested, but limiting dilution analysis revealed that the frequency of cells forming colonies on bone marrow stroma is the highest in the fetal thymus at day 12, then dramatically decreases until day 15. These observations suggest that the thymus rudiment is seeded by multipotential precursor cells which are not immediately committed to T cell development in the thymic cellular environment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NB71800044

    View details for PubMedID 8125146


    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MV76800018

    View details for PubMedID 8179887



    We have investigated the phenotypic changes that take place during the process of neoplastic transformation in the thymocytes of C57BL/Ka mice infected by the radiation leukemia virus (RadLV). By the combined use of antibodies against the envelope glycoprotein gp70 of RadLV, the transformation-associated cell surface marker 1C11, and the CD3-T-cell receptor (TCR) complex, we found that in the RadLV-infected thymus, the earliest expression of viral gp70 is in 1C11hi cells; a small but significant percentage of these cells also express CD3. A first wave of viral replication, manifested by the expression of high levels of gp70 in thymocytes (over 70% positive), reaches a peak at 2 weeks; during this period, no significant changes are observed in the expression of 1C11 or CD3. The population of gp70+ cells is drastically reduced at 3 to 4 weeks after infection. However, a second cohort of gp70+ cells appears after 4 weeks, and these cells express high levels of 1C11 and TCR determinants as well. RadLV-induced lymphomas differ from normal thymocytes in their CD4 CD8 phenotype, with domination by one or more subsets. Characterization of TCR gene rearrangements in RadLV-induced lymphomas shows that most of these tumors are clonal or oligoclonal with respect to the J beta 2 TCR gene, while the J beta 1 TCR gene is rearranged in a minority (4 of 11) of lymphomas. TCR V beta repertoire analysis of 12 tumors reveals that 6 (50%) express exclusively the V beta 6 gene product, 2 (17%) are V beta 5+, and 1 (8%) each are V beta 8+ and V beta 9+. In normal C57BL/Ka mice, V beta 6 is expressed on 12%, V beta 5 is expressed on 9%, V beta 8 is expressed on 22%, and V beta 9 is expressed on 4% of TCRhi thymocytes. Thus, it appears that RadLV-induced thymic lymphomas are not randomly selected with respect to expressed TCR V beta type.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MW25200066

    View details for PubMedID 8289345

  • DEVELOPMENTAL SWITCHES IN THE IMMUNE-SYSTEM CELL Weissman, I. L. 1994; 76 (2): 207-218

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MU67800005

    View details for PubMedID 8293459



    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a set of linked genes which encode cell surface proteins involved in the binding of small peptide antigens for their subsequent recognition by T lymphocytes. MHC proteins share structural features and the presence and location of polymorphic residues which play a role in the binding of antigens. In order to compare the structure of these molecules and gain insights into their evolution, we have isolated two MHC class IIB genes from the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Two clones, most probably alleles, encode proteins which differ by 13 amino acids located in the putative antigen-binding cleft. The protein structure and the location of polymorphic residues are similar to their mammalian counterparts. Although these genes appear to encode a typical MHC protein, no T-cell-mediated responses have been demonstrated in cartilaginous fish. The nurse shark represents the most phylogenetically primitive organism in which both class IIA [Kasahara, M., Vazquez, M., Sato, K., McKinney, E.C. & Flajnik, M.F. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 89, 6688-6692] and class IIB genes, presumably encoding the alpha/beta heterodimer, have been isolated.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MQ47900054

    View details for PubMedID 8278377



    Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are highly efficient cytotoxic effector cells capable of lysing tumor cell targets. Cultures of human CIK cells have been shown to have enhanced cytotoxicity and to proliferate more rapidly than lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells by both in vitro and in vivo studies. In this report, we have further characterized the phenotype of CIK cells and explored the molecular structures involved in CIK-mediated cell lysis of tumor target cells. The dominant cell phenotype in CIK cell cultures expresses the alpha, beta T cell receptor (TCR-alpha/beta). In addition, CD56 is expressed on the main effector cell on a per-cell basis. Interestingly, the total number of CD56+ cells increases more than 1000-fold during the generation of CIK cells, mainly due to expansion of CD56+ cells coexpressing CD3. The higher lytic activity of CIK cells as compared to LAK cells is mainly due to the higher proliferation of CD3+CD56+ cells and to the cytotoxic activity of TCR-alpha/beta+ cells in CIK cell cultures. CIK-mediated cellular lysis is non-major histocompatibility antigen (MHC) restricted. The cytotoxic effect of CIK cells against tumor targets is blocked by antibodies directed against lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) and its counter receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MW61900009

    View details for PubMedID 7694868

  • AIDS - THE WHOLE-BODY VIEW CURRENT BIOLOGY Weissman, I. L. 1993; 3 (11): 766-769

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MR82300008

    View details for PubMedID 15335842



    Expression of c-myc and macromolecular synthesis have been associated with physiological cell death. We have studied their requirement for the death of factor (interleukin-3)-dependent cells (FDC-P1) bearing an inducible bcl-2 expression construct. FDC-P1 cells expressing bcl-2 turned off expression of c-myc when deprived of interleukin-3 but remained viable as long as bcl-2 was maintained. A subsequent decline in Bcl-2 allowed the cells to undergo apoptosis directly from G0, in the absence of detectable c-myc expression. Thus c-myc expression may lead to apoptosis in some cases but is not directly involved in the mechanism of physiological cell death that can be controlled by Bcl-2. The macromolecular synthesis inhibitors actinomycin D and cycloheximide triggered rapid cell death of FDC-P1 cells in the presence of interleukin-3, but the cells could be protected by Bcl-2. Thus, the cell death machinery can exist in a quiescent state and can be activated by mechanisms that do not require synthesis of RNA or protein.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MC84400038

    View details for PubMedID 7692234


    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LR86900009

    View details for PubMedID 8211092



    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are characterized by their ability to differentiate into all hematopoietic cell lineages while retaining their capacity for self renewal. One of the predictions of this model is the existence of a heterogeneous pool of HSCs, some members of which are destined to become lineage restricted progenitor cells while others function to renew the stem cell pool. To test whether HSCs are heterogeneous with respect to cell cycle status, we determined the fraction of phenotypically defined murine HSCs (Thy1.1lo Lin-/lo Sca-1+) that contain > 2n amount of DNA as measured by propidium iodide staining, Hoechst dye uptake and [3H]thymidine labeling; that fraction is 18-22%. In contrast, in the developing fetal liver, 40% of HSCs are in the S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Those HSCs which exhibit a low level of staining with rhodamine 123 are almost exclusively in G0/G1 (97%) whereas only 70% of HSCs which stain brightly for rhodamine 123 are in G0/G1. The injection of 100 G0/G1 HSCs rescued 90% of lethally irradiated mice in contrast to 100 S/G2/M HSCs, which protected only 25% of lethally irradiated recipients. Enhanced long-term donor-derived multilineage reconstitution of the peripheral blood was observed in recipients of 100 G0/G1 HSCs compared to recipients of 100 S/G2/M cells. These data indicate that a significant proportion of HSCs are actively proliferating during steady state hematopoiesis and that this subpopulation of cells exhibits reduced stem cell activity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LR62900013

    View details for PubMedID 8349737

  • ALPHA-4-BETA-7-INTEGRIN MEDIATES LYMPHOCYTE BINDING TO THE MUCOSAL VASCULAR ADDRESSIN MADCAM-1 CELL Berlin, C., BERG, E. L., Briskin, M. J., Andrew, D. P., Kilshaw, P. J., Holzmann, B., Weissman, I. L., Hamann, A., BUTCHER, E. C. 1993; 74 (1): 185-195


    The mucosal vascular addressin, MAdCAM-1, is an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule for lymphocytes that is expressed by mucosal venules and helps direct lymphocyte traffic into Peyer's patches (PP) and the intestinal lamina propria. We demonstrate that the lymphocyte integrin alpha 4 beta 7, also implicated in homing to PP, is a receptor for MAdCAM-1. Certain antibodies to alpha 4 and beta 7 integrin chains but not to the beta 2 integrin LFA-1 inhibit lymphocyte binding to purified MAdCAM-1 and to MAdCAM-1 transfectants. Lymph node lymphocytes, alpha 4 beta 7+ TK1 lymphoma cells, and a beta 7-transfected variant of an alpha 4+ B cell line, 38C13, bind constitutively to MAdCAM-1. Binding is enhanced by Mn(++)-induced integrin activation. The related integrin alpha 4 beta 1 supports efficient binding to VCAM-1 but not to MAdCAM-1, even after integrin activation, indicating that MAdCAM-1 is a preferential ligand for alpha 4 beta 7. Alpha 4 beta 7 can also bind VCAM-1, but this requires greater integrin activation than binding to MAdCAM-1. The findings imply a selective role for the interaction of alpha 4 beta 7 and MAdCAM-1 lymphocyte in homing to mucosal sites.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LN62500018

    View details for PubMedID 7687523



    We report the protein purification and the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the proteins that bind with high affinity to cyclophilin C (Cyp-C) in the absence of cyclosporin A. Transfection of this cDNA into COS cells directs the production of a glycoprotein of 77 kDa that binds to Cyp-C in the absence, but not the presence, of cyclosporin A. Homology comparisons reveal that this protein and gene, termed CyCAP for Cyp-C-associated protein, possess a cysteine-rich domain (scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain) found in a variety of cell-surface molecules; the rest of the sequence is apparently specific. This result raises the possibility that Cyp-C serves as a mediator or regulator of an as-yet-unidentified signal or cellular process initiated via the Cyp-C-associated protein.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LM68100090

    View details for PubMedID 8341703



    Immunosuppressed individuals are at high risk for the development of hematologic malignancies. The typical lymphomas arising in organ transplant recipients are B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas that contain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA sequences. We investigated the characteristics of posttransplant lymphomas that lacked expression of the usual markers associated with EBV transformation. We describe four large-cell lymphomas seen recently at our institution. Two of these four cases were CD4+, one was CD8+, and in one staining for CD4 and CD8 expression was not performed. One CD4+ lymphoma was a CD30+, EBV- large-cell lymphoma from a 65-year-old kidney transplant recipient, the second was an EBV+ large-cell lymphoma from a 25-year-old heart transplant patient. Two T-cell lymphomas were EBV+ and had clonal T-cell receptor beta gene rearrangements. The other two lymphomas expressed T-cell markers CD4 and CD43, and lacked expression of B-cell markers CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD23, and surface Ig. Both CD4+ lymphomas were tumorigenic after their heterotransplantation into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Cytogenetics, immunophenotyping, and genotyping of the secondary tumors from SCID mice showed their clonality and identity with the patients' primary tumors. Novel CD4+ lymphoma cell lines, LH521/4 and LK418/4, were established from tumors that had been passaged in SCID mice. An immunodeficient environment may facilitate the growth of these T-cell or biphenotypic lymphomas; the etiology of their genesis can include transformation with EBV and other, as yet unidentified mechanisms.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LL36600033

    View details for PubMedID 8100721



    Human thymocyte differentiation was examined by injecting fetal thymic progenitor populations into human thymic xenografts in SCID-hu mice. Thymic progenitors were fluorescently labeled with the lipophilic dye PKH2. The phenotypes of their progeny could be identified by flow cytometric analysis of cells with a very high fluorescent PKH2 signal. Intrathymic injection of purified triple negative (TN) CD3-4-8- thymocytes resulted in the sequential appearance of CD3-4+8-, CD3-4+8+, and CD3+4+8+ cells, with the subsequent appearance of small numbers of phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ cells over a 4-d period. Sorted CD3-4+8- thymocytes injected intrathymically rapidly differentiated to CD4+8+ cells. CD4+8+ fetal thymocytes in cell cycle differentiated into phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ populations, whereas nondividing CD4+8+ cells failed to differentiate after intrathymic transfer. The number of cell divisions that occurred between the injection of TN thymocytes and their progeny at different time points was estimated based on the decrease in the intensity of the PKH2 label. The average length of the cell cycle for the TN population was calculated to be 24 h. The SCID-hu model thus provides a useful tool for studying the kinetics of cell division and differentiation of human thymocytes in vivo.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LH54900024

    View details for PubMedID 8315382



    A cDNA encoding a novel zinc finger protein has been isolated from a mouse T-cell leukemia line on the basis of its expression of a Ly-1 epitope in a lambda gt11 library. The putative gene was mapped on mouse chromosome 1, closely linked to Idh-1, but not linked to the Ly-1 (CD5) gene. The cDNA is therefore named Ly-1 antibody reactive clone (LYAR). The putative polypeptide encoded by the cDNA consists of 388 amino acids with a zinc finger motif and three copies of nuclear localization signals. Antibodies raised against a LYAR fusion protein reacted with a protein of 45 kD on Western blots and by immunoprecipitation. Immunolocalization indicated that LYAR was present predominantly in the nucleoli. The LYAR mRNA was not detected in brain, thymus, bone marrow, liver, heart, and muscle. Low levels of LYAR mRNA were detected in kidney and spleen. However, the LYAR gene was expressed at very high levels in immature spermatocytes in testis. The LYAR mRNA is present at high levels in early embryos and preferentially in fetal liver and fetal thymus. A number of B- and T-cell leukemic lines expressed LYAR at high levels, although it was not detectable in bone marrow and thymus. During radiation-induced T-cell leukemogenesis, high levels of LYAR were expressed in preleukemic thymocytes and in acute T leukemia cells. Fibroblast cells overexpressing the LYAR cDNA from a retrovirus vector, though not phenotypically transformed in vitro, had increased ability to form tumors in nu/nu mice. Therefore, LYAR may function as a novel nucleolar oncoprotein to regulate cell growth.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LC49800002

    View details for PubMedID 8491376



    To determine the effects of steel factor (SIF) on the number and distribution of phenotypically defined hematopoietic stem cells in vivo, mice were treated with continuous s.c. infusions of SIF for up to 7 days. The bone marrow demonstrated a transient 5-fold increase in the number of c-kit-positive lineage-negative/low cells with no change in cellularity. The radioprotective capacity of bone marrow cells was significantly reduced, and a 30% decrease in Thylo Lin-/lo Sca-1+ stem cells (Sca+ cells) was observed. In marked contrast, in the spleen a 2-fold increase in cellularity was accompanied by a 24-fold increase in c-kit-positive lineage-negative/low cells. SIF-treated spleen cells provided increased radioprotection and a corresponding 4-fold increase in the number of Sca+ cells. In the peripheral blood, an increase in both neutrophils and lymphocytes resulted; however, the number of c-kit-positive lineage-negative/low cells remained < 1%. SIF produced a 25-fold increase in radioprotection capacity and a 20-fold increase in the number of Sca+ cells in the peripheral blood. The increased radioprotection capacity of both the spleen cells and peripheral blood cells was associated with donor-derived, long-term multilineage reconstitution of recipient mice. The total number of Sca+ cells isolated per mouse after SIF treatment was not significantly increased. These results show that exogenous SIF treatment causes a redistribution of Sca+ cells and stem cell activity while having little effect on the total number of stem cells in the mouse.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KX81600133

    View details for PubMedID 7682717



    Hematopoietic stem cells are capable of multi-lineage differentiation to all blood cell types as well as self-renewal and radioprotection. Thy-1.1lo Lin-/lo Sca-1+ cells are a heterogeneous mixture of quiescent and self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells as well as multi-lineage expanding cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KY90900002

    View details for PubMedID 8099486

  • The Peyer's patch homing receptor. Current topics in microbiology and immunology Hu, M. C., Holzmann, B., Crowe, D. T., Neuhaus, H., Weissman, I. L. 1993; 184: 125-138

    View details for PubMedID 8313716

  • A colonial invertebrate species that displays a hierarchy of allorecognition responses Biological Bulletin I.L. Weissman, Rinkevich, G., Y. Saito 1993; 184
  • THE USE OF GRANZYME A AS A MARKER OF HEART-TRANSPLANT REJECTION IN CYCLOSPORINE OR ANTI-CD4 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY-TREATED RATS TRANSPLANTATION CHEN, R. H., IVENS, K. W., Alpert, S., Billingham, M. E., Fathman, C. G., Flavin, T. F., Shizuru, J. A., Starnes, V. A., Weissman, I. L., Griffiths, G. M. 1993; 55 (1): 146-153


    Granzyme A is a serine protease expressed by populations of human and mouse natural killer cells and activated CD4+ and CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes; its expression marks a subset of inflammatory cells in allografts, autoimmune diabetes, and a number of other inflammatory lesions. In order to describe more completely the correlation between granzyme A expression and the presence of in vivo cytolytic effects, we grafted allogeneic rat hearts with vascular anastomoses in a heterotopic location, and treated the hosts with either cyclosporine, anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (MRC OX38), or no therapy. The grafts were evaluated by palpation for cardiac functions, by immunohistochemistry for CD4/CD8 expression, by hematoxylin-and-eosin staining for inflammatory infiltration, and by in situ hybridization for granzyme A expression. The appearance of granzyme A+ cells in untreated allografts preceded both functional and standard histopathological and immunohistochemical evidence of graft rejection by two days. In donor-recipient combinations where cyclosporine and anti-CD4 treatments allowed indefinite allograft survival, the allografts showed minimal numbers of granzyme A+ cells, whether cellular infiltrates developed or not. The number of granzyme A+ cells present in the cardiac allografts in treated and untreated animals correlated with either current or impending episodes of rejection. The early time course of granzyme A expression suggests that it can be used as an early and reliable marker of graft rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KH66000027

    View details for PubMedID 8420039



    Programmed cell death is a physiological process that eliminates unwanted cells. The bcl-2 gene regulates programmed cell death in mammalian cells, but the way it functions is not known. Expression of the human bcl-2 gene in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans reduced the number of programmed cell deaths, suggesting that the mechanism of programmed cell death controlled by bcl-2 in humans is the same as that in nematodes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KD08800038

    View details for PubMedID 1470921



    Granzyme A is a serine protease that, together with the other granular components of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) cells, has been implicated in the cytolysis process. We report here two different messages and the genomic organization of the mouse granzyme A gene. The granzyme A gene is composed of six exons spanning 7 kilobases. Alternative splicing of the second exon results in the two transcripts. The two mRNA species encode the same mature granzyme A protein but with different leader sequences. The first (HF1) encodes a typical leader signal sequence similar to other granzymes, but the second (HF2) putative leader sequence is different and less hydrophobic. Both messages are present in cultured CTL cell lines and in normal lymphoid tissues. They are both induced when CTL cells are activated in vitro or in vivo. Both messages can be translated in vitro, although the HF1 message appears to be much more efficient as a template. The putative 5' promoter region of the HF gene sequenced (500 base pairs of upstream sequences) contains no well defined promoter sequences aside from the TATA box. The results suggest that (a) granzyme A may be produced with putative different leader sequences from two different mRNAs; (b) this may provide a model system for studying alternate splicing and the evolution of a complex enzymatic system in an organelle; and (c) the genomic DNA reported will be useful for studying transcription regulations involved in controlling the specific expression pattern of this gene.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KB60300087

    View details for PubMedID 1460043



    SCID-hu mice provide an in vivo model for studying the events of normal intrathymic human T-cell development and differentiation. We injected SCID-hu mice with staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) and determined their effects on the development and responsiveness of human T-cell populations defined by their expression of CD4 and CD8, and the type of V beta molecule in their T-cell receptors. After single intraperitoneal injections of SEB or SEE, we observed specific effects on thymic T cells expressing a cognate V beta T-cell receptor (TCR) (V beta 12.1 in the case of SEB-treated SCID-hu mice and V beta 8.1 in the case of SEE-treated mice) using both immunohistochemical staining of thymic frozen sections and flow cytometric analyses. An injection of SEB resulted in a 32% decrease in the total percentages of V beta 12.1+ cells in thymic sections after 2 days, with the greatest effect seen in the medulla, without a demonstrable effect on V beta 5.2/5.3+ or V beta 8.1+ cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis demonstrated that TCRhi thymocytes expressing a cognate V beta TCR declined transiently by 35% to 45% 1 to 2 days after the injection of SE. Analysis of thymic subpopulations showed decreases in the TCRhi CD4+8- and CD4-8+ cells and an increase in TCRlo CD4-8+ cells. Multiple injections of SE resulted in 50% to 60% decreases in cognate V beta TCR+ CD4+8- populations. Thymocytes prepared from SE-treated SCID-hu mice demonstrated specific anergy to the SE to which they had previously been exposed in vivo, but had a normal proliferative response to other superantigens in an in vitro assay. In contrast to the effects on thymic T cells, single injections of SE resulted in a twofold increase in the total numbers of circulating CD4+8- and CD4-8+ human T cells and a fourfold to eightfold increase in T cells expressing a cognate V beta TCR. Using SE as superantigens in SCID-hu mice, we have been able to induce antigen-specific clonal deletions, anergy, and proliferation of human T cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KC83800023

    View details for PubMedID 1467521



    Strain C.B17 scid/scid (SCID) mice, which lack functional T and B lymphocytes, show heightened susceptibility to the induction of thymic lymphomas by x-irradiation. Susceptibility is highest in thymus-chimeric SCID-BL mice (thymectomized SCID mice bearing a C57BL thymus graft). All SCID-BL lymphomas originate in the cells of the thymic graft (C57BL type) and lack murine leukemia virus expression. Both SCID and SCID-BL lymphomas are phenotypically CD4-8+ and/or CD4+8+, but only the SCID-BL tumors express CD3. Injection of C57BL or BALB/c bone marrow into irradiated SCID-BL mice prevents lymphoma development, but SCID marrow is completely ineffective. The results suggest that the scid condition enhances the activity of a putative lymphomagenic agent induced in the bone marrow by x-irradiation and that C57BL thymic cells are highly sensitive targets. Moreover, the failure of SCID bone marrow to protect against lymphomagenesis vs. the efficacy of marrow from immunocompetent donors points to involvement of T or B lineage cells in this process.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JF80300009

    View details for PubMedID 1500852



    'Programmed cell death' has been used to describe the death of cells killed by cytotoxic T cells or growth factor deprivation. Although bcl-2 can prevent death of cells deprived of growth factor, it failed to protect cells against T cell killing. In spite of bcl-2 expression, the DNA of targeted cells was degraded into nucleosome-sized fragments. Therefore the early steps in apoptosis induced by factor deprivation differ from those triggered by cytotoxic T cells, although they share a common final pathway featuring degradation of the DNA and loss of cytoplasmic membrane integrity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JE65500014

    View details for PubMedID 1498090



    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) were isolated from mouse fetus, and their developmental potential was compared with adult HSC. Donor-derived V gamma 3+T cells were detected in fetal thymic lobes, repopulated in vitro with fetal liver HSC, but not in those with adult bone marrow HSC. Single clonogenic fetal HSC gave rise to thymic progeny that include V gamma 3+, other gamma delta+, and alpha beta+ T cells. No V gamma 3+ T cells were detected in adult thymus injected intrathymically with either fetal or adult HSC. These results support a hypothesis that only fetal HSC have the capacity to differentiate into V gamma 3+ T cells in the fetal thymic microenvironment, and that the developmental potential of HSC may change during ontogeny.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JM21900003

    View details for PubMedID 1599125



    MRP8 and MRP14 are two S100-like calcium-binding proteins of unknown function, associated with numbers of human inflammatory disorders. Both molecules have been described as L1 complex, cystic fibrosis antigen, or p8 and p14. We report here the cloning of mouse MRP8 and MRP14 and their pattern of expression during hematopoiesis. Mouse MRP8 and MRP14 proteins share 59% identity with their human counterparts, but they are more divergent than the other members of the S100 protein family. Mouse MRP proteins are coexpressed in fetal myeloid progenitors, where they are detected as early as day 11 of gestation. In fetal liver and yolk sac, MRP+ cell populations increased in number, in association with the development of the myeloid lineage. In adult mouse, we identified MRP8 and MRP14 proteins in immature myeloid cells of the bone marrow, myeloid cells in the splenic red pulp and marginal zone, in addition to monocytes and blood neutrophils. However, MRP expression is lost as cells terminally differentiate into tissue macrophages. In addition, using thioglycollate-induced peritoneal inflammatory exudates, we showed that MRP8 and MRP14 proteins are highly expressed in recruited neutrophils and monocytes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HW41600002

    View details for PubMedID 1373330



    The interaction of the mouse c-kit receptor, designated Kit receptor, and steel factor promotes the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Monoclonal antibodies against the extracellular portion of the mouse Kit receptor were established. Five percent to 10% of total bone marrow cells expressed the Kit receptor, and half of them lack the expression of lineage markers. The Kit receptor was expressed on 70-80% of Thy-1.1lo Lin-Sca-1+ cells, which express Thy-1.1 antigen at a low level and constitute approximately 0.05% of adult bone marrow and fetal liver; by previous studies, these cells have been shown to be highly enriched for multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and are the only hematopoietic cell subset with this activity. Spleen colony formation and long-term multilineage reconstitution activities were contained in the Kit+ but not in the Kit- subpopulations of Thy-1lo Lin-Sca-1+ cells from adult bone marrow, suggesting that the Kit receptor is expressed on HSCs from the earliest stage-i.e., pluripotent HSCs. The role of steel factor in the development and self-renewal of HSCs was tested with Sl/Sl homozygote fetuses, which lack genes to encode functional steel factor. They were shown to have 30-40% of the number of HSCs on days 13-15 when compared with normal litermates. However, the absolute number of HSCs increased during fetal development in the Sl/Sl mice. The results suggest that the Kit receptor-steel factor interaction may not be essential for the initiation of hematopoiesis and the self-renewal of (at least) fetal HSCs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HE60600074

    View details for PubMedID 1371359



    Lymphocytes from the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were examined for the expression of granzyme A and perforin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of these proteins, which are implicated as mediators of cytotoxicity, can be used to identify putative cytolytic lymphocytes in vivo. Twenty-two synovial fluid samples were analyzed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In six patients receiving low doses of immunosuppressant, a population of granzyme A- and perforin-expressing lymphocytes could be identified. In contrast, lymphocytes from patients who were receiving high doses of immunosuppressant did not contain any granzyme A- or perforin-expressing lymphocytes. Synovial fluid lymphocytes from patients with osteoarthritis did not express either marker. The expression of these markers demonstrates the presence of potentially functional cytolytic lymphocytes, expressing proteins required to mediate killing, in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This suggests that cytolytic lymphocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992GZ69600021

    View details for PubMedID 1731326


    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JD12400008

    View details for PubMedID 1353436

  • LYMPHOCYTE HOMING RECEPTORS COLD SPRING HARBOR SYMPOSIA ON QUANTITATIVE BIOLOGY Hu, M. C., Siegelman, M. H., Holzmann, B., Crowe, D. T., Weissman, I. L. 1992; 57: 291-308

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992LV41600032

    View details for PubMedID 1339666



    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are defined in mice by three activities: they must rescue lethally irradiated mice (radioprotection), they must self-renew, and they must restore all blood cell lineages permanently. We initially demonstrated that HSCs were contained in a rare (approximately 0.05%) subset of bone marrow cells with the following surface marker profile: Thy-1.1lo Lin- Sca-1+. These cells were capable of long-term, multi-lineage reconstitution and radioprotection of lethally irradiated mice with an enrichment that mirrors their representation in bone marrow, namely, 1,000-2,000-fold. However, the experiments reported did not exclude the possibility that stem cell activity may also reside in populations that are Thy-1.1-, Sca-1-, or Lin+. In this article stem cell activity was determined by measuring: (a) radioprotection provided by sorted cells; (b) long-term, multi-lineage reconstitution of these surviving mice; and (c) long-term, multi-lineage reconstitution by donor cells when radioprotection is provided by coinjection of congenic host bone marrow cells. Here we demonstrate that HSC activity was detected in Thy-1.1+, Sca-1+, and Lin- fractions, but not Thy-1.1-, Sca-1-, or Lin+ bone marrow cells. We conclude that Thy-1.1lo Lin- Sca-1+ cells comprise the only adult C57BL/Ka-Thy-1.1 mouse bone marrow subset that contains pluripotent HSCs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992GY43600022

    View details for PubMedID 1346154

  • GROWTH OF PRIMARY T-CELL NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMAS IN SCID-HU MICE - REQUIREMENT FOR A HUMAN LYMPHOID MICROENVIRONMENT BLOOD Waller, E. K., Kamel, O. W., Cleary, M. L., Majumdar, A. S., Schick, M. R., Lieberman, M., Weissman, I. L. 1991; 78 (10): 2650-2665


    We reasoned that the SCID-hu mouse could provide an appropriate lymphoid or stromal microenvironment to support the growth of primary human lymphoma. Heterotransplantation of nine cases of primary T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) into untreated SCID mice and SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal thymus, spleen, and liver (SCID-hu) resulted in the development of lymphoid tumors in five (56%) cases. Two clonal T-cell NHL grew after a mean of 90 days after injection of primary lymphoma cell suspensions into the thymus xenografts in SCID-hu mice and failed to grow in a variety of sites in SCID mice, except for small tumors that developed after a long (157-day) latency period after intracranial injection of tumor cell suspensions into weanling SCID mice. Successful serial transplantation of NHL in SCID and SCID-hu mice required the presence of a human lymphoid or tumor microenvironment, and was enhanced by pretreating the SCID mice with 175 rad radiation and antiasialo antisera. Analysis of the primary and transplanted T-cell tumors showed identical patterns of T-cell surface markers by flow cytometry and immunophenotyping of fixed tissue sections, and, in one case, reactivity with a specific monoclonal antibody to V beta 5.1. Genotyping of the transplanted tumors showed T-cell receptor gene rearrangements identical to those present in the primary tumors. In one case, the presence of Epstein-Barr virus-positive B cells in association with the primary tumor resulted in the growth of a lymphoblastoid B-cell neoplasm in addition to the malignant T-cell lymphoma after transplantation of tumor fragments to SCID mice. The data support the hypothesis that a human lymphoid microenvironment enhances the growth of T-cell NHL in SCID mice. The SCID-hu thymus graft provides an apparently unique microenvironment that supports the growth of primary T-cell NHL, and can be used to study the interaction between lymphoma cells, nontransformed lymphoid cells, and the surrounding stromal microenvironment in vivo.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GP88700024

    View details for PubMedID 1824259



    cDNA clones encoding the alpha chain of the murine lymphocyte-Peyer's patch adhesion molecule (LPAM), which is associated with lymphocyte homing, have been isolated by screening with the human VLA-4 (alpha 4h) probe. Several alpha 4 antigenic determinants were identified on COS-7 cells after transfection. From overlapping clones, approximately 5 kb of contiguous nucleotide sequence have been determined, encoding a protein sequence of 1039 amino acids for the LPAM alpha chain (alpha 4m). LPAM is a member of the integrin family of cell-surface heterodimers, and alpha 4m is the murine homologue of the human alpha 4 h chain. The two proteins have a total sequence similarity of 84%, with an almost perfect conservation (31/32 amino acids) in the cytoplasmic domain. Like alpha 4h, alpha 4m is distinct from other integrin alpha chains because it has neither an I-domain nor a COOH-terminal cleavage site. The positions of the characteristic Cysteine residues are conserved, and a putative protease cleavage site is located near the middle of the protein sequence. The NH2-terminal part of the protein contains seven homologous repeats, and three of them include putative divalent cation-binding sites. These sites are among the most conserved between the alpha 4m sequence and other alpha chains, and may therefore be involved in the binding of integrin alpha and beta chains. An additional cDNA clone was isolated which shares a sequence of perfect homology with the alpha 4m encoding cDNAs, but has a unique 3' poly-A end. This observation correlates with the fact that three discrete murine RNA bands are observed in Northern blot experiments using alpha 4m as a probe, whereas only two human RNA species are described for alpha 4h, indicating a higher complexity for murine than for human sequences.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GP80200024

    View details for PubMedID 1840602



    T precursors from fetal liver and adult bone marrow were compared for their ability to give rise to V gamma 4+ T cell development. Fetal thymic lobes were repopulated with fetal liver or adult bone marrow cells, and the organ-cultured thymocytes were analyzed for their T cell receptor expression by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Both day 14 fetal liver and adult bone marrow cells gave rise to thymocytes with V gamma 4-J gamma 1 transcripts. However, the average size of the PCR products derived from adult precursors was slightly larger than that from fetal precursors. DNA sequence analysis of the V gamma 4-J gamma 1 transcripts showed that early fetal liver precursors predominantly gave rise to thymocytes with the V gamma 4-J gamma 1 transcripts without N nucleotide insertion, while late fetal liver and adult marrow precursors predominantly gave rise to thymocytes with modified V gamma 4-J gamma 1 junctions. These results suggest the possibility that the level of the N nucleotide insertion is programmed at the level of thymic precursors. This study also supported the model presented previously that the developmental potential of hematopoietic stem cells may change during ontogeny.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GM80300038

    View details for PubMedID 1834763



    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are distinguished from other hematopoietic progenitors in bone marrow by their unique ability to undergo multilineage differentiation and self-renewal. Two mouse mutations, dominant spotting (W) and steel (Sl), have pleiotropic effects on hematopoiesis, gametogenesis, and melanoblast development. These two mutations have been shown to be intrinsic (W) and microenvironmental (Sl) defects. Recently, molecular studies revealed that the W and Sl loci encode the c-kit receptor and steel factor (SLF), respectively. The c-kit receptor is expressed on HSCs and hematopoietic progenitors, while SLF is produced by stromal cells. SLF acts on hematopoietic progenitors synergistically with other growth factors. Here we review the effect of these mutations on mouse hematopoiesis, and show that SLF acts on HSCs and other myeloerythroid progenitors, but that it, in our hands, does not play a critical role in HSC generation or self-renewal. Rather, SLF is the most potent co-mitogen (with IL-1, IL-3, IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, or M-CSF) found that acts on these cells, but the effect of such treatments is the rather specific and massive expansion of myeloerythropoiesis, not lymphopoiesis, and perhaps at the expense of HSC self-renewal.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GH26000002

    View details for PubMedID 1720154



    We report the cloning and characterization of a new binding protein for the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA). This new cyclophilin, cyclophilin C (cyp C), shows extensive homology with all previously identified cyclophilins. Cyp C mRNA is expressed in a restricted subset of tissues relative to cyclophilins A and B, but is present in those tissues reported to be most affected by CsA therapy. A cyp C fusion protein has peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity, and CsA inhibits this activity. Using the cyp C fusion protein as an affinity ligand to probe cellular extracts, we find that the cyp C fusion protein binds specifically to a 77 kd protein in the absence of CsA, while in the presence of CsA it instead binds specifically to a 55 kd protein. We propose that the p77 is involved in cyp C native function and that the p55 is involved in signal transduction events blocked by treatment with immunosuppressive levels of CsA.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GC74500018

    View details for PubMedID 1652374



    C.B-17 severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice, which lack functional B and T lymphocytes, allow xenografts and, therefore, can be used to study the biology of human malignancies. Two different human B cell lymphoma cell lines, SU-DHL-4 and OCI-Ly8, which both harbor the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation, were injected into C.B-17 SCID mice. Mice injected intravenously or intraperitoneally developed tumors and died in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of tumor cells in various murine tissues could be demonstrated by a clonogenic tumor assay, staining of frozen sections with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a human B cell antigen (CD19), and with the polymerase chain reaction technique. A protocol using cytotoxic effector cells was developed and used to selectively deplete the tumor cells from bone marrow. These cells were developed by growing peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), anti-CD3 mAb, and interleukin 2 (IL-2). The timing of IFN-gamma treatment was critical and optimal if IFN-gamma was added before IL-2 treatment. The cells that were stimulated by IFN-gamma, followed by IL-2, could be expanded by treatment with a mAb directed against CD3. These cells could be further activated by IL-1, but not by tumor necrosis factor alpha. With this protocol, a tumor cell kill of 3 logs was obtained as measured by a clonogenic assay. Interestingly, despite their high cytotoxic activity against lymphoma cells, these cells had little toxicity against a subset of normal human hematopoietic precursor cells (granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming units). These cells were further tested by treating murine bone marrow contaminated with the human lymphoma cell line SU-DHL-4, and injecting these cells into SCID mice to assay for tumor growth in vivo. The animals injected with bone marrow contaminated with SU-DHL-4 cells had enhanced survival if the bone marrow was treated with the cytokine-induced killer cells before infusion. The SCID mouse provides a useful in vivo model for evaluation of new therapeutic approaches for lymphoma treatment. The cytokine-induced killer cells generated as described here could have an important impact on bone marrow purging for autologous bone marrow transplantation as well as for adoptive immunotherapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FU89700018

    View details for PubMedID 1711560



    Previous work has shown that the 0.02-0.05% of adult mouse bone marrow cells that bear the cell surface phenotype Thy-1loLin-Sca-1+ are enriched 1000- to 2000-fold for hematopoietic stem-cell activity in a variety of assays. When 50-100 cells of this phenotype are injected into an irradiated animal, they can permanently repopulate the entire hematopoietic system. In the present study, limiting-dilution and single-cell experiments were used to address the question of how individual Thy-1loLin-Sca-1+ stem cells contribute to repopulation of the hematopoietic system following irradiation. We calculated that 1 of 13 Thy-1loLin-Sca-1+ cells formed a clone comprising greater than 1% of peripheral white blood cells 3-7 weeks after injection. The majority of these clones included both lymphoid and myeloid lineages. Approximately one-third of the clones continued to produce new blood cells for 9 weeks or more, but the remainder disappeared earlier, including many that were multilineage. Thus, while the majority of Thy-1loLin-Sca-1+ bone marrow cells whose progeny are detected in the in vivo repopulation assay are pluripotential, only a subset undergo long-term self-renewal in vivo. Repopulation appears to be oligoclonal when limiting numbers of Thy-1loLin-Sca-1+ cells are injected. However, the number of clones contributing to hematopoiesis increases in proportion to the number of Thy-1loLin-Sca-1+ cells injected, bringing into question the notion that steady-state hematopoiesis in normal individuals is oligoclonal.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FE86400037

    View details for PubMedID 1672767

  • GRANZYME-A AND PERFORIN AS MARKERS FOR REJECTION IN CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Griffiths, G. M., Namikawa, R., Mueller, C., Liu, C. C., Young, J. D., Billingham, M., Weissman, I. 1991; 21 (3): 687-692


    The use of granzyme A and perforin as markers for rejection after cardiac transplantation has been investigated. Using in situ hybridization we have detected lymphocytes expressing granzyme A and perforin RNA that are infiltrating the donor heart after transplantation. A total of 29 different biopsies from 17 different patients who had undergone cardiac transplantation were examined. Twelve biopsies classified by conventional histological criteria as showing evidence of rejection were found to contain lymphocytes expressing granzyme A and perforin. Seven biopsies classified as showing no histological evidence of rejection infiltrating lymphocytes were found not to be expressing granzyme A or perforin. However, in 10 other biopsies from 5 different patients that had been classified as showing no evidence of rejection by the conventional grading system, lymphocytes expressing granzyme A and perforin were detected. In six of these cases the patient was found to have undergone a subsequent rejection episode. In the other four cases the biopsies were either taken at a very early stage after transplantation and the high doses of immunosuppression used routinely at that stage are likely to have averted any rejection episodes, or it was not possible to follow subsequent rejection episodes. These results, which are statistically significant (p = 0.06), demonstrate that granzyme A- and perforin-expressing lymphocytes can be identified in rejecting biopsies before histological damage is seen. The identification of perforin and granzyme A expression in vivo suggest a possible role for these proteins in the cytolysis that occurs during transplantation rejection. Furthermore, the data presented here suggest that it may be possible to use granzyme A and perforin as early predictive markers of transplantation rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FF29300021

    View details for PubMedID 2009911



    The mechanism of cell complex formation between lymphocytes and stromal cells was investigated. We found that lymphoid lines of both T and B lineages could form cell complexes with stromal cells from the thymus as well as bone marrow but not with macrophages or typical fibroblast lines. Formation of these cell complexes is temperature dependent and requires the presence of Mg2+, active cellular metabolism, and microfilament assembly of cytoskeleton. We raised an antiserum against a thymic stromal cell clone (BATE-2) in rats and found that, after absorption, this serum could effectively block cell complex formation between lymphocytes and stromal cells from both thymus and bone marrow. An efficient blocking was obtained only when the antiserum was added at the initial stage of cell interaction. From the blocking experiments and the SDS-PAGE analysis of immunoprecipitated materials from the stromal cell surface, we identified a unique 107-kD glycoprotein on the stromal cells as a molecule for mediating stromal cell-lymphocyte interaction. This is further supported by the findings that an antiserum raised in hamsters against the excised gel band corresponding to 107 kD, which specifically immunoprecipitated the 107-kD molecule, effectively blocked the lymphocyte-stromal cell interaction. The possible function of this molecule in hematolymphoid development is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV17500012

    View details for PubMedID 1988540


    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GV02100007

    View details for PubMedID 1743054



    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) isolated from mouse fetal liver, like adult HSCs, are Thy-1lo Lin- Sca-1+. Donor-derived V gamma 3+ T cells were detected in fetal thymic lobes repopulated in vitro with fetal liver HSCs, but not in those with adult bone marrow HSCs. Single clonogenic fetal HSCs gave rise to thymic progeny that include V gamma 3+, other gamma delta+, and alpha beta+ T cells. No V gamma 3+ T cells were detected in adult thymus injected intrathymically with either fetal or adult HSCs. These results support the hypothesis that only fetal HSCs have the capacity to differentiate into V gamma 3+ T cells in the fetal thymic microenvironment and that the developmental potential of HSCs may change during ontogeny.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DY10000006

    View details for PubMedID 1975515



    To identify the maturational stage(s) during which T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated positive and negative selection occurs, we followed the development of CD4+8- and CD4-8+ T cells from TCRlo CD4+8+ thymic blasts in the presence of different positive and negative selecting (major histocompatibility complex or Mls) elements. We describe novel lineage-committed transitional intermediates that are TCRmed CD4+8lo or TCRmed CD4lo8+, and that show evidence of having been positively selected. Furthermore, negative selection is not evident until after cells have attained one of the TCRmed transitional phenotypes. Accordingly, we propose that negative selection in normal mice occurs only after TCRlo CD4+8+ precursors have been positively selected into either the CD4 or CD8 lineage.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DW49100018

    View details for PubMedID 2143774



    The mouse lymph node specific homing receptor gp90MEL-14 is a 95-kDa molecular mass ubiquitinated cell surface molecule involved in the binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules in peripheral lymph nodes. The molecule is thought to consist of a core protein to which ubiquitin side chains are covalently bound. Recently we cloned the cDNA encoding the core protein; this cDNA clone encodes for a polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 37 kDa. We have studied the biosynthesis of gp90MEL-14 in an effort to explain the difference in molecular mass between the core protein and the 95-kDa mature molecule. Pulse labeling experiments show a rapid synthesis of a 70-kDa precursor form that contains high-mannose N-linked oligosaccharides. On processing of the high-mannose oligosaccharides into complex N-linked oligosaccharides, the precursor matures in a single step into the 95-kDa form. Experiments using deglycosylating enzymes and inhibitors of N-linked glycosylation demonstrate that the molecular mass of deglycosylated gp90MEL-14 is 45 kDa; extensive N-linked glycosylation is responsible for the difference in molecular mass with the mature 95-kDa form. The core protein molecular weight of in vitro transcribed and translated gp90MEL-14 cDNA is consistent with the estimated molecular mass of 37 kDa, calculated from the cDNA sequence of the core protein, and 8 to 10 kDa less than the protein molecular mass of gp90MEL-14 translated in vivo in the presence of tunicamycin (45 kDa). Inasmuch as we have ruled out glycosylation as accounting for this discrepancy, this is consistent with the addition of one ubiquitin moiety to the core protein during biosynthesis. Limited proteolysis confirms the similarity between in vitro transcribed gp90MEL-14 cDNA and the tunicamycin form of gp90MEL-14.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DV27900028

    View details for PubMedID 2166761



    The lymph node homing receptor core polypeptide (mLHRc) is composed of a tandem collection of domains: a lectin domain, an epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain, and two repeats common in complement regulatory proteins. Here we demonstrate localization of mLHRc to chromosome 1, the portion syntenic with chromosome 1 in man. This locus is inseparable in mouse strains from the murine lymphocyte cell surface marker Ly-22. The data indicate that Ly-22 is an allelic determinant on the LHR resulting from a single amino acid interchange within the EGF domain. Cross-blocking experiments demonstrate that anti-Ly-22 and MEL-14 recognize independent epitopes and that Ly-22 is distinct from the carbohydrate binding region. Application of anti-Ly-22 in the in vitro binding assay shows inhibition of binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules (HEVs). The localization of the Ly-22 epitope in this novel chimeric protein suggests direct participation of the EGF domain in the adhesion of lymphocytes to HEV.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DE90400007

    View details for PubMedID 1693096



    Thymuses from female (New Zealand black x New Zealand white)F1 [( NZB x NZW]F1), New Zealand black, and New Zealand white mice of different ages were examined by immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analysis. Two-and-a-half-month-old (NZB x NZW)F1 mice showed infiltration of the thymus with B cells, and by 6-8 months of age, showed a disruption of the entire medullary area. More than 80% of the thymic B cells had the phenotypic characteristics of conventional B cells (IgM+, IgD+, Ly-1-). Total lymphoid irradiation induced a marked depletion of medullary B cells and a restoration of the thymic architecture.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DE73800012

    View details for PubMedID 2346525



    The B lineage antigen 6C3Ag is expressed by a number of cell types involved in lymphopoiesis. We have investigated whether there is a relationship between activation of normal pre-B cells by the growth factor IL-7 and the expression of 6C3Ag. Sorted sub-populations of bone marrow pre-B cells were cultured with IL-7 and their expression of surface antigens measured. There is a rapid induction of 6C3Ag expression after exposure to IL-7 by pre-B cells but not mature B cells. In particular, the 6C3lo pre-B cells respond very strongly by increasing 6C3Ag expression. The expression of 6C3Ag coincides with increased DNA synthesis and formation of lymphoblasts by the responding cells. The responses seen were specific to IL-7, and to a lesser degree IL-4. We conclude from this that IL-7 specifically induces the expression of 6C3Ag.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DK02300003

    View details for PubMedID 2085485



    We have generated a rat mAb, TR310, which recognizes a determinant encoded by the murine V beta 7 gene segment of the TCR. TR310 immunoprecipitates TCR from cell lysates, co-modulates with CD3, and can be used for immunofluorescence staining of T cells. By using this antibody, we found that the average percentage of V beta 7+ peripheral T cells in Mls-1b mice was 3.8%, but only 0.8% in Mls-1a mice. A similar difference was also observed in the mature TCRhi thymocyte subsets, suggesting that V beta 7+ T cells are deleted during intrathymic maturation in Mls-1a mice. TR310 should prove to be a valuable reagent in further studies of the TCR repertoire and the analysis of factors which alter it.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DA76500031

    View details for PubMedID 1691759



    Colonial tunicates are complex marine invertebrates (in fact protochordates) that undergo a variety of histocompatibility reactions in their intraspecific competition for feeding surfaces. By means of these reactions colonies fuse with kin, extend domination over a feeding surface, while isolating unrelated conspecifics. The primary determinant of fusion (with kin) or rejection (of non-kin) is a single, highly polymorphic, histocompatibility gene locus (or haplotype), called Fu/HC. Following fusion with nonidentical kin sharing 1 or more Fu/HC allele(s), the fused pair expands both chimeric partners via an asexual budding process, further extending domination over a feeding surface. However, at some later time point an intense set of histoincompatibility reactions occurs between fused kin, resulting in the destruction of all individuals of one of the genotypes, ending the chimeric state. In this review we describe what is known of the genetics and several biological properties encoded by the Fu/HC, and the several independent gene loci that control the colony resorption phenomena that return the colony to the province of a single genotypic individual.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CT61100010

    View details for PubMedID 2180808

  • Structural similarity between a primitive chordate membrane heterodimer and lymphocyte antigen receptors. International immunology Danska, J. S., MCINTYRE, B. W., McDevitt, H. O., Weissman, I. L. 1990; 2 (9): 795-802


    Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial tunicate that shared a common ancestor with the lineage leading to mammals about 450 million years ago, and flourishes today along the California coast. Prior studies of Botryllus populations have demonstrated the presence of a co-dominantly expressed, highly polymorphic histocompatibility locus (Fu/HC) controlling the acceptance (fusion) or rejection of new individuals into a parabiotic colony. Intercolonial blood cell contact, and recognition of self/not self, precedes both fusion and rejection reactions. Efforts to understand the evolution of the immune system necessitate study of cell surface molecules involved in cell-cell recognition events in primitive species. In mammals, birds, amphibians, and fishes clonally distributed lymphocyte surface molecules that are responsible for antigen recognition (B cell immunoglobulins and T cell receptors) can be distinguished by the disulfide linkage that pairs two or more polypeptides containing constant and variable regions. We have identified a disulfide-linked, heterodimeric (alpha beta) cell surface molecule in Botryllus with biochemical resemblance to mammalian lymphocyte antigen receptors. Observed charge variants of constituent chains of the tunicate protein described here do not correlate with Fu/HC allelic diversity. Both chains of this heterodimer can be resolved into several isoforms which are not based upon post-translational carbohydrate or phosphate additions. Comparisons of iodinated tryptic peptides from two beta chain isomorphs reveal one distinct and several common peptides.

    View details for PubMedID 2278999



    mAb 1C11 was raised against the cells of retrovirus-negative, radiation-induced thymomas of C57BL/Ka mice. MAb 1C11 binds to radiation- and RadLV-induced C57BL/Ka lymphomas, to lymphomas of other mouse strains and to B-lineage tumors. The 1C11 Ag is expressed on a subpopulation of normal thymocytes that is enriched in immature cells. After fractionated x-irradiation, this percentage increases gradually during the preleukemic period, hence mAb 1C11 appears to identify a transformation-related cell surface molecule. This conclusion is supported by experiments demonstrating that flow microfluorimetry-sorted, 1C11-expressing preleukemic thymocytes progress rapidly to full neoplasia following intrathymic injection, whereas nonexpressing cells do not. Most of day-14 fetal thymocytes are as strongly positive as thymic lymphomas for the 1C11 Ag whereas Ag-activated T cell lines express moderate levels. Multiparameter flow microfluorimetry analysis shows that 1C11 is expressed predominantly on CD3-/lo thymic blast cells of three phenotypically defined subsets: CD4-8-, CD4-8+, and CD4+8+, all of which contain thymic progenitors. By immunohistochemical staining, the Ag is also found in association with epithelial cells on a variety of normal, nonlymphoid tissue, but is not detectable on heart tissue. The 1C11 antibody immunoprecipitates a disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein of 85/37 kDa and the antigenic determinant is located on the H chain of the molecule. When analyzed by SDS-PAGE under nonreducing conditions, the molecule exists as a 130-kDa protein. Enzymatic digestion of the heterodimer indicates that the H chain, but not the L chain, has at least three N-linked glycosylation sites. We propose that this novel cell surface glycoprotein may be associated with processes of differentiation and lymphomagenesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CG62300015

    View details for PubMedID 2404061



    The CD4-8- thymocyte subset contains immature precursors for phenotypically and functionally mature CD4+8- and CD4-8+ thymocytes and peripheral T cells, as well as nonmature CD4+8+ thymocytes, most of which die in situ. The intrathymic death of most thymocytes is probably related to selective influences that ensure that only those precursors bearing self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted and self-tolerant T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) survive to complete the maturation process. Interactions between surface molecules on thymocytes (TCR, CD4, and CD8) and thymic stromal cells (MHC proteins) are critical to repertoire selection. To understand this process, the lineage relationships among immature, nonmature, and mature thymocytes must be defined. We have examined directly the precursor-progeny relationships among CD4+8-, CD4-8+, and CD4+8+ murine thymocyte subsets by assessing their short-term (less than 5 days) developmental potentials following intrathymic injection into Thy-1 congenic, unirradiated host mice. Our results identify TCR-/lo CD4-8+ and TCRlo CD4+8+ blast cells as sequential intermediates in the development of mature TCRhi CD4+8- and TCRhi CD4-8+ thymocytes from CD4-8- precursors, thus defining at least one intrathymic maturation pathway for T lymphocytes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AT78200054

    View details for PubMedID 2508090



    We have previously reported the presence of receptors on radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-induced thymomas and malignant thymocytes from AKR mice which specifically bind retrovirus produced by these T cell clones. These receptors have been shown to have specificity for virus reminiscent of an immune-specific receptor. Previous studies on T cell lymphoma binding to retroviruses have involved measurement of the interaction of labelled virus with cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis (McGrath et al., J. Virol. (1978) 25, 923; McGrath and Weissman, Cell (1979) 17, 65; Weissman and McGrath, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. (1982) 98, 103). Here we report development of an assay for measuring lymphoma binding to virus, prepared as an immunoabsorbent adhered to a microtiter plate. Using this assay, we have shown that only T and not B cell lymphomas can bind to T cell-tropic viruses, and some cell lines have greatest specificity for homologous virus. The AKR-derived T cell lymphomas, SL3 and KKT-2, show greater specificity for leukemogenic AKR viruses, than for an AKR xenotropic virus or the recombinant AKR virus, MCF247. The RadLV-induced T cell lines, C6VL/1 and BL/VL3, have been found to bind cross-reactively to several different murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs). RadLV-induced T cell lymphomas do have greater specificity for their cognate retroviruses since free, homologous retrovirus can best block the interaction between cells and virus adhered to the wells of a microtiter plate. Cross-reactive interactions are more easily demonstrated by this assay, probably because low avidity interactions are stabilized as a result of the mode of virus presentation. Binding specificity for retroviral envelope determinants has been demonstrated using a rat anti-retroviral antiserum prepared as an F(ab)1 fragment. This antiserum can inhibit the interaction between the C6VL/1 thymoma and its RadLV virus. Specificity of this antibody for a gp70-like protein was confirmed by NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and by loss of this activity after absorption of antibody on virus. Antibodies specific for RadLV/VL3 gp70 determinants can inhibit the interaction of C6VL/1 with RadLV/VL3 suggesting that cross-reactive binding to heterologous virus is also specific for a gp70 viral env determinant.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AK71900011

    View details for PubMedID 2547874



    A cDNA clone homologous to the mouse lymph node homing receptor core protein (mLHRc) was isolated from a cDNA library derived from stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Human RNA blot analysis shows a tissue and cell-line distribution of transcript expression generally parallel to that seen in the mouse, with expression confined to lymphoid tissues and some cell lines. Genomic DNA analysis suggests a low-copy gene under high-stringency conditions. The complete nucleotide sequence predicts a mature protein of 334 amino acids, identical in length to mLHRc. The protein shows striking conservation globally between human and mouse sequences. In particular, all three genre of protein interaction domains identified in the mouse--an animal lectin domain, an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain, and two homologous repeat units preserving the motif of complement regulatory proteins (CRP)--are present in the human protein (hLHRc), and maintain the same tandem arrangement. The lectin and EGF-like regions are the most homologous, while the CRP domains are less conserved between species. The two CRP units in hLHRc are distinct from those in mLHRc in that they are homologous to one another rather than identical, suggesting strong pressure for maintenance of two repeats in this molecule. hLHRc is distinct from other kinds of lymphocyte adhesion molecules represented by VLA-4 (integrin) or CD44/gp90Hermes and, together with mLHRc and two other recently described molecules having a similar domain motif, defines a novel class of adhesion molecules exhibiting distinct evolutionary features. We propose that hLHRc likely represents the protein core of the human homologue of mLHRc functionally as well as structurally.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AG35900072

    View details for PubMedID 2664786



    A novel stage in early B-lymphocyte differentiation has been identified in normal mouse bone marrow cells. Earlier work had demonstrated that bone marrow cells characterized by low levels of Thy-1 and lack of a panel of lineage markers (Thy-1lo Lin- cells) were highly enriched for pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this paper, we present evidence that another bone marrow population, which expressed low levels of Thy-1 and coexpressed B220, a B-lineage-specific form of the leukocyte common antigen, contained early and potent precursors for B lymphocytes upon in vivo transfer to irradiated hosts. These Thy-1lo B220+ cells, comprising 1 to 2% of bone marrow cells, were enriched for large cells in the mitotic cycle; the population lacked significant pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell activity and myeloid-erythroid progenitors. Most strikingly, Thy-1lo B220+ cells represented a highly enriched population of bone marrow cells that could be targets of Abelson murine leukemia virus transformation. We propose that Thy-1lo B220+ bone marrow cells represent the earliest stage of committed lymphocyte progenitors, intermediate in differentiation between Thy-1lo Lin- pluripotent stem cells and, in the B lineage, Thy-1- B220+ pre-B cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U757700039

    View details for PubMedID 2474759



    Lymphocytes home to various lymphoid organs by adhering to and migrating through specialized high endothelial venules (HEV). The murine cell surface heterodimer LPAM-1 is involved in the homing of lymphocytes to mucosal sites (Peyer's patches). LPAM-1 has an alpha subunit (alpha 4m) analogous to the alpha chain of the human integrin molecule VLA-4. Here we show that the LPAM-1 beta subunit (beta p) is immunochemically and biochemically distinct from previously defined integrin beta subunits, suggesting that beta p represents a novel integrin beta subunit. Depending on the cellular source two alternative beta subunits, beta p and integrin beta 1, can be isolated in association with alpha 4m. Therefore, alpha 4m is the common subunit of the unique integrin LPAM-1 (alpha 4m beta p) and of the heterodimer LPAM-2 (alpha 4m beta 1), which is analogous to VLA-4. Antibody-blocking experiments suggest that, in addition to LPAM-1, LPAM-2 is also involved in the organ-specific adhesion of lymphocytes to Peyer's patch HEV.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U846900014

    View details for PubMedID 2670559



    We have used the intra-thymic transfer system to investigate the population dynamics of thymocyte and mature T cell subsets in the absence of continuing precursor input from the bone marrow. We have followed the development and life span of CD4+ and CD8+ thymocyte subsets and mature peripheral T cells from intra-thymically injected adult or fetal CD4-8- thymic precursors. Both precursor types proliferated, differentiated, and exported to peripheral lymphoid tissues alpha beta-TCR+CD4+8- and CD4-8+ progeny which formed a stable, long-lived component of the peripheral T cell pool. The production of phenotypically mature thymocytes and peripheral T cells occurred more rapidly from fetal CD4-8- precursors. CD4+8-:CD4-8+ ratios among peripheral progeny of intra-thymically-injected CD4-8- precursors were initially normal, but they steadily declined among progeny of the fetal precursors. Thus, there appear to be differences in the life span and/or proliferative capacity of mature T cells derived from embryonic vs adult progenitors. In addition to the predominant CD4+8- and CD4-8+ subsets of peripheral T cells, a minor (1 to 20%) population of Thy-1+CD3+4-8- T cells was identified among peripheral progeny of intra-thymically-injected CD4-8- thymocytes, as well as in lymph nodes of unmanipulated animals. A total of 20 to 34% of this subset expressed V beta 8+ TCR and the majority were CD5hi, Pgp-1+, and J11d-. The function and specificity of this newly identified population of thymically derived peripheral T cells remains to be investigated.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U688300006

    View details for PubMedID 2785564



    Recently, hematopoietic stem cells were purified to homogeneity from mouse bone marrow. The protein structure of Sca-1, the cell surface antigen used in the isolation of hematopoietic stem cells, is described here. It is shown that the Sca-1 antigen is a member of the Ly-6 antigen family. The anti-Sca-1 antibody was used in immunohistochemistry experiments to define the structures in several tissues that had previously been shown to contain Ly-6 antigens. In thymus, spleen, and kidney, specific staining of parenchymal cells can be demonstrated, whereas only vasculature reacts with anti-Sca-1 in brain, heart, and liver and possibly in lung.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AB24900063

    View details for PubMedID 2660142



    We have analyzed the phenotype and functional capabilities of adult and fetal CD4 8 thymocytes after 4 d of culture in IL-4 and PMA. Both adult and day 14 fetal CD4 8 thymocytes failed to acquire CD4 or CD8 antigens following culture. However, changes in expression of other antigens typical of immature thymocytes were observed. For example, the frequency with which cells expressed high levels of J11d or IL-2-R was greatly decreased following culture, whereas the frequency with which high levels of MEL-14, the lymph node homing receptor were expressed were greatly increased. This phenomenon may be due to direct induction by IL-4 and PMA of MEL-14 expression on purified MEL-14lo CD4-8- thymocytes. The frequency of cells expressing CD3, Ly-1 and Pgp-1 changed only slightly. Functionally, the cultured cells produced large amounts of interferon gamma but very little IL-2 or IL-4, although freshly isolated CD4-8- thymocytes produced all three lymphokines. These results suggest that in addition to a proliferative stimulus, culture in IL-4/PMA alters the expression of several early thymocyte antigens, the functional capabilities of CD4-8- progenitor thymocytes, and may act as a selective differentiation stimulus to MEL-14lo CD4-8- thymocytes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AE29900015

    View details for PubMedID 2505789



    We have measured the relative levels of transcripts for 15 of the 22 known V beta gene segments. The level of transcripts for the highest and lowest expressed V beta gene segment differed by greater than 20-fold in the thymus and an even larger difference was observed in the periphery. The levels of expressions were unrelated to the order of the V beta genes on the chromosome. For most of the V beta gene segments, the relative transcript levels were the same in the thymus and periphery, suggesting that thymic selection in general does not act solely upon the V beta gene segment. One V beta gene segment in the BALB and B10 mice strains was an exception to this rule. V beta 5.2 expression in the periphery of BALB and B10 mice inversely correlated with the expression of the MHC class II molecule I-E. Five V beta gene segments had reduced transcript levels in the periphery of Mls-1a mice compared with their thymic levels or to the levels found in Mls-1b mice. The peripheral level of V beta 3 transcripts vary with MHC and Mls-2 haplotypes. The observation that certain V beta transcript levels are reduced in the periphery when compared with the thymus favors the hypothesis that self tolerance at the T cell level results in the elimination of self-reactive T cells, rather than paralysis by a block at some post-transcriptional step. Finally, the wide variability of V beta gene segment expression in the thymus suggests mechanisms exist to import an early bias to the repertoire. Whether this bias results from differential V beta segment rearrangement rates, differential V beta expression rates, or events occurring after TCR-alpha/beta expression on immature/nonmature thymocyte cell surfaces is yet to be determined.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U366600016

    View details for PubMedID 2497226



    This review summarizes experiments designed to analyze lymphocyte receptors mediating recognition of and adhesion to HEV in mucosal lymphoid organs. A monoclonal antibody (R1-2) was selected which inhibits the adhesion of murine lymphocytes to Peyer's patch HEV. Antibody R1-2 recognizes the alpha chain (alpha 4m) of the murine lymphocyte cell-surface alpha beta heterodimer LPAM-1. The association of LPAM-1 alpha and beta chains requires the presence of Ca++ ions. Two proteins of Mr 84,000 and 62,000 which are also precipitated by antibody R1-2 most likely represent fragments of alpha 4m. The cross-reactivity of a monospecific rabbit anti-serum indicated that alpha 4m is analogous to the alpha chain of the human integrin molecule VLA-4. In addition, a cDNA clone encoding the human VLA-4 alpha chain hybridized with RNA from alpha 4m+ but not alpha 4m- cell lines. However, the LPAM-1 beta subunit (beta p) was shown to be immunochemically and biochemically distinct from integrin beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3, indicating that beta p represents a unique integrin beta chain. When the beta subunits associated with alpha 4m on a panel of lymphoma cell lines were analyzed, it was found that, depending on the cellular source, alpha 4m can associate with either of two beta chains: beta p or integrin beta 1. Therefore alpha 4m appears to be the common subunit of the two lymphocyte cell surface heterodimers LPAM-1 (alpha 4m/beta p) and LPAM-2 (alpha 4m/beta 1). LPAM-2 is analogous to the human VLA-4 molecule, whereas LPAM-1 represents a unique integrin heterodimer. Antibody R1-2 inhibited Peyer's patch HEV-adhesion of normal mouse lymphocytes and every lymphoma cell line tested including LPAM-1 and LPAM-2 single-positive cell lines. We also showed that the binding capacity of variants of a clonal lymphoma cell line to Peyer's patch HEV correlates with the level of LPAM-1 expression. It therefore appears that both heterodimers are involved in lymphocyte-Peyer's patch HEV interactions and that the adhesion of lymphocytes to Peyer's patch HEV is generally LPAM-1- or LPAM-2-dependent. We further investigated whether VLA-4, the human analog of LPAM-2, can mediate adhesion of human lymphocytes to HEV in mucosal lymphoid organs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U687100003

    View details for PubMedID 2670742



    Isolation of a clone encoding the mouse lymph node homing receptor reveals a deduced protein with an unusual protein mosaic architecture, containing a separate carbohydrate-binding (lectin) domain, an epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) domain, and an extracellular precisely duplicated repeat unit, which preserves the motif seen in the homologous repeat structure of complement regulatory proteins and other proteins. The receptor molecule is potentially highly glycosylated, and contains an apparent transmembrane region. Analysis of messenger RNA transcripts reveals a predominantly lymphoid distribution in direct relation to the cell surface expression of the MEL-14 determinant, and the cDNA clone is shown to confer the MEL-14 epitope in heterologous cells. The many novel features, including ubiquitination, embodied in this single receptor molecule form the basis for numerous approaches to the study of cell-cell interactions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T473200027

    View details for PubMedID 2646713

  • 2 MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES IDENTIFY THYMIC-REPOPULATING CELLS IN MOUSE BONE-MARROW JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Spangrude, G. J., Klein, J., Heimfeld, S., Aihara, Y., Weissman, I. L. 1989; 142 (2): 425-430


    The progenitor cells in the bone marrow that home to and repopulate the thymus have been incompletely characterized. In particular, it is not clear whether thymocytes differentiate directly from pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells that seed to the thymus, or whether T lymphoid-committed stem cells (prothymocytes) arise in the bone marrow before the thymic migration. In order to resolve this question, we have used mAb specific for cell-surface Ag to identify the bone marrow cells which can seed to and repopulate the thymus of irradiated mice. We report here that the majority of thymic-repopulating cells in mouse bone marrow express low levels of the Thy-1 Ag (Thy-1lo) plus high levels of a newly described Ag termed stem cell Ag (Sca-1). Two distinct populations of thymic-repopulating Thy-1loSca-1+ cells in mouse bone marrow can be discriminated based on expression of any of a number of hemolymphoid lineage-specific (Lin) markers. Thus, Thy-1loLin-Sca-1+ and Thy-1loLin+Sca-1+ fractions of bone marrow contain thymic-repopulating cells. A second Ag, stem cell Ag-2 (Sca-2), is expressed by Thy-1loLin+Sca-1+ cells but not by Thy-1loLin-Sca-1+ cells. The Thy-1loLin-Sca-1+ fraction expresses intermediate levels of the phagocyte glycoprotein-1 Ag, and comprises 30% of the Thy-1loLin- bone marrow cells, which have previously been shown to be highly enriched in pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells. By facilitating the isolation of highly purified subpopulations of bone marrow cells that can repopulate the thymus, Sca-1 and Sca-2 should provide an experimental tool for describing the developmental potential of such bone marrow subsets.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989R647800009

    View details for PubMedID 2562963



    Lymphocyte homing is controlled by organ-specific interactions of lymphocytes and high endothelial venules (HEV). Adhesion of lymphocytes to Peyer's patch HEV, but not to peripheral node HEV, is inhibited by an antibody recognizing the murine lymphocyte antigen LPAM-1. Lymphoma cell variants were selected on the FACS for differences in LPAM-1 expression: the binding capacity of these variants to Peyer's patch HEV directly correlates with the level of LPAM-1 expression. The anti-LPAM-1 antibody recognizes the alpha subunit of an Mr 160,000/130,000 cell surface alpha beta heterodimer. The association of LPAM-1 alpha and beta chains requires the presence of Ca2+ ions. Proteins of Mr 84,000 and Mr 62,000 present in LPAM-1 immunoprecipitates appear to be products of the proteolytic processing of alpha chains. The structure of LPAM-1 is virtually identical to that of the human integrin receptor VLA-4. The cross-reactivity of a monospecific rabbit antiserum demonstrated the similarity between the human VLA-4 alpha chain and the alpha subunit of LPAM-1.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989R859200007

    View details for PubMedID 2463092

  • Some observation on the life history of lymphocytes. Harvey lectures Weissman, I. L. 1989; 85: 43-69

    View details for PubMedID 2519150

  • Maturation of hematolymphoid cells that express Thy-1. Immunology series Müller-Sieburg, C. E., Tidmarsh, G. F., Weissman, I. L., Spangrude, G. J. 1989; 45: 289-316

    View details for PubMedID 2577321


    View details for Web of Science ID A1989JX74500008

    View details for PubMedID 2700949

  • INFECTION OF THE SCID-HU MOUSE BY HIV-1 SCIENCE Namikawa, R., Kaneshima, H., Lieberman, M., Weissman, I. L., McCune, J. M. 1988; 242 (4886): 1684-1686


    SCID-hu mice with human fetal thymic or lymph node implants were inoculated with the cloned human immunodeficiency virus-1 isolate, HIV-1JR-CSF. In a time- and dose-dependent fashion, viral replication spread within the human lymphoid organs. Combination immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed only viral RNA transcripts in most infected cells, but some cells had both detectable viral transcripts and viral protein. Infected cells were always more apparent in the medulla than in the cortex of the thymus. These studies demonstrate that an acute infection of human lymphoid organs with HIV-1 can be followed in the SCID-hu mouse.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988R492900039

    View details for PubMedID 3201256



    Stem cell Ag 1 and 2 (Sca-1 and Sca-2), so named due to their expression by mouse bone marrow stem cells, were evaluated for expression by populations of cells within the thymus. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that Sca-1 was expressed by cells in the thymic medulla and by some subcapsular blast cells, as well as by the thymic blood vessels and capsule. Sca-2 expression, which was limited to the thymic cortex, could be associated with large cycling thymic blast cells. Both Sca-1 and Sca-2 were expressed on a sub-population of CD4-CD8- thymocytes, and this subpopulation was entirely contained within the Ly-1lo progenitor fraction of cells. Sca-1 expression by a phenotypically mature subset of CD4+CD8- thymocytes was also noted. Conversely, Sca-2 expression was observed on a phenotypically immature or nonmature subpopulation of CD4-CD8- thymocytes. MEL-14, an antibody that defines functional expression of a lymphocyte homing molecule, identified a small population of thymocytes that contained all four major thymic subsets. Sca-2 split the MEL-14hi thymocyte subset into two Sca-2+ non-mature/immature phenotype fractions and two Sca-2- mature phenotype fractions. In peripheral lymphoid organs, Sca-1 identified a sub-population of mature T lymphocytes that is predominantly CD4+CD8-, in agreement with the thymic distribution of Sca-1. Peripheral T cells of the CD4-CD8+ phenotype were predominantly Sca-1-. In contrast, Sca-2 did not appear to stain peripheral T lymphocytes, but recognized only a subset of B lymphocytes which could be localized by immunohistochemistry to germinal centers. Thus, expression of Sca-1 is observed throughout T cell ontogeny, whereas Sca-2 is expressed by some subsets of thymocytes, including at least one half of thymic blasts, but not by mature peripheral T lymphocytes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988R004700002

    View details for PubMedID 2460547



    Human Hanukah Factor (HuHF) is a trypsinlike serine protease associated with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Employing a radiolabeled RNA probe for the HuHF gene, cells containing HuHF mRNA in situ were detected in skin lesions from patients with a variety of reactive and neoplastic dermatoses including positive allergic contact dermatitis patch tests, lichen planus, erythrodermic psoriasis, Sezary syndrome, and poikilodermatous mycosis fungoides. The results were correlated with in situ studies of CTL/NK subsets as defined immunohistologically by a panel of monoclonal antibodies applied to sermiserial sections of the same tissue blocks used for the HuHF hybridizations. The results suggest that cytotoxic cells are present in each of these dermatoses, that they may be situated within either the epidermis or the dermis, and that they belong predominantly to the CTL subset because Leu-7+ or CD16+ cells (NK cells) were typically rare or absent. A variable proportion of cells expressed Leu-19 antigen (a marker for non-MHC-restricted cytotoxic cells); however, its rarity in several cases suggests that most of the HuHF+ cells identified in them belonged to the MHC-restricted, Leu-19- CTL subset. It is concluded that the correlation of molecular biologic and immunohistologic data will be a useful method for the further characterization of cytotoxic cell subsets in human dermatoses.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q993500004

    View details for PubMedID 2461088

  • THE SCID-HU MOUSE - MURINE MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF HUMAN HEMATOLYMPHOID DIFFERENTIATION AND FUNCTION SCIENCE McCune, J. M., Namikawa, R., Kaneshima, H., Shultz, L. D., Lieberman, M., Weissman, I. L. 1988; 241 (4873): 1632-1639


    The study of human hematopoietic cells and the human immune system is hampered by the lack of a suitable experimental model. Experimental data are presented showing that human fetal liver hematopoietic cells, human fetal thymus, and human fetal lymph node support the differentiation of mature human T cells and B cells after engraftment into mice with genetically determined severe combined immunodeficiency. The resultant SCID-hu mice are found to have a transient wave of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and human IgG (immunoglobulin G) in the peripheral circulation. The functional status of the human immune system within this mouse model is not yet known.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q137200029

    View details for PubMedID 2971269



    A limiting dilution system for cloning thymic CFU (CFUt) from murine bone marrow has been critically evaluated to test the clonal origin of the thymic colonies. Simultaneous limiting dilution transfer of three populations of bone marrow, each expressing a unique allelic cell surface determinant, resulted in independent segregation of donor-derived thymocyte populations within groups of recipient mice. Statistical analysis of the data allowed an estimate of 1 CFUt/3.3 x 10(4) i.v. transferred bone marrow cells. A pulse-chase experiment was utilized to establish whether CFUt seed directly to the thymus, or whether thymic seeding is secondary to extra-thymic engraftment. The results supported the conclusion that bone marrow CFUt utilize a specific interaction with thymic blood vessel endothelial cells to recognize and enter the thymus, and that this seeding occurs within 4 h of i.v. infusion. A kinetic analysis of emigration of the CFUt progeny into the peripheral blood revealed that, in most cases, an early wave of predominantly CD4+ CD8- lymphocytes emerges from the thymus approximately 4 wk after radiation and reconstitution. In a few cases, the first progeny of CFUt to emerge from the thymus were predominantly CD4- CD8+. Commitment of CFUt to TCR beta-chain rearrangements was assessed by quantitating expression of the V beta 8 family of TCR V region genes. Although some clones expressed a significantly higher or lower percentage of V beta 8+ cells, these differences were not stable with time. Thus, CFUt do not undergo absolute commitment to cell surface phenotype of TCR rearrangement, as reflected by the phenotypes of their progeny. Clones of mature peripheral progeny of CFUt could be expanded in culture in the presence of mitogen and growth factors; approximately 30 to 50% of proliferating clones could mediate cytotoxicity in a lectin-dependent assay, further indicating that CFUt are not absolutely committed to a particular T cell function.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q102200013

    View details for PubMedID 3262643



    The tunicate Botryllus is a marine protochordate whose clonal colonies undergo regulated natural transplantations when they come into contact in nature. The outcome of these transplantations (fusion or rejection) is controlled by genes of a highly polymorphic histocompatibility system that resembles in many respects the mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC). While fusion or rejection reactions are often completed within 24 hr after transplantation, resorption of one partner of a pair of fused semiallogeneic colonies may occur days to weeks after initial contact. The latter process is similar to the degeneration of old individuals, or zooids, that precedes maturation of each new generation of asexual buds. Here we describe comparisons of in vitro reactions of a) mixtures of cells from allogeneic animals and b) cells taken from animals at the zooid-resorption ("takeover") stage of colony development. In vitro autoreactivity of cells from resorbing colonies may reflect in vivo responses to senescent cells, which in turn may be related to allorecognition events that govern fusion or rejection between colonies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q239900008

    View details for PubMedID 3183596



    A new trypsin-like serine protease was cloned from both a murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte and a human PHA-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocyte cDNA library. In both the mouse and human system, this transcript had a T cell- and NK-specific distribution, being detected in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), some T-helper clones, and NK, but not in a variety of normal tissues. T-cell activation with Con A plus IL-2 induced mouse spleen cells to express this gene with kinetics correlating with the acquisition of cytolytic capacity. Both the mouse and human nucleotide sequences of this gene encoded an amino acid sequence with 25-40% identity to members of the serine protease family. The active-site "charge-relay" residues (His-57, Asp-102, and Ser-195 of the chymotrypsin numbering system) are conserved, as well as the trypsin-specific Asp (position 189 in trypsin). We reviewed the evidence of this serine protease's role in lymphocyte lysis and proposed a "lytic cascade." We discussed the biological and clinical implications of a cascade, proposing these enzymes as markers for cytolytic cells and as targets for rational drug therapy. Genetic and acquired deficits in the lethal hit-delivery system are considered as a basis for approaching some immunodeficiency states, including severe EBV infections, T-gamma leukemias, and T8+ lymphocytosis syndromes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988T985000035

    View details for PubMedID 3052212

  • Was the MHC made for the immune system, or did immunity take advantage of an ancient polymorphic gene family encoding cell surface interaction molecules? A speculative essay. International reviews of immunology Weissman, I. L. 1988; 3 (4): 397-416

    View details for PubMedID 3246573

  • PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MOUSE HEMATOPOIETIC STEM-CELLS SCIENCE Spangrude, G. J., Heimfeld, S., Weissman, I. L. 1988; 241 (4861): 58-62


    Mouse bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells were isolated with the use of a variety of phenotypic markers. These cells can proliferate and differentiate with approximately unit efficiency into myelomonocytic cells, B cells, or T cells. Thirty of these cells are sufficient to save 50 percent of lethally irradiated mice, and to reconstitute all blood cell types in the survivors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P049100025

    View details for PubMedID 2898810



    As part of an effort to develop a new means of inducibly inactivating cellular proteins in vivo, three monoclonal antibodies which neutralize yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity were isolated and characterized with respect to criteria important for the inactivation strategy. The significance of these criteria is considered, and a general means of generating appropriate antibodies is suggested. All three antibodies described here were specific for ADH I; they did not recognize the closely related isozyme ADH II in a plate-binding assay and did not immunoprecipitate molecules other than ADH from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract. Neutralization occurred in a yeast extract and, for two antibodies, was blocked by high concentrations of the coenzyme NAD+. This finding suggests that the antibodies may block enzyme activity by stabilizing an inactive form of ADH lacking bound NAD+. These results provide a foundation for the use of these antibodies to inactivate ADH in vivo.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N633800046

    View details for PubMedID 3043187



    Mice given multiple doses of sublethal irradiation to both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid tissues showed major transient, and some persistent disruptions in general thymic architecture and in thymic stromal components. At 2 wk after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), the thymus lacked identifiable medullary regions by immunohistochemical analyses. Medullary stromal cells expression MHC Ag or a medullary epithelial cell Ag, as well as medullary macrophages, were undetectable. Instead, the processes of cortical epithelial cells were observed throughout the entire thymus. Strikingly, thymocyte subsets with mature phenotypes (CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+) were present in the apparent absence of a medulla. This early, gross effect was rapidly reversed such that by 1 to 2 mo after TLI, medullary areas with MHC Ag-positive cells were evident. However, abnormalities in a subset of medullary stromal cells appeared to be more persistent. Medullary epithelial cells, identified by the MD1 mAb, were greatly reduced in number and abnormally organized for at least 4 mo after TLI. In addition, macrophages containing endogenous peroxidase activity, normally abundant in medullary regions, were undetectable at all times examined after TLI. Therefore, this irradiation regimen induced both transient and long term effects in the thymus, primarily in medullary regions. These results suggest that TLI may be used as an experimental tool for studying the impact of selective depletion of medullary stromal cells on the development of specific T cell functions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N240500015

    View details for PubMedID 2452185



    Two-color FACS analysis of mouse bone marrow reveals a rare population, comprising 0.1-0.3% of the total, that expresses low levels of the Thy-1 antigen but does not express any of five surface markers that characterize differentiated hematolymphoid cells. We demonstrate here that this fraction of mouse bone marrow is enormously enriched in cells that can home to the thymus and differentiate into mature T lymphocytes, subsequently migrating to peripheral lymphoid organs. Only a subset of the FACS-isolated fraction (1/90 after intrathymic injection) is capable of responding to the thymic microenvironment with a productive commitment to the T cell lineage. A second fraction of mouse bone marrow, which expresses how levels of Thy-1 but is also positive for at least one of five hematolymphoid lineage-specific markers, also contains cells that home to the thymus and establish colonies of thymocytes. The two fractions each contribute approximately equal amounts of thymic colony-forming units (CFUt) to the bone marrow, and together can account for at least half of the CFUt in whole bone marrow.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N306900013

    View details for PubMedID 2896758

  • ENDOPROTEOLYTIC CLEAVAGE OF GP160 IS REQUIRED FOR THE ACTIVATION OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS CELL McCune, J. M., RABIN, L. B., Feinberg, M. B., Lieberman, M., Kosek, J. C., Reyes, G. R., Weissman, I. L. 1988; 53 (1): 55-67


    The envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is synthesized as a polyprotein (gp160) and cleaved intracellularly to a gp120-gp41 heterodimer. In this study, the tryptic-like endoproteolytic cleavage site was removed by site-directed mutagenesis and replaced with a chymotryptic-like site. The resultant mutant, RIP7/mut10, was found to be indistinguishable from wild-type HIV when analyzed at the level of proviral replication, RNA processing, protein expression, and viral assembly. However, the gp160 polyprotein was not cleaved and the mutated virions were biologically inactive, until and unless they were exposed to limiting concentrations of chymotrypsin. As is the case for other enveloped mammalian viruses, endoproteolytic cleavage of the HIV envelope protein and release of a unique hydrophobic domain appear to be necessary for the full expression of viral infectivity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M922100008

    View details for PubMedID 2450679

  • EXPRESSION OF 2 SERINE ESTERASE GENES DURING AN ALLOGRAFT-REJECTION IN THE MOUSE TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Mueller, C., Gershenfeld, H. K., Lobe, C. G., Okada, C. Y., Bleackley, R. C., Weissman, I. L. 1988; 20 (2): 251-253

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N228200035

    View details for PubMedID 3363633



    Nonlymphoid, stromal cells in the mouse thymus are believed to be important in T cell maturation and have been proposed to play a central role in the acquisition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction and self-tolerance by maturing thymocytes. Both cortical and medullary epithelial cells in the thymus express high levels of class II (A) major histocompatibility antigens (MHC Ags). We show here that a specific subset of these A+ epithelial cells express a transformation-associated antigen (6C3Ag) found previously on the surfaces of Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed pre-B cells and on those bone marrow-derived stromal cell clones which support normal and preneoplastic pre-B cell proliferation. Among solid lymphoid organs, only the thymus contains 6C3Ag+ cells and within the thymus, this antigen is found exclusively on A+ epithelial cells in cortical regions. It is striking that the expression of the 6C3Ag on thymic epithelium is developmentally regulated, suggesting a role for this lymphostromal antigen in the maturation of the thymic microenvironment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988L714500004

    View details for PubMedID 3257459



    AIDS, presumably caused by the human retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is a disease with multiple pathologies, most of which are the consequence of a profound immunodeficiency. The first two sections of this review focus primarily on the normal development and function of the cells of the immune system and the known abnormalities that occur in this system in AIDS patients. Very little is known of the pathogenesis, in humans, of the four major clinical manifestations of AIDS--immunodeficiency, encephalopathy, Kaposi's sarcoma, and lymphoma. Because most pathologic studies derive from autopsy findings in terminal AIDS patients, it has been difficult to track the course of HIV infection from the time of initial contact with the virus through the evolution of the disease. Therefore, the final section of this review focuses on actual and potential animal models of AIDS and how such models might be valuable for studies on the pathogenesis of the disease, the development of relevant vaccines, and the testing of potential therapies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M696500012

    View details for PubMedID 3287566



    The role of cytotoxic cells in in vivo immune functions such as allograft rejection is unknown. To begin to assess the function of cytolytic cells in vivo we have begun with cytolytic cell-specific functional molecules: we have isolated and characterized cytolytic cell-specific cDNA clones from cytolytic T cell clones, both encoding distinct serine esterases. The HF gene encodes a trypsin-like enzyme while the C11 gene encodes an enzyme with likely specificity for acidic residues. Here we demonstrate, using in situ hybridization with RNA probe, that both genes are expressed selectively in a subset of T lymphocytes that have infiltrated cardiac allografts. The phenotype of these cells is consistent with the most frequent phenotype of active CTL raised in vitro: they are predominantly CD4-, CD8+, MEL-14- T cell blasts. Thus the expression of these genes, each of which encodes serine esterase found in killer cell granules in vitro, is a valid marker for these cells in vivo as well. The kinetics of their accumulation is consistent with, but not proof of, a putative role in allograft rejection. It is likely that HF and C11 gene expression will be of diagnostic value.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M691400028

    View details for PubMedID 3280725



    A cDNA clone encoding a human T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease was obtained by screening a phage lambda gt10 cDNA library from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the mouse Hanukah factor cDNA clone. In an RNA blot-hybridization analysis, this human Hanukah factor cDNA hybridized with a 1.3-kilobase band in allogeneic-stimulated cytotoxic T cells and the Jurkat cell line, but this transcript was not detectable in normal muscle, liver, tonsil, or thymus. By dot-blot hybridization, this cDNA hybridized with RNA from three cytolytic T-cell clones and three noncytolytic T-cell clones grown in vitro as well as with purified CD16+ natural killer cells and CD3+, CD16- T-cell large granular lymphocytes from peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD = cluster designation). The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA clone encodes a predicted serine protease of 262 amino acids. The predicted protein has a 22-amino acid presegment, a 6-amino acid prosegment, and an active enzyme of 234 amino acids with a calculated unglycosylated molecular weight of 25,820. The active enzyme is 71% and 77% similar to the mouse sequence at the amino acid and DNA level, respectively. The human and mouse sequences conserve the active site residues of serine proteases--the trypsin-specific Asp-189 and all 10 cysteine residues. The gene for the human Hanukah factor serine protease is located on human chromosome 5. We propose that this trypsin-like serine protease may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M196200050

    View details for PubMedID 3257574

  • HOMING RECEPTORS AND METASTASIS ADVANCES IN CANCER RESEARCH SHER, B. T., BARGATZE, R., Holzmann, B., Gallatin, W. M., MATTHEWS, D., Wu, N., PICKER, L., BUTCHER, E. C., Weissman, I. L. 1988; 51: 361-390


    As discussed in the preceding sections, there are several indications that the lymphocyte homing receptors involved in the normal process of lymphocyte recirculation are also relevant to the behavior of metastatic cells. Cell fusion experiments indicate that previously nonmetastatic cells can acquire metastatic capacity from fusion with normal lymphocytes. Murine T lymphomas that bear high levels of functional homing receptors can metastasize to peripheral lymphoid organs, whereas those lymphomas lacking homing receptors cannot. Virtually all lymph node metastases of lymphomas contain a high proportion of MEL-14hi cells, even if the primary tumor has been selected to be relatively deficient in these cells. Further investigations of the biology of lymphocyte homing receptors will reveal whether or not there are additional lymphocyte homing receptors and will clarify the role of lymphocyte homing receptors in metastasis. Antibodies against three lymphocyte homing receptors could therefore be useful for diagnosis and treatment of metastatic disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q449700007

    View details for PubMedID 3066147



    The transmission of a lymphomagenic agent(s) from the bone marrow of irradiated mice to thymic target cells has been demonstrated by: (a) the induction of T cell lymphomas in nonirradiated thymic grafts implanted in irradiated, Thy-l-congenic mice, (b) the induction of T cell lymphomas of host origin in mice infused with bone marrow from irradiated, Thy-l-congenic donors. The latter procedure also yields an appreciable number of pre-B cell lymphomas of uncertain origin. The results confirm Kaplan's theory that radiation induces thymic lymphomas in mice by an indirect mechanism. However, the previously described radiation leukemia virus is clearly not involved in the majority of transferred lymphomas. We propose that the mediating agent in radiation lymphomagenesis is a novel, transmissible agent induced in the bone marrow, but exerting its transforming activity on cells in the thymus. The nature and mode of action of the agent are under investigation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L063000020

    View details for PubMedID 3316475



    Clonogenic repopulation of the thymus of thymus-homing bone marrow cells leads to intrathymic populations representing all four major Lyt-2- and L3T4-defined phenotypes. Although all four phenotypes may be represented in a single clone, quite often a striking bias in the proportion of L3T4 single positive to Lyt-2 single positive cells may exist within a clone, but not in the host thymocytes in general. Because at any one time these clones may be located in specific subregions of the thymus (specifically cortex only, medulla only, or cortex and medulla), we propose the hypothesis that different microenvironments in the thymus might, in fact, be responsible for the predominant maturation of different single positive mature thymic subsets.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K235800011

    View details for PubMedID 2888822



    It has long been postulated that normal lymphocyte homing mechanisms help determine the metastatic spread of lymphoid neoplasms. The traffic of normal lymphocytes is controlled in part by the regulated expression of surface receptors for high endothelial venules (HEV), specialized venules that mediate the extravasation of circulating lymphocytes from the blood into lymphoid organs and sites of chronic inflammation. Here we have compared the in vivo growth patterns of HEV-binding vs. nonbinding murine lymphomas passaged intramuscularly into syngeneic recipients. We report that lymphomas that bind well to HEV (as assessed in a quantitative in vitro assay) disseminate widely via the blood, involving all lymph node groups symmetrically. Although both HEV-binding and nonbinding lymphomas gain access to the blood, gross involvement of lymph nodes by nonbinding lymphomas is limited to nodes draining local tumor at the site of injection, a prominent feature of these lymphomas; distant lymph nodes are not enlarged. The results suggest that the expression of functional receptors for HEV either controls the hematogenous dissemination of malignant lymphocyte populations to HEV-bearing organs, or is coregulated with factors determining this metastatic behavior. The findings support the concept that normal lymphocyte homing mechanisms are important to the spread of leukemias and lymphomas.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K464000024

    View details for PubMedID 3655655



    Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the variable portions of antigen receptors (anti-idiotypes and anti-idiotopes) are often employed to study the molecular nature and the biological role of these antigen receptors. Such antibodies are operationally defined as those antibodies which bind to a particular immunoglobulin but not to other immunoglobulins of the same class in a radioimmunoassay or ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies 32D1 and 31D1 were initially defined as anti-idiotypic as they recognized an immunoglobulin preparation from the murine B cell lymphoma BCL1, but not other immunoglobulins of the same isotype as assessed by a radioimmunoassay. A potential artifact in defining anti-idiotypic antibodies in this way is the possibility of copurification of antigen and antibody, resulting in the tentative identification of anti-antigen as anti-idiotype. Previous studies have demonstrated that BCL1-IgM is involved in binding of murine leukemia virus (MuLV), and BCL1 immunoglobulin and MuLV-gp70 apparently co-purified as an immune complex. Disruption of the immune complexes with SDS and sucrose gradient purification of the immunoglobulin was adequate to prepare BCL1 immunoglobulin free of gp70 as assessed by radioimmunoassay with the monoclonal anti-gp70 RA3-4A3. This preparation of immunoglobulin was used to show that 31D1 does not bind to BCL1 immunoglobulin, but to the contaminating gp70 in the BCL1 immunoglobulin preparation. However, MAb 32D1 was definitively proven to be anti-idiotypic as it recognized SDS sucrose density gradient purified IgM and immunoisolated heavy chain and light chain from BCL1 immunoglobulin. Several other lymphomas were recognized by mAb 32D1, including the T cell lymphoma UNC1 and the B cell lymphoma Balenlm17. To determine whether mAb 32D1 recognized immunospecific receptors on these lymphoma cell lines immunoprecipitation studies were performed. Immunoisolation and molecular analysis revealed that mAb 32D1 did not recognize the antigen receptor on these two cells, but instead recognized a cell-specific gp70. This observation demonstrates that monoclonal antibodies to known antigens (in this case an anti-idiotype) can crossreact with apparently unrelated molecules. The potential significance of this cross reaction to the antigens recognized by B cell lymphomas is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K403900005

    View details for PubMedID 3509925



    Although cloned lines of T lymphocytes have been valuable in defining the in vitro functions of well-defined cell types, they have often demonstrated relatively poor activity in vivo. One striking property of T cells clones which might affect their in vivo activity is their unusual inability to localized in lymphoid tissue as do most normal T cells. Normal lymphocyte recirculation and localization requires that lymphocytes recognize and pass through the walls of specialized high endothelial venules (HEV) as they enter into lymph nodes. We previously showed that murine T cell clones are unable to home into the peripheral lymphoid organs-lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. The inability of these cells to recognize lymph node HEV in an in vitro frozen section adherence assay suggested that the lack of lymphoid homing was due to the loss of a normal lymphocyte surface receptor for HEV. The present experiments were designed to determine: 1) the molecular mechanism responsible for the loss of normal lymphocyte migration, and 2) whether these migration and homing characteristics are irreversible features of T cell clones. Flow cytometric analysis of helper and cytolytic clones using a monoclonal antibody (MEL-14) specific for the lymphocyte homing receptor showed that they lack this surface receptor. This lack of receptor expression was confirmed by the inability to detect the antigen in detergent-solubilized extracts of surface-radiolabeled cells. Thus, the lack of homing to lymph nodes appears to be due to the loss of expression of the surface receptor which mediates the interaction between lymphocytes and HEV. When clones were rested in vitro in a nonproliferative state without stimulation by antigen or growth factors, they did not regain expression of the surface homing receptor or the ability to migrate to lymph nodes in vivo. The lack of receptor expression, therefore, is not merely associated with a rapidly proliferating state, but rather seems to be an irreversible feature of T cell clones, at least under in vitro culture conditions. T cell clones, both rested and recently restimulated, share certain features characteristic of activated T cells, as shown by recent results with MLC-stimulated T cell blasts. Both populations are large, brightly PNA-positive lymphocytes which lack expression of the MEL-14 receptor and do not home to peripheral lymphoid tissue. We propose that this PNA-high, MEL-14- nonrecirculating phenotype may represent a normal phase of T cell differentiation through which many T cells pass after being activated by specific antigen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AEC2300004

    View details for PubMedID 2978224



    The experiments reported here were designed to answer two questions: (1) At what stage in normal pre-B cell development do immunoglobulin gene rearrangements occur?; and (2) Do heavy chain and kappa light chain genes rearrange in concert, or in an ordered sequence? To answer these questions, we studied immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in pre-B cell populations purified on the fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Gene rearrangement was assessed by measuring the loss of germ-line joining (J) segment-containing restriction fragments in B cells and two populations of pre-B cells. Large pre-B cells, the earliest identifiable cells in the B lineage, have rearrangements at both JH loci but do not have rearrangements at the kappa chain loci. Thus heavy chain rearrangement occurs concurrently with or prior to the expression of the surface marker B220, which we use to identify and isolate pre-B cells. Small pre-B cells, which include the immediate precursors of B cells, likewise have rearrangements at both JH loci, but may also have J kappa rearrangements. Approximately 1/3 of the J kappa loci are rearranged in small pre-B cells compared to 2/3 in kappa chain-expressing B cells. This suggests that the small pre-B cell population is actively undergoing kappa chain gene rearrangement. The striking asynchrony in heavy and light chain gene rearrangement is reflected at the level of gene expression; both pre-B cell populations synthesize mu chains but not kappa light chains. Heavy chain rearrangement is therefore a very early event in B lineage development and may begin in a cell not yet fully committed to the B lineage, whereas kappa rearrangement occurs just prior to the expression of surface immunoglobulin (sIg) and may be a rate-limiting step in the transition from pre-B to B cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983SX35900005

    View details for PubMedID 6336590

Conference Proceedings

  • Cancer stem cells--perspectives on current status and future directions: AACR Workshop on cancer stem cells. Clarke, M. F., Dick, J. E., Dirks, P. B., Eaves, C. J., Jamieson, C. H., Jones, D. L., Visvader, J., Weissman, I. L., Wahl, G. M. 2006: 9339-9344

    View details for PubMedID 16990346

  • Early TCR expression and aberrant T cell development in mice with clone-derived T cell receptor genes Serwold, T., Hochedlinger, K., Inlay, M. A., Jaenisch, R., Weissman, I. L. AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. 2006: S314-S315
  • Identification of hematopoietic cell populations with activated Wnt signaling using a lentiviral vector containing a reporter cassette Ailles, L. E., Serwold, T., Weissman, I. L. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2004: 104-105
  • Similar MLL-associated leukemias arising from self-renewing stem cells and short-lived myeloid progenitors Ayton, P. M., Cozzio, A., Passegue, E., Karsunky, H., Cleary, M. L., Weissman, I. L. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2004: 105-105
  • Flk2/Flt3 receptor expression at defined stages of early hematopoietic development and expansion of progenitors and downstream dendritic cells through cognate ligand stimulation. Manz, M. M., Karsunky, H., Merad, M., Cozzio, A., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2002: 290A-290A
  • The role of Wnt signaling in myeloid leukemogenesis. Jamieson, C. H., Ailles, L. E., Reya, T., Muijtjens, M., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2002: 26A-26A
  • Dendritic cell development from common myeloid progenitors Manz, M. G., Traver, D., Akashi, K., Merad, M., Miyamoto, T., Engleman, E. G., Weissman, I. L. NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES. 2001: 167-174


    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells which both initiate adaptive immune responses and control tolerance to self-antigens. It has been suggested that these different effects on responder cells depend on subsets of DCs arising from either myeloid or lymphoid hematopoietic origins. In this model, CD8 alpha+ Mac-1- DCs are supposed to be of lymphoid while CD8 alpha- Mac-1+ DCs are supposed to be of myeloid origin. Here we summarize our findings that both CD8 alpha+ and CD8 alpha- DCs can arise from clonogenic common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) in both thymus and spleen. Therefore CD8 alpha expression DCs does not indicate a lymphoid origin and differences among CD8 alpha+ and CD8 alpha- DCs might rather reflect maturation status than ontogeny. On the basis of transplantation studies, it seems likely that most of the DCs in secondary lymphoid organs and a substantial fraction of thymic DCs are myeloid-derived.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172028500019

    View details for PubMedID 11458504

  • Reconstitution of T cells in vivo by committed T cell progenitors from the bone marrow Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Chatterjea-Matthes, D., Weissman, I. L., Strober, S. FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL. 2000: A921-A921
  • Function of cytokines in lymphocyte development Kondo, M., Weissman, I. L. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN. 2000: 59-65

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167097700008

    View details for PubMedID 11036759

  • Lymphoid development from stem cells and the common lymphocyte progenitors Akashi, K., Kondo, M., Cheshier, S., Shizuru, J., Gandy, K., Domen, J., Mebius, R., Traver, D., Weissman, I. L. COLD SPRING HARBOR LAB PRESS, PUBLICATIONS DEPT. 1999: 1-12

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087225400002

    View details for PubMedID 11232274


    View details for Web of Science ID A1994BA22R00035

    View details for PubMedID 8192346