Dr. Javier Lorenzo is the Associate Division Chief of Anesthesia Critical Care in the Department of Anesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine. He is also a Medical Informatics Director for the critical care areas and serves as Co-Chair of the Patient Safety Committee for Stanford HealthCare.

Clinical Focus

  • Anesthesia
  • Critical Care
  • Patient Safety
  • Quality Improvement
  • Medical Education

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Vice Chief of Staff, Stanford Healthcare (2022 - Present)
  • Acting Division Chief, Anesthesia Critical Care, Stanford School of Medicine (2022 - Present)
  • Medical Informatics Director, Critical Care, Stanford Healthcare (2021 - Present)
  • Co-Chair, Patient Safety Committe, Stanford Healthcare (2021 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Rathmann Fellow, E4C Medical Education Fellowship in Patient Centered Care. (July 2014 - June 2015)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member, California Society of Anesthesiology (2009 - Present)
  • Member, American Society of Anesthesiology (2009 - Present)
  • In-Training Section, Chair, Society of Critical Care Medicine (2021 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (2008) CA
  • Residency: Stanford University Anesthesiology Residency (2012) CA
  • Internship: Kaiser Permanente Oakland Internal Medicine Residency (2009) CA
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Critical Care Medicine Fellowship (2013) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Critical Care Medicine (2013)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Anesthesia (2013)

Clinical Trials

  • Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Isoflurane Delivered Via the Sedaconda ACD-S Compared to Intravenous Propofol for Sedation of Mechanically Ventilated Intensive Care Unit Adult Patients (INSPiRE-ICU2) Recruiting

    This is a study to compare safety and efficacy of inhaled isoflurane administered via the Sedaconda ACD-S device system versus intravenous propofol for sedation of mechanically ventilated patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting.

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  • Safety and Efficacy of Polymyxin B Hemoperfusion (PMX) for Septic Shock Recruiting

    To compare the safety and efficacy of the PMX cartridge based on mortality at 28-days in subjects with septic shock who have high levels of endotoxin and are treated with standard medical care plus use of the PMX cartridge, versus subjects who receive standard medical care alone.

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Graduate and Fellowship Programs

  • Critical Care Medicine (Fellowship Program)

All Publications

  • Use of the Change in Weaning Parameters as a Predictor of Successful Re-Extubation. Journal of intensive care medicine Trivedi, S., Davis, R., Engoren, M. C., Lorenzo, J., Mentz, G., Jewell, E. S., Maile, M. D. 2021: 885066620988675


    OBJECTIVE: Weaning parameters are well studied in patients undergoing first time extubation. Fewer data exists to guide re-extubation of patients who failed their first extubation attempt. It is reasonable to postulate that improved weaning parameters between the first and second extubation attempt would lead to improved rates of re-extubation success. To investigate, we studied a cohort of patients who failed their first extubation attempt and underwent a second attempt at extubation. We hypothesized that improvement in weaning parameters between the first and the second extubation attempt is associated with successful reextubation.INTERVENTIONS: Rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), vital capacity (VC), and the blood partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) were measured and recorded in the medical record prior to extubation along with demographic information. We examined the relationship between the change in extubation and re-extubation weaning parameters and re-extubation success.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 1283 adult patients were included. All weaning parameters obtained prior to re-extubation differed between those who were successful and those who required a second reintubation. Those with reextubation success had slightly lower PaCO2 values (39.5 ± 7.4 mmHg vs. 41.6 ± 9.1 mmHg, p = 0.0045) and about 13% higher vital capacity volumes (1021 ± 410 mL vs. 907 ± 396 mL, p = 0.0093). Lower values for RSBI (53 ± 32 breaths/min/L vs. 69 ± 42 breaths/min/L, p < 0.001) and MIP (-41 ± 12 cmH2O vs. -38 ± 13 cm H2O), p = 0.0225) were seen in those with re-extubation success. Multivariable logistical regression demonstrates lack of independent associated between the change in parameters between the 2 attempts and re-extubation success.CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between the changes in extubation parameters through successive attempts is driven primarily by the value obtained immediately prior to re-extubation. These findings do not support waiting for an improvement in extubation parameters to extubate patients who failed a first attempt at extubation if extubation parameters are compatible with success.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0885066620988675

    View details for PubMedID 33461374

  • Modified percutaneous tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19. Trauma surgery & acute care open Sun, B. J., Wolff, C. J., Bechtold, H. M., Free, D., Lorenzo, J., Minot, P. R., Maggio, P. G., Spain, D. A., Weiser, T. G., Forrester, J. D. 2020; 5 (1): e000625


    Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are at risk of developing hypoxic respiratory failure and often require prolonged mechanical ventilation. Indication and timing to perform tracheostomy is controversial in patients with COVID-19.This was a single-institution retrospective review of tracheostomies performed on patients admitted for COVID-19 between April 8, 2020 and August 1, 2020 using a modified percutaneous tracheostomy technique to minimize hypoxia and aerosolization.Twelve tracheostomies were performed for COVID-related respiratory failure. Median patient age was 54 years (range: 36-76) and 9 (75%) were male. Median time to tracheostomy was 17 days (range: 10-27), and 5 (42%) patients had failed attempts at extubation prior to tracheostomy. There were no intraprocedural complications, including hypoxia. Post-tracheostomy bleeding was noted in two patients. Eight (67%) patients have been discharged at the time of this study, and there were four patient deaths unrelated to tracheostomy placement. No healthcare worker transmissions resulted from participating in the tracheostomy procedure.A modified percutaneous tracheostomy is feasible and can be safely performed in patients infected with COVID-19.Level V, case series.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/tsaco-2020-000625

    View details for PubMedID 34192161

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7736959

  • Perioperative Care and Airway Management for a Patient With Sagliker Syndrome CUREUS Chen, Q., Lorenzo, J., Lu, A. 2020; 12 (9)
  • Perioperative Care and Airway Management for a Patient With Sagliker Syndrome. Cureus Chen, Q., Lorenzo, J., Lu, A. 2020; 12 (9): e10691


    In this report, we present a case of a patient with a history of complex airway anatomy secondary to Sagliker syndrome (SS) who presented with acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure. The patient's difficult airway, complicated medical comorbidities, and poor psychosocial status posed a unique challenge for providing safe care during an emergency. The perioperative anesthesia service (PAS), led by critical care anesthesiologists, coordinated a multidisciplinary airway management plan. The PAS team also assisted this medically complex patient with her decision-making process. A 37-year-old female with SS, which is characterized by irreversible disfiguring of head and neck anatomy secondary to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and poorly controlled hyperparathyroidism, presented with acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure due to hypervolemia. The patient's respiratory status rapidly deteriorated despite aggressive hemodialysis, requiring transfer to the ICU. Given the challenging anatomy and poor respiratory reserve in this patient, the PAS team helped coordinate a comprehensive airway plan that involved transnasal fiberoptic intubation, and in case of emergency, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to a surgical airway. During the decision-making process, the patient was found to be in psychological distress and had limited insights into her condition. The PAS team helped facilitated multidisciplinary goals-of-care discussions for the patient and her family. Fortunately, the patient's oxygenation improved with noninvasive oxygen support and aggressive hemodialysis without the need for intubation. She was discharged with outpatient follow-up appointments arranged to discuss long-term management. This is the first reported case of SS in the United States. The early involvement by the PAS team helped coordinate a multidisciplinary care plan for this patient with a difficult airway and complex comorbidities. This report highlights an innovative airway algorithm for a potentially "cannot-intubate, cannot ventilate" complex airway, and the PAS team's role in providing support for the patient's physical and psychological needs, suggesting that a comprehensive perioperative service can improve the quality and safety of care, not only for surgical patients but also for medically complex patients as well.

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.10691

    View details for PubMedID 33133856

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7593211

  • Electrical Storm in COVID-19. JACC. Case reports O'Brien, C. n., Ning, N. n., McAvoy, J. n., Mitchell, J. E., Kalwani, N. n., Wang, P. n., Nguyen, D. n., Reejhsinghani, R. n., Rogers, A. n., Lorenzo, J. n. 2020; 2 (9): 1256–60


    COVID-19 is a global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or evidence of myocardial injury are at risk for severe disease and death. Little is understood about the mechanisms of myocardial injury or life-threatening cardiovascular sequelae. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaccas.2020.05.032

    View details for PubMedID 32835266

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7259914

  • Modified percutaneous tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 Trauma Surg Acute Care Open Sun, B. J., Wolff, C. J., Bechtold, H. M., Free, D., Lorenzo, J., Minot, P. R., Maggio, P. G., Spain, D. A., Weiser, T. G., Forrester, J. D. 2020; 5 (1)
  • Unique Uses of Cooling Strategies. Therapeutic hypothermia and temperature management Friberg, H. n., Paidas, M. J., Lorenzo, J. n., Deye, N. n. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ther.2020.29076.hjf

    View details for PubMedID 32780645

  • Alterations in Spanish Language Interpretation During Pediatric Critical Care Family Meetings CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Sinow, C. S., Corso, I., Lorenzo, J., Lawrence, K. A., Magnus, D. C., Van Cleave, A. C. 2017; 45 (11): 1915–21


    To characterize alterations in Spanish language medical interpretation during pediatric critical care family meetings.Descriptive, observational study using verbatim transcripts of nine PICU family meetings conducted with in-person, hospital-employed interpreters.A single, university-based, tertiary children's hospital.Medical staff, family members, ancillary staff, and interpreters.None.Interpreted speech was compared with original clinician or family speech using the qualitative research methods of directed content analysis and thematic analysis. Alterations occurred in 56% of interpreted utterances and included additions, omissions, substitutions, editorializations, answering for the patient/clinician, confessions, and patient advocacy. Longer utterances were associated with more alterations.To minimize interpreter alterations during family meetings, physicians should speak in short utterances (fewer than 20 words) and ask interpreters to interrupt in order to facilitate accurate interpretation. Because alterations occur, physicians may also regularly attempt to assess the family's understanding.

    View details for PubMedID 28777199

  • Examining Health Care Costs: Opportunities to Provide Value in the Intensive Care Unit. Anesthesiology clinics Chang, B., Lorenzo, J., Macario, A. 2015; 33 (4): 753-770


    As health care costs threaten the economic stability of American society, increasing pressures to focus on value-based health care have led to the development of protocols for fast-track cardiac surgery and for delirium management. Critical care services can be led by anesthesiologists with the goal of improving ICU outcomes and at the same time decreasing the rising cost of ICU medicine.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.anclin.2015.07.012

    View details for PubMedID 26610628