Current Role at Stanford
Program Manager, Global Child Health Program
Family Planning and PMTCT in Africa (9/1/2011) (2011 - 2012)
Gender Based Violence among Young Adolescents in the Informal Settlements of Nairobi, Kenya (2015 - 2018)
Youth voices from an informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya: Engaging adolescent perspectives on violence to inform prevention.
Global public health
We examined the experiences of violence and self-reported behavioural and community changes as a result of participation in a sexual assault prevention intervention in an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted longitudinal qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 adolescent girls and 11 adolescent boys at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Analysis was thematic with two investigators coding and reaching consensus about the themes. Participants' ages ranged from 10 to 13 at baseline; girls' mean age was 11.9, boys' mean age was 11.6. Participants reported experiencing high levels of violence at all stages of the study. Most reported feeling more empowered to protect themselves and others from sexual assault because of the intervention. While participants had mixed responses about change in sexual assault incidence, most perceived an improvement in inter-gender relationships after the intervention. Participants at midline and endline cited acquaintances and friends as potential perpetrators of sexual violence more often than at baseline and were more open to reporting violent incidents. The very young adolescents in this setting perceived that this sexual assault prevention intervention led to improvements in gender relations, adolescent girls' empowerment and, recognition of harmful rape myths.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02771132.
View details for DOI 10.1080/17441692.2022.2076895
View details for PubMedID 35579915
Expression of Concern to: A protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial testing an empowerment intervention to prevent sexual assault in upper primary school adolescents in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.
BMC public health
2021; 21 (1): 224
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-021-10263-4
View details for PubMedID 33504325
A protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial testing an empowerment intervention to prevent sexual assault in upper primary school adolescents in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.
BMC public health
2019; 19 (1): 834
Sexual violence against adolescents is prevalent worldwide and results in significant physical and mental injuries as well as loss of economic and personal potential. Urban informal settlements such as those around Nairobi, Kenya have been shown to have especially high incidences of violence. Research has shown that empowerment interventions for female adolescents can reduce sexual assault. However, these interventions have had limited testing in urban informal settlements, with young adolescents, or in coordination with complementary programs for male adolescents.This study was a two-arm, parallel, cluster-randomized trial testing a combination of a previously-tested girls' intervention, IMPower, and a newly revised boys' intervention, Source of Strength. Clusters were defined as schools within the informal settlements; participants were adolescent girls and boys in class 6, generally between the ages of 10-14 at baseline. Data collection began in January 2016 and continued through December 2018. The primary outcome was the change in incidence of self-reported sexual assault among girls from baseline, compared to a life skills standard of care intervention. Secondary outcomes included experiences of physical and emotional violence, as well as determining the effects of the intervention on self-efficacy, self-esteem, and gender attitudes and beliefs, and how those effects led to changes in experience of sexual assault. For the primary outcome and several of the secondary outcomes, we used an intention to treat estimand.This was the first randomized controlled trial with longitudinal follow-up of an empowerment self-defense approach to violence prevention for adolescents in informal settlements. The large size and rigorous design supported analysis to understand multiple subgroup experiences in the hypothesized reduction in sexual assault. The study was also unique in its focus on young (10-14 years of age) adolescents and in engaging both boys and girls in separate but coordinated curriculums. The focus on a highly vulnerable and understudied population will make it a significant contribution to the literature on violence prevention.Clinical Trials.gov # NCT02771132 . Version 3.1 registered May 2017, first participant enrolled January 2017. Retrospectively registered.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-019-7154-x
View details for PubMedID 31248392
Integrating family planning and prevention of mother to child HIV transmission in Zimbabwe.
2014; 89 (3): 209-214
The objective was to integrate enhanced family planning (FP) and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services in order to help HIV-positive Zimbabwean women achieve their desired family size and spacing as well as to maximize maternal and child health.HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled into a standard-of-care (SOC, n=33) or intervention (n=65) cohort, based on study entry date, and followed for 3 months postpartum. The intervention cohort received education sessions aimed at increasing FP use and negotiation power. Both groups received care from nurses with enhanced FP training. Outcomes included FP use, FP knowledge and HIV disclosure, and were assessed with Fisher's Exact Tests, binomial tests and t tests.The intervention cohort reported increased control over condom use (p=.002), increased knowledge about IUDs (p=.002), increased relationship power (p=.01) and increased likelihood of disclosing their HIV status to a partner (p=.04) and having that partner disclose to them (p=.04) when compared to the SOC cohort. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) use in both groups increased from ~2% at baseline to >80% at 3 months postpartum (p<.001).FP and sexual negotiation skills and knowledge, as well as HIV disclosure, increased significantly in the intervention cohort. LARC uptake increased significantly in both the intervention and SOC cohorts, likely because both groups received care from nurses with enhanced FP training. Successful service integration models are needed to maximize health outcomes in resource-constrained environments; this intervention is such a model that should be replicable in other settings in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond.This study provides a rigorously evaluated intervention to integrate FP education into ante- and postnatal care for HIV-positive women and also to train providers on FP. Results suggest that this intervention had significant effects on contraception use and communication with sexual partners. This intervention should be adaptable to other areas.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.contraception.2013.11.003
View details for PubMedID 24332254