Dr. Pannu is a resident physician in the internal medicine department.
M.D., Stanford University School of Medicine (2020)
Global health security as it pertains to Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19.
Current opinion in infectious diseases
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic this past year, we have witnessed a significant acceleration in the science, technology, and policy of global health security. This review highlights important progress made toward the mitigation of Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19 outbreaks. These epidemics and their shared features suggest a unified policy and technology agenda that could broadly improve global health security.RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular epidemiology is not yet in widespread use, but shows promise toward informing on-the-ground decision-making during outbreaks. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics have been achieved for each of these threats; however, deployment of Zika and Ebola diagnostics lags behind those for COVID-19. POC metagenomics offers the possibility of identifying novel viruses. Vaccines have been successfully approved for Ebola and COVID-19, due in large part to public-private partnerships and advance purchase commitments. Therapeutics trials conducted during ongoing epidemics have identified effective antibody therapeutics for Ebola, as well as steroids (both inhaled and oral) and a broad-spectrum antiviral for COVID-19.SUMMARY: Achieving global health security remains a challenge, though headway has been made over the past years. Promising policy and technology strategies that would increase resilience across emerging viral pathogens should be pursued.
View details for DOI 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000775
View details for PubMedID 34334661
- The state inoculates: vaccines as soft power. The Lancet. Global health 2021
- Inclusive Biomedical Innovation during the COVID-19 Pandemic GLOBAL POLICY 2020
- Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings-International Travel-Related Measures. Emerging infectious diseases 2020; 26 (9)
Inclusive Biomedical Innovation during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
CEPI represents the first step towards Joseph Stiglitz's vision, cited by Gubby, of a fund which provides large rewards for cures to common diseases such as malaria, and smaller rewards for rarer diseases or less innovative 'me-too' drugs (Stiglitz, BMJ, 333, 2006, pp. 1279-1280). As a fledgling organization facing a Goliath, it deserves international support in its dual goals of incentivizing innovation and ensuring equitable access to biomedical advances.
View details for DOI 10.1111/1758-5899.12876
View details for PubMedID 33230401
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7675476
Running ahead of pandemics: achieving in-advance antiviral drugs
View details for DOI 10.2139/ssrn.3570737
Attenuation of Antidepressant Effects of Ketamine by Opioid Receptor Antagonism.
The American journal of psychiatry
OBJECTIVE: In addition to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism, ketamine produces opioid system activation. The objective of this study was to determine whether opioid receptor antagonism prior to administration of intravenous ketamine attenuates its acute antidepressant or dissociative effects.METHOD: In a proposed double-blind crossover study of 30 adults with treatment-resistant depression, the authors performed a planned interim analysis after studying 14 participants, 12 of whom completed both conditions in randomized order: placebo or 50 mg of naltrexone preceding intravenous infusion of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine. Response was defined as a reduction ≥50% in score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score on postinfusion day 1.RESULTS: In the interim analysis, seven of 12 adults with treatment-resistant depression met the response criterion during the ketamine plus placebo condition. Reductions in 6-item and 17-item HAM-D scores among participants in the ketamine plus naltrexone condition were significantly lower than those of participants in the ketamine plus placebo condition on postinfusion days 1 and 3. Secondary analysis of all participants who completed the placebo and naltrexone conditions, regardless of the robustness of response to ketamine, showed similar results. There were no differences in ketamine-induced dissociation between conditions. Because naltrexone dramatically blocked the antidepressant but not the dissociative effects of ketamine, the trial was halted at the interim analysis.CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that ketamine's acute antidepressant effect requires opioid system activation. The dissociative effects of ketamine are not mediated by the opioid system, and they do not appear sufficient without the opioid effect to produce the acute antidepressant effects of ketamine in adults with treatment-resistant depression.
View details for PubMedID 30153752
High-Dose Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Modulates Heart Rate Variability
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: S189
View details for Web of Science ID 000432466300472
High-dose spaced theta-burst TMS as a rapid-acting antidepressant in highly refractory depression.
Brain : a journal of neurology
View details for PubMedID 29415152
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Disorders Other Than Depression
TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHIATRIC PRACTICE
View details for Web of Science ID 000549755600010
- Unilateral ultra-brief pulse electroconvulsive therapy for depression in Parkinson's disease ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA 2017; 135 (4): 407-411
- It takes time to tune ANNALS OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2017; 5 (7): 171
Neuroversion: using electroconvulsive therapy as a bridge to deep brain stimulation implantation
2017; 23 (1): 26-30
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder with significant neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in treating these neuropsychiatric symptoms; however, clinicians are reluctant to use ECT in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantations for fear of damaging the device, as well as potential cognitive side effects. Right unilateral ultra-brief pulse (RUL UBP) ECT has a more favorable cognitive side-effect profile yet has never been reported in PD patients with DBS implants. We present a case series of three patients with a history of PD that all presented with psychiatric decompensation immediately prior to planned DBS surgery. All three patients had DBS electrode(s) in place at the time and an acute course of ECT was utilized in a novel method to "bridge" these individuals to neurosurgery. The patients all experienced symptom resolution (psychosis and/or depression and/or anxiety) without apparent cognitive side effects. This case series not only illustrates that right unilateral ultra-brief pulse can be utilized in patients with DBS electrodes but also illustrates that this intervention can be utilized as a neuromodulatory "bridge", where nonoperative surgical candidates with unstable psychiatric symptoms can be converted to operative candidates in a manner similar to electrical cardioversion.
View details for DOI 10.1080/13554794.2016.1276605
View details for Web of Science ID 000399644200005
View details for PubMedID 28376692
Bridging to deep brain stimulation implantation using electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson’s disease
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brs.2017.01.242
Optimization of epidural cortical stimulation for treatment-resistant depression.
View details for PubMedID 28918944
Assessing Screening Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors using Routinely Collected Data.
2017; 7 (1): 6488
This study investigates if laboratory data can be used to assess whether physician-retesting patterns are in line with established guidelines, and if these guidelines identify deteriorating patients in a timely manner. A total of 7594 patients with high cholesterol were studied, along with 2764 patients with diabetes. More than 90% of borderline high cholesterol patients are retested within the 3 year recommended period, however less than 75% of pre-diabetic patients have repeated tests within the suggested 1-year time frame. Patients with borderline high cholesterol typically progress to full high cholesterol in 2-3 years, and pre-diabetic patients progress to full diabetes in 1-2 years. Data from routinely ordered laboratory tests can be used to monitor adherence to clinical guidelines. These data may also be useful in the design of adaptive testing strategies that reduce unnecessary testing, while ensuring that patient deterioration is identified in a timely manner. Established guidelines for testing of total serum cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia are appropriate and are well-adhered to, whereas guidelines for glycated hemoglobin A1c testing for type 2 diabetes mellitus could be improved to bring them in line with current practice and avoid unnecessary testing.
View details for PubMedID 28747722
- Bilateral epidural prefrontal cortical stimulation for treatment-resistant depression Journal of Visualized Experiments 2017
Five Year Follow-Up of Bilateral Epidural Prefrontal Cortical Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression
2016; 9 (6): 897-904
Epidural prefrontal cortical stimulation (EpCS) represents a novel therapeutic approach with many unique benefits that can be used for treatment-resistant depression (TRD).To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of EpCS of the frontopolar cortex (FPC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for treatment of TRD.Adults (N = 5) who were 21-80 years old with severe TRD [failure to respond to adequate courses of at least 4 antidepressant medications, psychotherapy and ≥20 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD24)] were recruited. Participants were implanted with bilateral EpCS over the FPC and DLPFC and received constant, chronic stimulation throughout the five years with Medtronic IPGs. They were followed for 5 years (2/1/2008-10/14/2013). Efficacy of EpCS was assessed with the HRSD24 in an open-label design as the primary outcome measure at five years.All 5 patients continued to tolerate the therapy. The mean improvements from pre-implant baseline on the HRSD24 were [7 months] 54.9% (±37.7), [1 year] 41.2% (±36.6), [2 years] 53.8% (±21.7), and [5 years] 45% (±47). Three of 5 (60%) subjects continued to be in remission at 5 years. There were 5 serious adverse events: 1 electrode 'paddle' infection and 4 device malfunctions, all resulting in suicidal ideation and/or hospitalization.These results suggest that chronic bilateral EpCS over the FPC and DLPFC is a promising and potentially durable new technology for treating TRD, both acutely and over 5 years.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brs.2016.06.054
View details for Web of Science ID 000387197500013
View details for PubMedID 27443912
Stimulating Across the Frontostriatal Circuitry to Treat Parkinson's Disease
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2016: 402S–403S
View details for Web of Science ID 000432440805134
Ubiquitin Specific Protease 21 Is Dispensable for Normal Development, Hematopoiesis and Lymphocyte Differentiation
2015; 10 (2)
USP21 is a ubiquitin specific protease that catalyzes protein deubiquitination, however the identification of its physiological substrates remains challenging. USP21 is known to deubiquitinate transcription factor GATA3 and death-domain kinase RIPK1 in vitro, however the in vivo settings where this regulation plays a biologically significant role remain unknown. In order to determine whether USP21 is an essential and non-redundant regulator of GATA3 or RIPK1 activity in vivo, we characterized Usp21-deficient mice, focusing on mouse viability and development, hematopoietic stem cell function, and lymphocyte differentiation. The Usp21-knockout mice were found to be viable and fertile, with no significant dysmorphology, in contrast to the GATA3 and RIPK1 knockout lines that exhibit embryonic or perinatal lethality. Loss of USP21 also had no effect on hematopoietic stem cell function, lymphocyte development, or the responses of antigen presenting cells to TLR and TNFR stimulation. GATA3 levels in hematopoietic stem cells or T lymphocytes remained unchanged. We observed that aged Usp21-knockout mice exhibited spontaneous T cell activation, however this was not linked to altered GATA3 levels in the affected cells. The contrast in the phenotype of the Usp21-knockout line with the previously characterized GATA3 and RIPK1 knockout mice strongly indicates that USP21 is redundant for the regulation of GATA3 and RIPK1 activity during mouse development, in hematopoietic stem cells, and in lymphocyte differentiation. The Usp21-deficient mouse line characterized in this study may serve as a useful tool for the future characterization of USP21 physiological functions.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0117304
View details for Web of Science ID 000350682600061
View details for PubMedID 25680095
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4332479