Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • The Ocean Decade as an instrument of peace CURRENT OPINION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Blasiak, R., Jouffray, J., Norstrom, A., Queiroz, C., Wabnitz, C. C., Osterblom, H. 2023; 64
  • The living infinite: Envisioning futures for transformed human-nature relationships on the high seas MARINE POLICY Pereira, L. M., Crespo, G., Amon, D. J., Badhe, R., Bandeira, S., Bengtsson, F., Boettcher, M., Carminej, G., Cheung, W. L., Chibwe, B., Dunn, D., Gasalla, M. A., Halouani, G., Johnson, D. E., Jouffray, J., Juri, S., Keys, P. W., Lubker, H. M., Merrie, A. S., Obaidullah, F., Palacios-Abrantes, J., Shannon, L. J., Sumaila, U., Superchi, E., Terry, N., Wabnitz, C. C., Yasuhara, M., Zhou, W. 2023; 153
  • Making marine biotechnology work for people and nature. Nature ecology & evolution Blasiak, R., Jouffray, J., Amon, D. J., Claudet, J., Dunshirn, P., Sogaard Jorgensen, P., Pranindita, A., Wabnitz, C. C., Zhivkoplias, E., Osterblom, H. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41559-022-01976-9

    View details for PubMedID 36690733

  • Post-bleaching alterations in coral reef communities MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN Elma, E., Gullstrom, M., Yahya, S. S., Jouffray, J., East, H. K., Nystrom, M. 2023; 186: 114479


    We explored the extent of post-bleaching impacts, caused by the 2014-2016 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, on benthic community structure (BCS) and herbivores (fish and sea urchins) on seven fringing reefs, with differing protection levels, in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Results showed post-bleaching alterations in BCS, with up to 68 % coral mortality and up to 48 % increase in turf algae cover in all reef sites. Herbivorous fish biomass increased after bleaching and was correlated with turf algae increase in some reefs, while the opposite was found for sea urchin densities, with significant declines and complete absence. The severity of the impact varied across individual reefs, with larger impact on the protected reefs, compared to the unprotected reefs. Our study provides a highly relevant reference point to guide future research and contributes to our understanding of post-bleaching impacts, trends, and evaluation of coral reef health and resilience in the region.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.114479

    View details for Web of Science ID 000954336200001

    View details for PubMedID 36549237

  • A forgotten element of the blue economy: marine biomimetics and inspiration from the deep sea. PNAS nexus Blasiak, R., Jouffray, J., Amon, D. J., Moberg, F., Claudet, J., Sogaard Jorgensen, P., Pranindita, A., Wabnitz, C. C., Osterblom, H. 2022; 1 (4): pgac196


    The morphology, physiology, and behavior of marine organisms have been a valuable source of inspiration for solving conceptual and design problems. Here, we introduce this rich and rapidly expanding field of marine biomimetics, and identify it as a poorly articulated and often overlooked element of the ocean economy associated with substantial monetary benefits. We showcase innovations across seven broad categories of marine biomimetic design (adhesion, antifouling, armor, buoyancy, movement, sensory, stealth), and use this framing as context for a closer consideration of the increasingly frequent focus on deep-sea life as an inspiration for biomimetic design. We contend that marine biomimetics is not only a "forgotten" sector of the ocean economy, but has the potential to drive appreciation of nonmonetary values, conservation, and stewardship, making it well-aligned with notions of a sustainable blue economy. We note, however, that the highest ambitions for a blue economy are that it not only drives sustainability, but also greater equity and inclusivity, and conclude by articulating challenges and considerations for bringing marine biomimetics onto this trajectory.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/pnasnexus/pgac196

    View details for PubMedID 36714844

  • Scientific mobilization of keystone actors for biosphere stewardship. Scientific reports Osterblom, H., Folke, C., Rocha, J., Bebbington, J., Blasiak, R., Jouffray, J., Selig, E. R., Wabnitz, C. C., Bengtsson, F., Crona, B., Gupta, R., Henriksson, P. J., Johansson, K. A., Merrie, A., Nakayama, S., Crespo, G. O., Rockstrom, J., Schultz, L., Sobkowiak, M., Jorgensen, P. S., Spijkers, J., Troell, M., Villarrubia-Gomez, P., Lubchenco, J. 2022; 12 (1): 3802


    The biosphere crisis requires changes to existing business practices. We ask how corporations can become sustainability leaders, when constrained by multiple barriers to collaboration for biosphere stewardship. We describe how scientists motivated, inspired and engaged with ten of the world's largest seafood companies, in a collaborative process aimed to enable science-based and systemic transformations (2015-2021). CEOs faced multiple industry crises in 2015 that incentivized novel approaches. New scientific insights, aninvitation to collaborate, and a bold vision of transformative change towards ocean stewardship, created new opportunities and direction. Co-creation of solutions resulted in new knowledge and trust, a joint agenda for action, new capacities, international recognition, formalization of an organization, increased policy influence, time-bound goals, and convergence of corporate change. Independently funded scientists helped remove barriers to cooperation, provided means for reflection, and guided corporate strategies and actions toward ocean stewardship. By 2021, multiple individuals exercised leadership and the initiative had transitioned from preliminary and uncomfortable conversations, to a dynamic, operational organization, with capacity to perform global leadership in the seafood industry. Mobilizing transformational agency through learning, collaboration, and innovation represents a cultural evolution with potential to redirect and accelerate corporate action, to the benefit of business, people and the planet.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-022-07023-8

    View details for PubMedID 35246555

  • Unlocking the potential of marine biodiscovery NATURAL PRODUCT REPORTS Sigwart, J. D., Blasiak, R., Jaspars, M., Jouffray, J., Tasdemir, D. 2021; 38 (7): 1235-1242


    The tremendous diversity of life in the ocean has proven to be a rich source of inspiration for drug discovery, with success rates for marine natural products up to 4 times higher than other naturally derived compounds. Yet the marine biodiscovery pipeline is characterized by chronic underfunding, bottlenecks and, ultimately, untapped potential. For instance, a lack of taxonomic capacity means that, on average, 20 years pass between the discovery of new organisms and the formal publication of scientific names, a prerequisite to proceed with detecting and isolating promising bioactive metabolites. The need for "edge" research that can spur novel lines of discovery and lengthy high-risk drug discovery processes, are poorly matched with research grant cycles. Here we propose five concrete pathways to broaden the biodiscovery pipeline and open the social and economic potential of the ocean genome for global benefit: (1) investing in fundamental research, even when the links to industry are not immediately apparent; (2) cultivating equitable collaborations between academia and industry that share both risks and benefits for these foundational research stages; (3) providing new opportunities for early-career researchers and under-represented groups to engage in high-risk research without risking their careers; (4) sharing data with global networks; and (5) protecting genetic diversity at its source through strong conservation efforts. The treasures of the ocean have provided fundamental breakthroughs in human health and still remain under-utilised for human benefit, yet that potential may be lost if we allow the biodiscovery pipeline to become blocked in a search for quick-fix solutions.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d0np00067a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000675132200003

    View details for PubMedID 34287433

  • Evolving Perspectives of Stewardship in the Seafood Industry FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Blasiak, R., Dauriach, A., Jouffray, J., Folke, C., Osterblom, H., Bebbington, J., Bengtsson, F., Causevic, A., Geerts, B., Gronbrekk, W., Henriksson, P. G., Kall, S., Leadbitter, D., McBain, D., Crespo, G., Packer, H., Sakaguchi, I., Schultz, L., Selig, E. R., Troell, M., Villalon, J., Wabnitz, C. C., Wassenius, E., Watson, R. A., Yagi, N., Crona, B. 2021; 8
  • Sharing the seas: a review and analysis of ocean sector interactions ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Crona, B., Wassenius, E., Lillepold, K., Watson, R. A., Selig, E. R., Hicks, C., Osterblom, H., Folke, C., Jouffray, J., Blasiak, R. 2021; 16 (6)
  • WTO must ban harmful fisheries subsidies. Science (New York, N.Y.) Sumaila, U. R., Skerritt, D. J., Schuhbauer, A., Villasante, S., Cisneros-Montemayor, A. M., Sinan, H., Burnside, D., Abdallah, P. R., Abe, K., Addo, K. A., Adelsheim, J., Adewumi, I. J., Adeyemo, O. K., Adger, N., Adotey, J., Advani, S., Afrin, Z., Aheto, D., Akintola, S. L., Akpalu, W., Alam, L., Alava, J. J., Allison, E. H., Amon, D. J., Anderies, J. M., Anderson, C. M., Andrews, E., Angelini, R., Anna, Z., Antweiler, W., Arizi, E. K., Armitage, D., Arthur, R. I., Asare, N., Asche, F., Asiedu, B., Asuquo, F., Badmus, L., Bailey, M., Ban, N., Barbier, E. B., Barley, S., Barnes, C., Barrett, S., Basurto, X., Belhabib, D., Bennett, E., Bennett, N. J., Benzaken, D., Blasiak, R., Bohorquez, J. J., Bordehore, C., Bornarel, V., Boyd, D. R., Breitburg, D., Brooks, C., Brotz, L., Campbell, D., Cannon, S., Cao, L., Cardenas Campo, J. C., Carpenter, S., Carpenter, G., Carson, R. T., Carvalho, A. R., Castrejón, M., Caveen, A. J., Chabi, M. N., Chan, K. M., Chapin, F. S., Charles, T., Cheung, W., Christensen, V., Chuku, E. O., Church, T., Clark, C., Clarke, T. M., Cojocaru, A. L., Copeland, B., Crawford, B., Crépin, A. S., Crowder, L. B., Cury, P., Cutting, A. N., Daily, G. C., Da-Rocha, J. M., Das, A., de la Puente, S., de Zeeuw, A., Deikumah, S. K., Deith, M., Dewitte, B., Doubleday, N., Duarte, C. M., Dulvy, N. K., Eddy, T., Efford, M., Ehrlich, P. R., Elsler, L. G., Fakoya, K. A., Falaye, A. E., Fanzo, J., Fitzsimmons, C., Flaaten, O., Florko, K. R., Aviles, M. F., Folke, C., Forrest, A., Freeman, P., Freire, K. M., Froese, R., Frölicher, T. L., Gallagher, A., Garcon, V., Gasalla, M. A., Gephart, J. A., Gibbons, M., Gillespie, K., Giron-Nava, A., Gjerde, K., Glaser, S., Golden, C., Gordon, L., Govan, H., Gryba, R., Halpern, B. S., Hanich, Q., Hara, M., Harley, C. D., Harper, S., Harte, M., Helm, R., Hendrix, C., Hicks, C. C., Hood, L., Hoover, C., Hopewell, K., Horta E Costa, B. B., Houghton, J. D., Iitembu, J. A., Isaacs, M., Isahaku, S., Ishimura, G., Islam, M., Issifu, I., Jackson, J., Jacquet, J., Jensen, O. P., Ramon, J. J., Jin, X., Jonah, A., Jouffray, J. B., Juniper, S. K., Jusoh, S., Kadagi, I., Kaeriyama, M., Kaiser, M. J., Kaiser, B. A., Kakujaha-Matundu, O., Karuaihe, S. T., Karumba, M., Kemmerly, J. D., Khan, A. S., Kimani, P., Kleisner, K., Knowlton, N., Kotowicz, D., Kurien, J., Kwong, L. E., Lade, S., Laffoley, D., Lam, M. E., Lam, V. W., Lange, G. M., Latif, M. T., Le Billon, P., Le Brenne, V., Le Manach, F., Levin, S. A., Levin, L., Limburg, K. E., List, J., Lombard, A. T., Lopes, P. F., Lotze, H. K., Mallory, T. G., Mangar, R. S., Marszalec, D., Mattah, P., Mayorga, J., McAusland, C., McCauley, D. J., McLean, J., McMullen, K., Meere, F., Mejaes, A., Melnychuk, M., Mendo, J., Micheli, F., Millage, K., Miller, D., Mohamed, K. S., Mohammed, E., Mokhtar, M., Morgan, L., Muawanah, U., Munro, G. R., Murray, G., Mustafa, S., Nayak, P., Newell, D., Nguyen, T., Noack, F., Nor, A. M., Nunoo, F. K., Obura, D., Okey, T., Okyere, I., Onyango, P., Oostdijk, M., Orlov, P., Österblom, H., Owens, D., Owens, T., Oyinlola, M., Pacoureau, N., Pakhomov, E., Abrantes, J. P., Pascual, U., Paulmier, A., Pauly, D., Pèlèbè, R. O., Peñalosa, D., Pennino, M. G., Peterson, G., Pham, T. T., Pinkerton, E., Polasky, S., Polunin, N. V., Prah, E., Ramírez, J., Relano, V., Reygondeau, G., Robadue, D., Roberts, C., Rogers, A., Roumbedakis, K., Sala, E., Scheffer, M., Segerson, K., Seijo, J. C., Seto, K. C., Shogren, J. F., Silver, J. J., Singh, G., Soszynski, A., Splichalova, D. V., Spring, M., Stage, J., Stephenson, F., Stewart, B. D., Sultan, R., Suttle, C., Tagliabue, A., Tall, A., Talloni-Álvarez, N., Tavoni, A., Taylor, D. R., Teh, L. S., Teh, L. C., Thiebot, J. B., Thiele, T., Thilsted, S. H., Thumbadoo, R. V., Tigchelaar, M., Tol, R. S., Tortell, P., Troell, M., Uzmanoğlu, M. S., van Putten, I., van Santen, G., Villaseñor-Derbez, J. C., Wabnitz, C. C., Walsh, M., Walsh, J. P., Wambiji, N., Weber, E. U., Westley, F., Williams, S., Wisz, M. S., Worm, B., Xiao, L., Yagi, N., Yamazaki, S., Yang, H., Zeller, D. 2021; 374 (6567): 544


    [Figure: see text].

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.abm1680

    View details for PubMedID 34709891

  • The Ocean 100: Transnational corporations in the ocean economy SCIENCE ADVANCES Virdin, J., Vegh, T., Jouffray, J., Blasiak, R., Mason, S., Osterblom, H., Vermeer, D., Wachtmeister, H., Werner, N. 2021; 7 (3)


    The ocean economy is growing as commercial use of the ocean accelerates, while progress toward achieving international goals for ocean conservation and sustainability is lagging. In this context, the private sector is increasingly recognized as having the capacity to hamper efforts to achieve aspirations of sustainable ocean-based development or alternatively to bend current trajectories of ocean use by taking on the mantle of corporate biosphere stewardship. Here, we identify levels of industry concentration to assess where this capacity rests. We show that the 10 largest companies in eight core ocean economy industries generate, on average, 45% of each industry's total revenues. Aggregating across all eight industries, the 100 largest corporations (the "Ocean 100") account for 60% of total revenues. This level of concentration in the ocean economy presents both risks and opportunities for ensuring sustainability and equity of global ocean use.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.abc8041

    View details for Web of Science ID 000608481000014

    View details for PubMedID 33523873

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7806236

  • Corporations and plastic pollution: Trends in reporting SUSTAINABLE FUTURES Blasiak, R., Leander, E., Jouffray, J., Virdin, J. 2021; 3
  • Local Human Impacts Disrupt Relationships Between Benthic Reef Assemblages and Environmental Predictors FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Ford, A. K., Jouffray, J., Norstrom, A., Moore, B. R., Nugues, M. M., Williams, G. J., Bejarano, S., Magron, F., Wild, C., Ferse, S. A. 2020; 7
  • Science-Industry Collaboration: Sideways or Highways to Ocean Sustainability? ONE EARTH Osterblom, H., Cvitanovic, C., van Putten, I., Addison, P., Blasiak, R., Jouffray, J., Bebbington, J., Hall, J., Ison, S., LeBris, A., Mynott, S., Reid, D., Sugimoto, A. 2020; 3 (1): 79-88
  • The Blue Acceleration: The Trajectory of Human Expansion into the Ocean ONE EARTH Jouffray, J., Blasiak, R., Norstrom, A., Osterblom, H., Nystrom, M. 2020; 2 (1): 43-54
  • Principles for knowledge co-production in sustainability research NATURE SUSTAINABILITY Norstrom, A., Cvitanovic, C., Lof, M. F., West, S., Wyborn, C., Balvanera, P., Bednarek, A. T., Bennett, E. M., Biggs, R., de Bremond, A., Campbell, B. M., Canadell, J. G., Carpenter, S. R., Folke, C., Fulton, E. A., Gaffney, O., Gelcich, S., Jouffray, J., Leach, M., Le Tissier, M., Martin-Lopez, B., Louder, E., Loutre, M., Meadow, A. M., Nagendra, H., Payne, D., Peterson, G. D., Reyers, B., Scholes, R., Speranza, C., Spierenburg, M., Stafford-Smith, M., Tengo, M., van der Hel, S., van Putten, I., Osterblom, H. 2020; 3 (3): 182-190
  • An invitation for more research on transnational corporations and the biosphere. Nature ecology & evolution Folke, C. n., Österblom, H. n., Jouffray, J. B., Lambin, E. F., Adger, W. N., Scheffer, M. n., Crona, B. I., Nyström, M. n., Levin, S. A., Carpenter, S. R., Anderies, J. M., Chapin, S. n., Crépin, A. S., Dauriach, A. n., Galaz, V. n., Gordon, L. J., Kautsky, N. n., Walker, B. H., Watson, J. R., Wilen, J. n., de Zeeuw, A. n. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41559-020-1145-2

    View details for PubMedID 32112049

  • Accounting and accountability in the Anthropocene ACCOUNTING AUDITING & ACCOUNTABILITY JOURNAL Bebbington, J., Osterblom, H., Crona, B., Jouffray, J., Larrinaga, C., Russell, S., Scholtens, B. 2019; 33 (1): 152-177
  • Anatomy and resilience of the global production ecosystem NATURE Nystrom, M., Jouffray, J., Norstrom, A. V., Crona, B., Jorgensen, P., Carpenter, S. R., Bodin, O., Galaz, V., Folke, C. 2019; 575 (7781): 98-108


    Much of the Earth's biosphere has been appropriated for the production of harvestable biomass in the form of food, fuel and fibre. Here we show that the simplification and intensification of these systems and their growing connection to international markets has yielded a global production ecosystem that is homogenous, highly connected and characterized by weakened internal feedbacks. We argue that these features converge to yield high and predictable supplies of biomass in the short term, but create conditions for novel and pervasive risks to emerge and interact in the longer term. Steering the global production ecosystem towards a sustainable trajectory will require the redirection of finance, increased transparency and traceability in supply chains, and the participation of a multitude of players, including integrated 'keystone actors' such as multinational corporations.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-019-1712-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000496159900047

    View details for PubMedID 31695208

    View details for PubMedCentralID 22678279

  • Leverage points in the financial sector for seafood sustainability SCIENCE ADVANCES Jouffray, J., Crona, B., Wassenius, E., Bebbington, J., Scholtens, B. 2019; 5 (10): eaax3324


    Can finance contribute to seafood sustainability? This is an increasingly relevant question given the projected growth of seafood markets and the magnitude of social and environmental challenges associated with seafood production. As more capital enters the seafood industry, it becomes crucial that investments steer the sector toward improved sustainability, as opposed to fueling unsustainable working conditions and overexploitation of resources. Using a mixed-methods approach, we map where different financial mechanisms are most salient along a seafood firm's development trajectory and identify three leverage points that can redirect capital toward more sustainable practices: loan covenants, stock exchange listing rules, and shareholder activism. We argue that seafood sustainability requirements need to be integrated into traditional financial services and propose key research avenues for academic, policy, and practice communities. While our study focuses on the role of finance in seafood sustainability, the insights developed are also of high relevance to other extractive industries.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.aax3324

    View details for Web of Science ID 000491132700009

    View details for PubMedID 31616789

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6774725

  • Transnational corporations and the challenge of biosphere stewardship. Nature ecology & evolution Folke, C., Osterblom, H., Jouffray, J., Lambin, E. F., Adger, W. N., Scheffer, M., Crona, B. I., Nystrom, M., Levin, S. A., Carpenter, S. R., Anderies, J. M., Chapin, S. 3., Crepin, A., Dauriach, A., Galaz, V., Gordon, L. J., Kautsky, N., Walker, B. H., Watson, J. R., Wilen, J., de Zeeuw, A. 2019


    Sustainability within planetary boundaries requires concerted action by individuals, governments, civil society and private actors. For the private sector, there is concern that the power exercised by transnational corporations generates, and is even central to, global environmental change. Here, we ask under which conditions transnational corporations could either hinder or promote a global shift towards sustainability. We show that a handful of transnational corporations have become a major force shaping the global intertwined system of people and planet. Transnational corporations in agriculture, forestry, seafood, cement, minerals and fossil energy cause environmental impacts and possess the ability to influence critical functions of the biosphere. We review evidence of current practices and identify six observed features of change towards 'corporate biosphere stewardship', with significant potential for upscaling. Actions by transnational corporations, if combined with effective public policies and improved governmental regulations, could substantially accelerate sustainability efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41559-019-0978-z

    View details for PubMedID 31527729

  • Coral reef ecology in the Anthropocene FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY Williams, G. J., Graham, N. J., Jouffray, J., Norstrom, A. V., Nystrom, M., Gove, J. M., Heenan, A., Wedding, L. M. 2019; 33 (6): 1014–22
  • Scientists Should Disclose Origin in Marine Gene Patents TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION Blasiak, R., Jouffray, J., Wabnitz, C. C., Osterblom, H. 2019; 34 (5): 392-395


    Universities are key players in the collection and commercialization of marine genetic resources. We argue that the research community can promote systematic disclosure of sample origin in patents, thereby taking a global responsibility for setting new norms of transparency that would influence ongoing policy processes and improve sharing of benefits.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tree.2019.02.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000464931300004

    View details for PubMedID 30837095

  • Scale-dependent spatial patterns in benthic communities around a tropical island seascape ECOGRAPHY Aston, E. A., Williams, G. J., Green, J., Davies, A. J., Wedding, L. M., Gove, J. M., Jouffray, J., Jones, T. T., Clark, J. 2019; 42 (3): 578–90

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ecog.04097

    View details for Web of Science ID 000460078900018

  • Parsing human and biophysical drivers of coral reef regimes. Proceedings. Biological sciences Jouffray, J., Wedding, L. M., Norstrom, A. V., Donovan, M. K., Williams, G. J., Crowder, L. B., Erickson, A. L., Friedlander, A. M., Graham, N. A., Gove, J. M., Kappel, C. V., Kittinger, J. N., Lecky, J., Oleson, K. L., Selkoe, K. A., White, C., Williams, I. D., Nystrom, M. 2019; 286 (1896): 20182544


    Coral reefs worldwide face unprecedented cumulative anthropogenic effects of interacting local human pressures, global climate change and distal social processes. Reefs are also bound by the natural biophysical environment within which they exist. In this context, a key challenge for effective management is understanding how anthropogenic and biophysical conditions interact to drive distinct coral reef configurations. Here, we use machine learning to conduct explanatory predictions on reef ecosystems defined by both fish and benthic communities. Drawing on the most spatially extensive dataset available across the Hawaiian archipelago-20 anthropogenic and biophysical predictors over 620 survey sites-we model the occurrence of four distinct reef regimes and provide a novel approach to quantify the relative influence of human and environmental variables in shaping reef ecosystems. Our findings highlight the nuances of what underpins different coral reef regimes, the overwhelming importance of biophysical predictors and how a reef's natural setting may either expand or narrow the opportunity space for management interventions. The methods developed through this study can help inform reef practitioners and hold promises for replication across a broad range of ecosystems.

    View details for PubMedID 30963937

  • Combining fish and benthic communities into multiple regimes reveals complex reef dynamics. Scientific reports Donovan, M. K., Friedlander, A. M., Lecky, J., Jouffray, J., Williams, G. J., Wedding, L. M., Crowder, L. B., Erickson, A. L., Graham, N. A., Gove, J. M., Kappel, C. V., Karr, K., Kittinger, J. N., Norstrom, A. V., Nystrom, M., Oleson, K. L., Stamoulis, K. A., White, C., Williams, I. D., Selkoe, K. A. 2018; 8 (1): 16943


    Coral reefs worldwide face an uncertain future with many reefs reported to transition from being dominated by corals to macroalgae. However, given the complexity and diversity of the ecosystem, research on how regimes vary spatially and temporally is needed. Reef regimes are most often characterised by their benthic components; however, complex dynamics are associated with losses and gains in both fish and benthic assemblages. To capture this complexity, we synthesised 3,345 surveys from Hawai'i to define reef regimes in terms of both fish and benthic assemblages. Model-based clustering revealed five distinct regimes that varied ecologically, and were spatially heterogeneous by island, depth and exposure. We identified a regime characteristic of a degraded state with low coral cover and fish biomass, one that had low coral but high fish biomass, as well as three other regimes that varied significantly in their ecology but were previously considered a single coral dominated regime. Analyses of time series data reflected complex system dynamics, with multiple transitions among regimes that were a function of both local and global stressors. Coupling fish and benthic communities into reef regimes to capture complex dynamics holds promise for monitoring reef change and guiding ecosystem-based management of coral reefs.

    View details for PubMedID 30446687

  • Tax havens and global environmental degradation NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION Galaz, V., Crona, B., Dauriach, A., Jouffray, J., Osterblom, H., Fichtner, J. 2018; 2 (9): 1352-1357


    The release of classified documents in the past years have offered a rare glimpse into the opaque world of tax havens and their role in the global economy. Although the political, economic and social implications related to these financial secrecy jurisdictions are known, their role in supporting economic activities with potentially detrimental environmental consequences have until now been largely ignored. Here, we combine quantitative analysis with case descriptions to elaborate and quantify the connections between tax havens and the environment, both in global fisheries and the Brazilian Amazon. We show that while only 4% of all registered fishing vessels are currently flagged in a tax haven, 70% of the known vessels implicated in illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing are, or have been, flagged under a tax haven jurisdiction. We also find that between October 2000 and August 2011, 68% of all investigated foreign capital to nine focal companies in the soy and beef sectors in the Brazilian Amazon was transferred through one, or several, known tax havens. This represents as much as 90-100% of foreign capital for some companies investigated. We highlight key research challenges for the academic community that emerge from our findings and present a set of proposed actions for policy that would put tax havens on the global sustainability agenda.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41559-018-0497-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000442468000011

    View details for PubMedID 30104749

  • Corporate control and global governance of marine genetic resources SCIENCE ADVANCES Blasiak, R., Jouffray, J., Wabnitz, C. C., Sundstrom, E., Osterblom, H. 2018; 4 (6): eaar5237


    Who owns ocean biodiversity? This is an increasingly relevant question, given the legal uncertainties associated with the use of genetic resources from areas beyond national jurisdiction, which cover half of the Earth's surface. We accessed 38 million records of genetic sequences associated with patents and created a database of 12,998 sequences extracted from 862 marine species. We identified >1600 sequences from 91 species associated with deep-sea and hydrothermal vent systems, reflecting commercial interest in organisms from remote ocean areas, as well as a capacity to collect and use the genes of such species. A single corporation registered 47% of all marine sequences included in gene patents, exceeding the combined share of 220 other companies (37%). Universities and their commercialization partners registered 12%. Actors located or headquartered in 10 countries registered 98% of all patent sequences, and 165 countries were unrepresented. Our findings highlight the importance of inclusive participation by all states in international negotiations and the urgency of clarifying the legal regime around access and benefit sharing of marine genetic resources. We identify a need for greater transparency regarding species provenance, transfer of patent ownership, and activities of corporations with a disproportionate influence over the patenting of marine biodiversity. We suggest that identifying these key actors is a critical step toward encouraging innovation, fostering greater equity, and promoting better ocean stewardship.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.aar5237

    View details for Web of Science ID 000443175500029

    View details for PubMedID 29881777

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5990308

  • Advancing the integration of spatial data to map human and natural drivers on coral reefs PLOS ONE Wedding, L. M., Lecky, J., Gove, J. M., Walecka, H. R., Donovan, M. K., Williams, G. J., Jouffray, J., Crowder, L. B., Erickson, A., Falinski, K., Friedlander, A. M., Kappel, C. V., Kittinger, J. N., McCoy, K., Norstrom, A., Nystrom, M., Oleson, K. L., Stamoulis, K. A., White, C., Selkoe, K. A. 2018; 13 (3): e0189792


    A major challenge for coral reef conservation and management is understanding how a wide range of interacting human and natural drivers cumulatively impact and shape these ecosystems. Despite the importance of understanding these interactions, a methodological framework to synthesize spatially explicit data of such drivers is lacking. To fill this gap, we established a transferable data synthesis methodology to integrate spatial data on environmental and anthropogenic drivers of coral reefs, and applied this methodology to a case study location-the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). Environmental drivers were derived from time series (2002-2013) of climatological ranges and anomalies of remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a, irradiance, and wave power. Anthropogenic drivers were characterized using empirically derived and modeled datasets of spatial fisheries catch, sedimentation, nutrient input, new development, habitat modification, and invasive species. Within our case study system, resulting driver maps showed high spatial heterogeneity across the MHI, with anthropogenic drivers generally greatest and most widespread on O'ahu, where 70% of the state's population resides, while sedimentation and nutrients were dominant in less populated islands. Together, the spatial integration of environmental and anthropogenic driver data described here provides a first-ever synthetic approach to visualize how the drivers of coral reef state vary in space and demonstrates a methodological framework for implementation of this approach in other regions of the world. By quantifying and synthesizing spatial drivers of change on coral reefs, we provide an avenue for further research to understand how drivers determine reef diversity and resilience, which can ultimately inform policies to protect coral reefs.

    View details for PubMedID 29494613

  • Emergence of a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Osterblom, H., Jouffray, J., Folke, C., Rockstrom, J. 2017; 114 (34): 9038-9043


    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1704453114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000408095300050

    View details for PubMedID 28784792

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5576798

  • The shape of success in a turbulent world: wave exposure filtering of coral reef herbivory FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY Bejarano, S., Jouffray, J., Chollett, I., Allen, R., Roff, G., Marshell, A., Steneck, R., Ferse, S. A., Mumby, P. J. 2017; 31 (6): 1312-1324
  • Guiding coral reef futures in the Anthropocene FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Norstrom, A. V., Nystrom, M., Jouffray, J., Folke, C., Graham, N. J., Moberg, F., Olsson, P., Williams, G. J. 2016; 14 (9): 490-498

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fee.1427

    View details for Web of Science ID 000386912000015

  • Where and how to prioritize fishery reform? PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Osterblom, H., Jouffray, J., Spijkers, J. 2016; 113 (25): E3473-E3474

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1605723113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378272400005

    View details for PubMedID 27307444

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4922157

  • Transnational Corporations as 'Keystone Actors' in Marine Ecosystems PLOS ONE Osterblom, H., Jouffray, J., Folke, C., Crona, B., Troell, M., Merrie, A., Rockstrom, J. 2015; 10 (5): e0127533


    Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons) and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0127533

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355185600087

    View details for PubMedID 26017777

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4446349

  • Identifying multiple coral reef regimes and their drivers across the Hawaiian archipelago PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Jouffray, J., Nystrom, M., Norstrom, A. V., Williams, I. D., Wedding, L. M., Kittinger, J. N., Williams, G. J. 2015; 370 (1659)