Dr. Jennifer A. Newberry is a Associate Professor at Stanford University. She earned her law degree and medical degree from the University of Chicago. After graduating from residency at Stanford, she completed a fellowship in Social Emergency Medicine and Population Health. Dr. Newberry’s interest in social justice and popluation health led to her work in global health, gender-based violence, and emergency medicine. . Dr. Newberry’s current research seeks to understand how to strengthen crisis support systems s for women experiencing gender-based violence and/or other medical emergencies.
- Emergency Medicine
- Gender-based violence
- Help-Seeking Behavior
- Gender disparities in emergency care and outcomes
Associate Professor - University Medical Line, Emergency Medicine
Co-Medical Director, Peninsula Family Advocacy Program, A Medical Legal Partnership (2014 - 2017)
Honors & Awards
Fellow, American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) (10/2016-present)
Stanford Health Care Innovation Challenge Program Grant, Spectrum (1/2015-1/2016)
KL2 Mentored Career Development Award, Spectrum (7/1/2016)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Member, Expert Panel on Population Health in Medical Education, Association of American Medical Colleges (2015 - 2016)
Advisory Board Member, Peninsula Family Advocacy Program (2013 - 2016)
Member, Medical-Legal Partnership Bay Area Coalition (2013 - 2017)
Fellow, Center for Innovation in Global Health (2015 - Present)
Member, Bay Area Regional Help Desk Consortium (2013 - 2015)
Member, American Academy of Emergency Medicine (2010 - Present)
Member, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (2010 - Present)
Member, American College of Emergency Physicians (2009 - Present)
MSc, Stanford University, Epidemiology and Clinical Research (2018)
Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2014)
Fellow, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Surgery, Stanford School of Medicine, Social Emergency Medicine and Population Health (2014)
Residency: Stanford University Medical Center (2013) CA
Medical Education: Pritzker School of Medicine University of Chicago Registrar (2010) IL
JD, University of Chicago Law School, Law (2008)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Interests include global emergency medicine research, emergency obstetric and neonatal care in low- and middle-income countries, gender-based violence, and the intersection of emergency medicine, social justice, and development goals.
Independent Studies (6)
- Community Health and Prevention Research Master's Thesis Writing
CHPR 399 (Win, Spr, Sum)
- Curricular Practical Training and Internship
CHPR 290 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Graduated Research
EMED 399 (Aut)
- Medical Scholars Research
MED 370 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Undergraduate Research
EMED 199 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Undergraduate Research
SURG 199 (Aut)
- Community Health and Prevention Research Master's Thesis Writing
- Prior Year Courses
Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Maria Ruiz Gomez
2022 Consensus Conference on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Developing an Emergency Medicine Research Agenda for Addressing Racism Through Healthcare Research.
Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Racism in emergency medicine healthcare research is pervasive but often underrecognized. In order to understand the current state of research on racism in emergency medicine healthcare research, we developed a consensus working group on this topic, which concluded a year of work with a consensus-building session as part of the overall Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Consensus Conference on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: "Developing a Research Agenda for Addressing Racism in Emergency Medicine," held on May 10, 2022. In this manuscript, we report the development, details of pre-conference methods and preliminary results, and the final consensus of the Healthcare Research Working Group. Preconference work based on literature review and expert opinion identified 13 potential priority research questions that were refined through an iterative process to a list of 10. During the conference, the subgroup used consensus methodology and a "consensus dollar" (contingent valuation) approach to prioritize research questions. The subgroup identified three research gaps: remedies for racial bias and systematic racism, biases and heuristics in clinical care, and racism in study design, and we derived a list of six high-priority research questions for our specialty.
View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.14742
View details for PubMedID 37078910
Utility of Prehospital Call-Center Ambulance-Dispatch Data for COVID-19 Cluster-Surveillance: A Retrospective Analysis.
Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
INTRODUCTION: Cluster surveillance, identification, and containment are primary outbreak management techniques, however, adapting these for low- and middle-income countries is an ongoing challenge. We aimed to evaluate the utility of prehospital call-center ambulance dispatch (CCAD) data for surveillance by examining the correlation between influenza-like illness-related (ILI) dispatch calls and COVID-19 cases.METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of state-level CCAD and COVID-19 data recorded between January 1 and April 30, 2020, in Telangana, India. The primary outcome was a time-series correlation between ILI calls in CCAD and COVID-19 case counts. Secondarily, we looked for a year-to-year correlation of ILI calls in the same period over 2018, 2019, and 2020.RESULTS: On average, ILI calls comprised 12.9% (95%CI: 11.7%-14.1%) of total daily calls in 2020, compared to 7.8% (95%CI: 7.6-8.0%) in 2018, and 7.7% (95%CI: 7.5-7.7%) in 2019. ILI call counts from 2018, 2019, and 2020 aligned closely until March 19, when 2020 ILI calls increased, representing 16% of all calls by March 23 and 27.5% by April 7. In contrast to the significant correlation observed between 2020 and previous years' January-February calls (2020&2019: DW=0.749, p<0.001; 2020&2018: DW=1.232, p<0.001), no correlation was observed for March-April calls (2020&19: DW=2.012, p=0.476; 2020&2018: DW=1.820, p=0.208). In March-April 2020, the daily reported COVID-19 cases by time series significantly correlated with the ILI calls (DW=0.977, p<0.001). The ILI calls on a specific day significantly correlated with the COVID-19 cases reported seven days prior and up to 14days after (cross-correlation >0.251, the 95% upper confidence limit).CONCLUSIONS: The statistically significant time-series correlation between ILI calls and COVID-19 cases suggests prehospital CCAD can be part of early warning systems aiding outbreak cluster surveillance, identification, and containment.
View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.14612
View details for PubMedID 36271649
Paediatric use of emergency medical services in India: A retrospective cohort study of one million children.
Journal of global health
2022; 12: 04080
Millions of children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience illness or trauma amenable to emergency medical interventions, but local resources are not sufficient to treat them. Emergency medical services (EMS), including ambulance transport, bridge the gap between local services and higher-level hospital care, and data collected by EMS could be used to elucidate patterns of paediatric health care need and use. Here we conducted a retrospective observational study of patterns of paediatric use of EMS services by children who used EMS in India, a leader in maternal and child EMS development, to inform public health needs and system interventions to improve EMS effectiveness.We analysed three years (2013-2015) of data from patients <18 years of age from a large prehospital EMS system in India, including 1 101 970 prehospital care records across 11 states and a union territory.Overall, 38.3% of calls were for girls (n = 422 370), 40.5% were for adolescents (n = 445 753), 65.9% were from rural areas (n = 726 154), and most families were from a socially disadvantaged caste or lower economic status (n = 834 973, 75.8%). The most common chief complaints were fever (n = 247 594, 22.5%), trauma (n = 231 533, 21.0%), and respiratory difficulty (n = 161 120, 14.6%). However, transport patterns, including patient sex and age and type of destination hospital, varied by state, as did data collection.EMS in India widely transports children with symptoms of the leading causes of child mortality and provides access to higher levels of care for geographically and socioeconomically vulnerable populations, including care for critically ill neonates, mental health and burn care for girls, and trauma care for adolescents. EMS in India is an important mechanism for overcoming transport and cost as barriers to access, and for reducing the urban-rural gap found across causes of child mortality. Further standardisation of data collection will provide the foundation for assessing disparities and identifying targets for quality improvement of paediatric care.
View details for DOI 10.7189/jogh.12.04080
View details for PubMedID 36243953
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Utilization in Zimbabwe: Retrospective Review of Harare Ambulance System Reports.
Annals of global health
2022; 88 (1): 70
Emergency medical services (EMS) are a critical but often overlooked component of essential public health care delivery in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Few countries in Africa have established EMS and there is scant literature to provide guidance for EMS growth.This study aimed to characterize EMS utilization in Harare, Zimbabwe in order to guide system strengthening efforts.We performed a retrospective chart review of patient care reports (PCR) generated by the City of Harare ambulance system for patients transported and/or treated in the prehospital setting over a 14-month period (February 2018 - March 2019).A total of 875 PCRs were reviewed representing approximately 8% of the calls to EMS. The majority of patients were age 15 to 49 (76%) and 61% were female patients. In general, trauma and pregnancy were the most common chief complaints, comprising 56% of all transports. More than half (51%) of transports were for inter-facility transfers (IFTs) and 52% of these IFTs were maternity-related. Transports for trauma were mostly for male patients (63%), and 75% of the trauma patients were age 15-49. EMTs assessed and documented pulse and blood pressure for 72% of patients.In this study, EMS cared primarily for obstetric and trauma emergencies, which mirrors the leading causes of premature death in LMICs. The predominance of requests for maternity-related IFTs emphasizes the role for EMS as an integral player in peripartum maternal health care. Targeted public health efforts and chief complaint-specific training for EMTs in these priority areas could improve quality of care and patient outcomes. Moreover, a focus on strengthening prehospital data collection and research is critical to advancing EMS development in Zimbabwe and the region through quality improvement and epidemiologic surveillance.
View details for DOI 10.5334/aogh.3649
View details for PubMedID 36043040
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9374015
Is AVPU comparable to GCS in critical prehospital decisions? - A cross-sectional study.
The American journal of emergency medicine
2022; 59: 106-110
BACKGROUND: Advanced Trauma Life Support field triage utilizes the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to assess the level of consciousness. However, prehospital care providers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) often use the Alert, Verbal, Pain, and Unresponsive (AVPU) scale to assess the level of consciousness. This study aimed to determine whether prehospital AVPU categorization correlates with mortality rates in trauma victims, similarly to GCS.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted between November 2015 and January 2016, we enrolled a convenience sample of prehospital trauma-related field activations. The primary outcome measure was the probability of death within 48 h for each category of AVPU.RESULTS: In a convenience sample of 4514 activations, 1606 (35.6%) met exclusion criteria, four did not have AVPU, and four did not have GCS, leaving 2900 (64.2%) trauma activations with both AVPU and GCS available for analysis. Forty-eight-hour follow-up data were available for 2184 (75.3%) activations out of these 2900. The 48-h mortality rates for each category of AVPU were 1.1% (Alert), 4.3% (Verbal), 17.9% (Pain), 53.2% (Unresponsive); and, for each GCS-based injury severity category, they were 0.9% (Mild, GCS 13-15), 8.1% (Moderate, GCS 9-12), 43.5% (Severe, GCS ≤ 8). Overall, there was a statistically significant difference in GCS for each category of AVPU (p < 0.001) except between patients responding to verbal commands and those responding to pain (p = 0.18). The discriminative ability of AVPU (AUC 79.7% (95% CI 73.4-86.1)) and GCS (AUC 81.5% (95% CI 74.8-88.2)) for death within 48-h following hospital drop-off were comparable.CONCLUSION: EMT assessments of AVPU and GCS relate to each other, and AVPU predicts mortality at 48 h. Future studies using AVPU to assess the level of consciousness in prehospital trauma protocols may simplify their global application without impacting the overall quality of care.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajem.2022.06.042
View details for PubMedID 35820277
A qualitative study of an undergraduate online emergency medicine education program at a teaching Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.
BMC medical education
2022; 22 (1): 84
BACKGROUND: Globally, half of all years of life lost is due to emergency medical conditions, with low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) facing a disproportionate burden of these conditions. There is an urgent need to train the future physicians in LMICs in the identification and stabilization of patients with emergency medical conditions. Little research focuses on the development of effective emergency medicine (EM) medical education resources in LMICs and the perspectives of the students themselves. One emerging tool is the use of electronic learning (e-learning) and blended learning courses. We aimed to understand Uganda medical trainees' use of learning materials, perception of current e-learning resources, and perceived needs regarding EM skills acquisition during participation in an app-based EM course.METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups of medical students and EM residents. Participants were recruited using convenience sampling. All sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The final codebook was approved by three separate investigators, transcripts were coded after reaching consensus by all members of the coding team, and coded data were thematically analyzed.RESULTS: Twenty-six medical trainees were included in the study. Analysis of the transcripts revealed three major themes:  medical trainees want education in EM and actively seek EM training opportunities;  although the e-learning course supplements knowledge acquisition, medical students are most interested in hands-on EM-related training experiences; and  medical students want increased time with local physician educators that blended courses provide.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that while students lack access to structured EM education, they actively seek EM knowledge and practice experiences through self-identified, unstructured learning opportunities. Students value high quality, easily accessible EM education resources and employ e-learning resources to bridge gaps in their learning opportunities. However, students desire that these resources be complemented by in-person educational sessions and executed in collaboration with local EM experts who are able to contextualize materials, offer mentorship, and help students develop their interest in EM to continue the growth of the EM specialty.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12909-022-03157-5
View details for PubMedID 35135519
Multi-omic profiling reveals widespread dysregulation of innate immunity and hematopoiesis in COVID-19.
The Journal of experimental medicine
2021; 218 (8)
Our understanding of protective versus pathological immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is limited by inadequate profiling of patients at the extremes of the disease severity spectrum. Here, we performed multi-omic single-cell immune profiling of 64 COVID-19 patients across the full range of disease severity, from outpatients with mild disease to fatal cases. Our transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic analyses revealed widespread dysfunction of peripheral innate immunity in severe and fatal COVID-19, including prominent hyperactivation signatures in neutrophils and NK cells. We also identified chromatin accessibility changes at NF-kappaB binding sites within cytokine gene loci as a potential mechanism for the striking lack of pro-inflammatory cytokine production observed in monocytes in severe and fatal COVID-19. We further demonstrated that emergency myelopoiesis is a prominent feature of fatal COVID-19. Collectively, our results reveal disease severity-associated immune phenotypes in COVID-19 and identify pathogenesis-associated pathways that are potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20210582
View details for PubMedID 34128959
Cryptococcus gattii Meningitis in a Previously Healthy Young Woman: A Case Report.
Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
2021; 5 (3): 345-349
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus gattii (C. gatti) is a rare cause of meningitis in the United States. Outbreaks in new geographic distributions in the past few decades raise concern that climate change may be contributing to a broader distribution of this pathogen. We review a case of C. gattii in a 23-year-old woman in Northern California who was diagnosed via lumbar puncture after six weeks of headache, blurred vision, and tinnitus.CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old previously healthy young woman presented to the emergency department (ED) after multiple visits to primary care, other EDs, and neurologists, for several weeks of headache, nausea, tinnitus, and blurred vision. On examination the patient was found to have a cranial nerve VI palsy (impaired abduction of the left eye) and bilateral papilledema on exam. Lumbar puncture had a significantly elevated opening pressure. Cerebrospinal fluid studies were positive for C. gattii. The patient was treated with serial lumbar punctures, followed by lumbar drain, as well as amphotericin and flucytosine. The patient had improvement in headache and neurologic symptoms and was discharged to another facility that specializes in management of this disease to undergo further treatment with immunomodulators and steroids.CONCLUSION: Fungal meningitis is uncommon in the US, particularly among immunocompetent patients. Due to climate change, C. gattii may be a new pathogen to consider. This finding raises important questions to the medical community about the way global climate change affects day to day medical care now, and how it may change in the future.
View details for DOI 10.5811/cpcem.2021.5.52344
View details for PubMedID 34437044
SARS-CoV-2 IgG Seropositivity and Acute Asymptomatic Infection Rate Among Firefighter First Responders in an Early Outbreak County in California.
Prehospital emergency care : official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the National Association of State EMS Directors
Objective: Firefighter first responders and other emergency medical services (EMS) personnel have been among the highest risk healthcare workers for illness during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We sought to determine the rate of seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and of acute asymptomatic infection among firefighter first responders in a single county with early exposure in the pandemic.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of clinically active firefighters cross-trained as paramedics or EMTs in the fire departments of Santa Clara County, California. Firefighters without current symptoms were tested between June and August 2020. Our primary outcomes were rates of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody seropositivity and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR swab positivity for acute infection. We report cumulative incidence, participant characteristics with frequencies and proportions, and proportion positive and associated relative risk (with 95% confidence intervals).Results: We enrolled 983 out of 1339 eligible participants (response rate: 73.4%). Twenty-five participants (2.54%, 95% CI 1.65-3.73) tested positive for IgG antibodies and 9 (0.92%, 95% CI 0.42-1.73) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Our cumulative incidence, inclusive of self-reported prior positive PCR tests, was 34 (3.46%, 95% CI 2.41-4.80).Conclusion: In a county with one of the earliest outbreaks in the United States, the seroprevalence among firefighter first responders was lower than that reported by other studies of frontline health care workers, while the cumulative incidence remained higher than that seen in the surrounding community.
View details for DOI 10.1080/10903127.2021.1912227
View details for PubMedID 33819128
Peginterferon Lambda-1a for treatment of outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
2021; 12 (1): 1967
Type III interferons have been touted as promising therapeutics in outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT04331899) in 120 outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 to determine whether a single, 180 mcg subcutaneous dose of Peginterferon Lambda-1a (Lambda) within 72 hours of diagnosis could shorten the duration of viral shedding (primary endpoint) or symptoms (secondary endpoint). In both the 60 patients receiving Lambda and 60 receiving placebo, the median time to cessation of viral shedding was 7 days (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 1.19). Symptoms resolved in 8 and 9 days in Lambda and placebo, respectively, and symptom duration did not differ significantly between groups (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.39). Both Lambda and placebo were well-tolerated, though liver transaminase elevations were more common in the Lambda vs. placebo arm (15/60 vs 5/60; p = 0.027). In this study, a single dose of subcutaneous Peginterferon Lambda-1a neither shortened the duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding nor improved symptoms in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-22177-1
View details for PubMedID 33785743
SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia predicts clinical deterioration and extrapulmonary complications from COVID-19.
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
The determinants of COVID-19 disease severity and extrapulmonary complications (EPCs) are poorly understood. We characterized relationships between SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and disease severity, clinical deterioration, and specific EPCs.We used quantitative (qPCR) and digital (dPCR) PCR to quantify SARS-CoV-2 RNA from plasma in 191 patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with COVID-19. We recorded patient symptoms, laboratory markers, and clinical outcomes, with a focus on oxygen requirements over time. We collected longitudinal plasma samples from a subset of patients. We characterized the role of RNAemia in predicting clinical severity and EPCs using elastic net regression.23.0% (44/191) of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients had viral RNA detected in plasma by dPCR, compared to 1.4% (2/147) by qPCR. Most patients with serial measurements had undetectable RNAemia within 10 days of symptom onset, reached maximum clinical severity within 16 days, and symptom resolution within 33 days. Initially RNAaemic patients were more likely to manifest severe disease (OR 6.72 [95% CI, 2.45 - 19.79]), worsening of disease severity (OR 2.43 [95% CI, 1.07 - 5.38]), and EPCs (OR 2.81 [95% CI, 1.26 - 6.36]). RNA load correlated with maximum severity (r = 0.47 [95% CI, 0.20 - 0.67]).dPCR is more sensitive than qPCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, which is a robust predictor of eventual COVID-19 severity and oxygen requirements, as well as EPCs. Since many COVID-19 therapies are initiated on the basis of oxygen requirements, RNAemia on presentation might serve to direct early initiation of appropriate therapies for the patients most likely to deteriorate.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciab394
View details for PubMedID 33949665
- Telemedicine to Decrease Personal Protective Equipment Use and Protect Healthcare Workers. The western journal of emergency medicine 2020
- Experiences of Workplace Violence Among Healthcare Providers in Myanmar: A Cross-sectional Survey Study CUREUS 2020; 12 (4)
Fostering a Diverse Pool of Global Health Academic Leaders Through Mentorship and Career Path Planning.
AEM education and training
2020; 4 (Suppl 1): S98–S105
Established in 2011, the Global Emergency Medicine Academy (GEMA) aims "to improve the global delivery of emergency care through research, education, and mentorship." Global health remains early in its development as an academic track in emergency medicine, and there are only a small number of global emergency medicine academic faculty in most institutions. Consequently, GEMA focused its efforts at the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Annual Meeting in 2019 on developing a diverse pool of global health academics and leaders in emergency medicine. Current and previous members of the GEMA Executive Committee convened to appraise and describe how current GEMA efforts situate within existing knowledge in the arenas of professional development and mentorship. The 2019 SAEM Annual Meeting unveiled the Global Emergency Medicine Roadmap, a joint venture between GEMA and the residents and medical students (RAMS) group. The roadmap guides medical students, residents, and fellows in the exploration of global emergency medicine and career development. GEMA's mentorship roundtable complemented this effort by providing a version of speed mentoring across several critical areas: work-life balance, identifying near-peer and long-distance mentoring opportunities, negotiating with your Chair, finding funding, networking, and teaching abroad. Finally, the GEMA-sponsored panel "Empowering Women through Emergency Care Development in LMICs" underscored the potential for empowering women through global emergency medicine development, including policy advocacy, inclusive research approaches, and mentorship and sponsorship. In summary, GEMA is committed to developing a diverse group of future global health leaders to guide the expansion of emergency medicine worldwide. Our work indicates critical future directions in global emergency medicine education and training including building innovative mentoring networks across institutions and countries. Further, we will continue to focus on growing faculty diversity, empowering underrepresented populations through emergency care development, and supporting rising global emergency medicine faculty in their pursuit of advancement and promotion.
View details for DOI 10.1002/aet2.10403
View details for PubMedID 32072113
Continuing Education for Prehospital Healthcare Providers in India - A Novel Course and Concept.
Open access emergency medicine : OAEM
2020; 12: 201–10
Emergency medical services (EMS) in India face enormous challenges in providing care to a geographically expansive and diverse patient population. Over the last decade, the public-private-partnership GVK EMRI (Emergency Management and Research Institute) has trained over 100,000 emergency medical technicians (EMTs), with greater than 21,000 currently practicing, to address this critical gap in the healthcare workforce. With the rapid development and expansion of EMS, certain aspects of specialty development have lagged behind, including continuing education requirements. To date, there have been no substantial continuing education EMT skills and training efforts. We report lessons learned during development and implementation of a continuing education course (CEC) for EMTs in India.From 2014 to 2017, we employed an iterative process to design and launch a novel CEC focused on five core emergency competency areas (medicine and cardiology, obstetrics, trauma, pediatrics, and leadership and communication). Indian EMT instructors and providers partnered in design and content, and instructors were trained to independently deliver the CEC. Many challenges had to be overcome: scale (>21,000 EMTs), standardization (highly variable skill levels among providers and instructors), culture (educational emphasis on rote memorization rather than practical application), and translation (22 major languages and a few hundred local dialects spoken nationwide).During the assessment and development phases, we identified five key strategies for success: (1) use icon-based video instruction to ensure consistent quality and allow voice-over for easy translation; (2) incorporate workbooks during didactic videos and (3) employ low-cost simulation and case discussions to emphasize active learning; (4) focus on non-technical skills; (5) integrate a formal training-of-trainers prior to delivery of materials.These key strategies can be combined with innovation and flexibility to address unique challenges of language, system resources, and cultural differences when developing impactful continuing educational initiatives in bourgeoning prehospital care systems in low- and middle-income countries.
View details for DOI 10.2147/OAEM.S249447
View details for PubMedID 32982494
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7505709
Defining high-risk emergency chief complaints: data-driven triage for low- and middle-income countries.
Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Emergency medicine in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is hindered by lack of research into patient outcomes. Chief complaints are fundamental to emergency care but have only recently been uniquely codified for an LMIC setting in Uganda. It is not known whether chief complaints independently predict emergency unit patient outcomes.Patient data collected in a Ugandan emergency unit between 2009-2018 were randomized into validation and derivation datasets. A recursive partitioning algorithm stratified chief complaints by three-day mortality risk in each group. The process was repeated in 10,000 bootstrap samples to create an averaged risk ranking. Based on this ranking, chief complaints were categorized as "high-risk" (>2x baseline mortality), "medium-risk" (between 2 and 0.5x baseline mortality) and "low-risk" (<0.5x baseline mortality). Risk categories were then included in a logistic regression model to determine if chief complaints independently predicted three-day mortality.Overall, the derivation dataset included 21,953 individuals with 7,313 in the validation dataset. In total, 43 complaints were categorized, and 12 chief complaints were identified as high-risk. When controlled for triage data including age, sex, HIV status, vital signs, level of consciousness, and number of complaints, high-risk chief complaints significantly increased three-day mortality odds (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.95 - 2.93, p<0.001) while low-risk chief complaints significantly decreased three-day mortality odds (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.09 - 0.29, p<0.001).High-risk chief complaints were identified and found to predict increased three-day mortality independent of vital signs and other data available at triage. This list can be used to expand local triage systems and inform emergency training programs. The methodology can be reproduced in other LMIC settings to reflect their local disease patterns.
View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.14013
View details for PubMedID 32416022
SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia predicts clinical deterioration and extrapulmonary complications from COVID-19.
medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences
The determinants of COVID-19 disease severity and extrapulmonary complications (EPCs) are poorly understood. We characterise the relationships between SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia and disease severity, clinical deterioration, and specific EPCs.We used quantitative (qPCR) and digital (dPCR) PCR to quantify SARS-CoV-2 RNA from nasopharyngeal swabs and plasma in 191 patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with COVID-19. We recorded patient symptoms, laboratory markers, and clinical outcomes, with a focus on oxygen requirements over time. We collected longitudinal plasma samples from a subset of patients. We characterised the role of RNAaemia in predicting clinical severity and EPCs using elastic net regression.23·0% (44/191) of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients had viral RNA detected in plasma by dPCR, compared to 1·4% (2/147) by qPCR. Most patients with serial measurements had undetectable RNAaemia 10 days after onset of symptoms, but took 16 days to reach maximum severity, and 33 days for symptoms to resolve. Initially RNAaemic patients were more likely to manifest severe disease (OR 6·72 [95% CI, 2·45 - 19·79]), worsening of disease severity (OR 2·43 [95% CI, 1·07 - 5·38]), and EPCs (OR 2·81 [95% CI, 1·26 - 6·36]). RNA load correlated with maximum severity ( r = 0·47 [95% CI, 0·20 - 0·67]).dPCR is more sensitive than qPCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia, which is a robust predictor of eventual COVID-19 severity and oxygen requirements, as well as EPCs. Since many COVID-19 therapies are initiated on the basis of oxygen requirements, RNAaemia on presentation might serve to direct early initiation of appropriate therapies for the patients most likely to deteriorate.NIH/NIAID (Grants R01A153133, R01AI137272, and 3U19AI057229 - 17W1 COVID SUPP #2) and a donation from Eva Grove.Evidence before this study: The varied clinical manifestations of COVID-19 have directed attention to the distribution of SARS-CoV-2 in the body. Although most concentrated and tested for in the nasopharynx, SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been found in blood, stool, and numerous tissues, raising questions about dissemination of viral RNA throughout the body, and the role of this process in disease severity and extrapulmonary complications. Recent studies have detected low levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood using either quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (qPCR) or droplet digital PCR (dPCR), and have associated RNAaemia with disease severity and biomarkers of dysregulated immune response.Added value of this study: We quantified SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the nasopharynx and plasma of patients presenting to the Emergency Department with COVID-19, and found an array-based dPCR platform to be markedly more sensitive than qPCR for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, with a simplified workflow well-suited to clinical adoption. We collected serial plasma samples during patients' course of illness, and showed that SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia peaks early, while clinical condition often continues to worsen. Our findings confirm the association between RNAaemia and disease severity, and additionally demonstrate a role for RNAaemia in predicting future deterioration and specific extrapulmonary complications.Implications of all the available evidence: Variation in SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia may help explain disparities in disease severity and extrapulmonary complications from COVID-19. Testing for RNAaemia with dPCR early in the course of illness may help guide patient triage and management.
View details for DOI 10.1101/2020.12.19.20248561
View details for PubMedID 33398290
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7781329
Critical Communication: A Cross-sectional Study of Signout at the Prehospital and Hospital Interface.
2020; 12 (2): e7114
Introduction Miscommunication during patient handoff contributes to an estimated 80% of serious medical errors and, consequently, plays a key role in the estimated five million excess deaths annually from poor quality of care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Objective The objective of this study was to assess signout communication during patient handoffs between prehospital personnel and hospital staff. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample of 931 interfacility transfers for pregnant women across four states from November 7 to December 13, 2016. A complete signout, as defined for this study, contains all necessary signout elements for patient care exchanged verbally or in written form between an emergency medical technician (EMT) and a physician or nurse. Results Enrollment of 786 cases from 931 interfacility transfers resulted in 1572 opportunities for signout. EMTs and a physician or nurse signed out in 1549 cases (98.5%). Signout contained all elements in 135 cases (8.6%). The mean percentage of signout elements included was 45.2% (95% CI, 43.9-46.6). Physician involvement was correlated with a higher mean percent (63.4% [95% CI, 62-64.8]) compared to nurse involvement (23.6% [95% CI, 22.5-24.8]). With respect to the frequency of signout communication, 63.1% of EMTs reported often or always giving signout, and 60.5% reported often or always giving signout; they reported feeling moderately to very comfortable with signout (73.7%) and 34.1% requested further training. Conclusions Physicians, nurses, and the EMTs conducted signout 99% of the time but often fell short of including all elements required for optimal patient care. Interventions aimed at improving the quality of patient care must include strengthening signout communication.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.7114
View details for PubMedID 32140371
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7047340
First look at emergency medical technician wellness in India: Application of the Maslach Burnout Inventory in an unstudied population.
2020; 15 (3): e0229954
Professional wellness is critical to developing and maintaining a health care workforce. Previous work has identified burnout as a significant challenge to professional wellness facing emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in many countries worldwide. Our study fills a critical gap by assessing the prevalence of burnout among emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in India.This was a cross-sectional survey of EMTs within the largest prehospital care organization in India. We used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to measure wellness. All EMTs presenting for continuing medical education between July-November 2017 from the states of Gujarat, Karnataka, and Telangana were eligible. Trained, independent staff administered anonymous MBI-Medical Personnel Surveys in local languages.Of the 327 EMTs eligible, 314 (96%) consented to participate, and 296 (94%) surveys were scorable. The prevalence of burnout was 28.7%. Compared to EMTs in other countries, Indian EMTs had higher levels of personal accomplishment but also higher levels of emotional exhaustion and moderate levels of depersonalization. In multivariate regression, determinants of burnout included younger age, perceived lack of respect from colleagues and administrators, and a sense of physical risk. EMTs who experienced burnout were four times as likely to plan to quit their jobs within one year.This is the first assessment of burnout in EMTs in India and adds to the limited body of literature among low- and middle-income country (LMIC) prehospital providers worldwide. Burnout was strongly associated with an EMT's intention to quit within a year, with potential implications for employee turnover and healthcare workforce shortages. Burnout should be a key focus of further study and possible intervention to achieve internationally recognized targets, including Sustainable Development Goal 3C and WHO's 2030 Milestone for Human Resources.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0229954
View details for PubMedID 32155192
Acute respiratory illness among a prospective cohort of pediatric patients using emergency medical services in India: Demographic and prehospital clinical predictors of mortality.
2020; 15 (4): e0230911
In India, acute respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, are the leading cause of early childhood death. Emergency medical services are a critical component of India's public health infrastructure; however, literature on the prehospital care of pediatric patients in low- and middle-income countries is minimal. The aim of this study is to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with 30-day mortality among a cohort of pediatric patients transported via ambulance in India with an acute respiratory complaint.Pediatric patients less than 18 years of age using ambulance services in one of seven states in India, with a chief complaint of "shortness of breath", or a "fever" with associated "difficulty breathing" or "cough", were enrolled prospectively. Patients were excluded if evidence of choking, trauma or fire-related injury, patient was absent on ambulance arrival, or refused transport. Primary exposures included demographic, environmental, and clinical indicators, including hypoxemia and respiratory distress. The primary outcome was 7 and 30-day mortality. Multivariable logistic regression, stratified by transport type, was constructed to estimate associations between demographic and clinical predictors of mortality.A total of 1443 patients were enrolled during the study period: 981 (68.5%) were transported from the field, and 452 (31.5%) were interfacility transports. Thirty-day response was 83.4% (N = 1222). The median age of all patients was 2 years (IQR: 0.17-10); 93.9% (N = 1347) of patients lived on family incomes below the poverty level; and 54.1% (N = 706) were male. Cumulative mortality at 2, 7, and 30-days was 5.2%, 7.1%, and 7.7%, respectively; with 94 deaths by 30 days. Thirty-day mortality was greatest among those 0-28 days (N = 38,17%); under-5 mortality was 9.8%. In multivariable modeling prehospital oxygen saturation <95% (OR: 3.18 CI: 1.77-5.71) and respiratory distress (OR: 3.72 CI: 2.17-6.36) were the strongest predictors of mortality at 30 days.This is the first study to detail prehospital predictors of death among pediatric patients with shortness of breath in LMICs. The risk of death is particularly high among neonates and those with documented mild hypoxemia, or respiratory distress. Early recognition of critically ill children, targeted prehospital interventions, and diversion to higher level of care may help to mitigate the mortality burden in this population.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0230911
View details for PubMedID 32240227
"So Why Should I Call Them?": Survivor Support Service Characteristics as Drivers of Help-Seeking in India.
Journal of interpersonal violence
Women in South Asia face the highest lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence in the world, which is just one form of violence against women (VAW). In India, few women seek help after experiencing violence, particularly from formal resources, such as physicians or the police. While many studies have investigated the impact of survivor characteristics and patterns of violence on help-seeking behaviors, there is scant research on support service characteristics and their impact on help-seeking. The introduction of a novel crisis helpline in Gujarat, India provided an opportunity to better understand how successful help-seeking can be driven by the perceived and experienced characteristics of the helpline. We conducted in-depth interviews with helpline users to identify factors and pathways that promoted or discouraged help-seeking in general, help-seeking from a formal source, and help-seeking from this particular helpline. We analyzed 32 interviews of women who used the helpline. Participants were from eight districts across the state, representing a diverse range of sociodemographic backgrounds. After conducting a thematic analysis, we found that action-oriented service, timeliness, and women-focused staff influenced (positively and negatively) participants' feelings of safety, empowerment, and trust in the helpline, which ultimately impacted their decision to seek help from the helpline or even to seek help at all. This study illuminates how service characteristics, in and of themselves, can influence the likelihood that survivors will seek help, emphasizing the need for survivors to have a voice in the growth and refinement of VAW support services. Consequently, these areas must be a focus of future research and initiatives to improve help-seeking by VAW survivors.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0886260520970306
View details for PubMedID 33150827
Workplace violence among prehospital care providers in India: a cross-sectional study.
2019; 9 (11): e033404
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) establish the prevalence of safety threats and workplace violence (WPV) experienced by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in a low/middle-income country with a new prehospital care system, India and (2) understand which EMTs are at particularly high risk for these experiences.SETTING: EMTs from four Indian states (Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Telangana) were eligible to participate during the study period from July through November 2017.METHODS: Cross-sectional survey study.PARTICIPANTS: 386 practicing EMTs from four Indian states.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of any WPV was 67.9% (95%CI 63.0% to 72.5%). The prevalence of physical assault was 58% (95% CI 52.5% to 63.4%) and verbal assault was 59.8% (95% CI 54.5% to 65%). Of physical assault victims, 21.7% were injured and 30.2% sought medical attention after the incident. Further, 57.3% (n=216) of respondents reported they were 'somewhat worried' and 28.4% (n=107) reported they were 'very worried' about their safety at work.CONCLUSION: WPV and safety fears were found to be common among EMTs in India. Focused initiatives to counter WPV in countries developing prehospital care systems are necessary to build a healthy and sustainable prehospital healthcare workforce.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033404
View details for PubMedID 31772106
A profile of traumatic injury in the prehospital setting in India: A prospective observational study across seven states.
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury continues to be a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). The World Health Organization has called for a strengthening of prehospital care in order to improve outcomes from trauma. In this study we sought to profile traumatic injury seen in the prehospital setting in India and identify predictors of mortality in this patient population.METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of a convenience sample of patients using a single emergency medical services (EMS) system for traumatic injuries across seven states in India from November 2015 through January 2016. Any patient with a chief complaints indicative of a traumatic injury was eligible for enrollment. Our primary outcome was 30-day mortality.RESULTS: We enrolled 2905 patients. Follow-up rates were 76% at 2 days, 70% at 7 days, and 70% at 30 days. The median age was 36 years (IQR: 25-50) and were predominately male (72%, N=2088), of lower economic status (97%, N=2805 used a government issued ration card) and were from rural or tribal areas (74%, N=2162). Cumulative mortality at 2, 7, and 30 days, was 3%, 4%, and 4% respectively. Predictors of 30-day mortality were prehospital abnormal mental status (OR 7.5 (95% CI: 4-14)), presence of hypoxia or hypotension (OR 4.0 (95% CI: 2.2-7)), on-scene mobility (OR 2.8 (95% CI: 1.3-6)), and multisystem injury inclusive of head injury (OR 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-5)).CONCLUSIONS: EMS in an LMIC can transport trauma patients from poor and rural areas that traditionally struggle to access timely trauma care to facilities in a timeframe consistent with current international recommendations. Information readily obtained by EMTs predicts 30-day mortality within this population and could be utilized for triaging patients with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2019.11.020
View details for PubMedID 31761424
- Timely access to care for patients with critical burns in India: a prehospital prospective observational study EMERGENCY MEDICINE JOURNAL 2019; 36 (3): 176–82
Timely access to care for patients with critical burns in India: a prehospital prospective observational study.
Emergency medicine journal : EMJ
BACKGROUND: Low/middle-income countries carry a disproportionate burden of the morbidity and mortality from thermal burns. Nearly 70% of burn deaths worldwide are from thermal burns in India. Delays to medical care are commonplace and an important predictor of outcomes. We sought to understand the role of emergency medical services (EMS) as part of the healthcare infrastructure for thermal burns in India.METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of patients using EMS for thermal burns across five Indian states from May to August 2015. Our primary outcome was mortality at 2, 7 and 30 days. We compared observed mortality with expected mortality using the revised Baux score. We used Chi2 analysis for categorical variables and Wilcoxon two-sample test for continuous variables. ORs and 95% CIs are reported for all modelled predictor variables.RESULTS: We enrolled 439 patients. The 30-day follow-up rate was 85.9% (n=377). The median age was 30 years; 56.7% (n=249) lived in poverty; and 65.6% (n=288) were women. EMS transported 94.3% of patients (n=399) to the hospital within 2hours of their call. Median total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 60% overall, and 80% in non-accidental burns. Sixty-eight per cent of patients had revised Baux scores greater than 80. Overall 30-day mortality was 64.5%, and highest (90.2%) in women with non-accidental burns. Predictors of mortality by multivariate regression were TBSA (OR 7.9), inhalation injury (OR 5.5), intentionality (OR 4.7) and gender (OR 2.2).DISCUSSION: Although EMS rapidly connects critically burned patients to care in India, mortality remains high, with women disproportionally suffering self-inflicted burns. To combat the burn epidemic in India, efforts must focus on rapid medical care and critical care services, and on a burn prevention strategy that includes mental health and gender-based violence support services.
View details for PubMedID 30635272
Emergency care research ethics in low-income and middle-income countries.
BMJ global health
2019; 4 (Suppl 6): e001260
A large proportion of the total global burden of disease is caused by emergency medical conditions. Emergency care research is essential to improving emergency medicine but this research can raise some distinctive ethical challenges, especially with regard to (1) standard of care and risk-benefit assessment; (2) blurring of the roles of clinician and researcher; (3) enrolment of populations with intersecting vulnerabilities; (4) fair participant selection; (5) quality of consent; and (6) community engagement. Despite the importance of research to improve emergency care in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the widely acknowledged ethical challenges, very little has been written on the ethics of emergency care research in LMICs. This paper examines the ethical and regulatory challenges to conducting emergency care research with human participants in LMICs. We outline key challenges, present potential solutions or frameworks for addressing these challenges, and identify gaps. Despite the ethical and regulatory challenges, conducting high-quality, ethical emergency care research in LMICs is possible and it is essential for global health.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001260
View details for PubMedID 31406598
Comparing Teaching Methods in Resource-Limited Countries.
AEM education and training
2018; 2 (3): 238
View details for PubMedID 30051096
Reducing early infant mortality in India: results of a prospective cohort of pregnant women using emergency medical services
2018; 8 (4): e019937
To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes of neonates born within 7 days of public ambulance transport to hospitals across five states in India.Prospective observational study.Five Indian states using a centralised emergency medical services (EMS) agency that transported 3.1 million pregnant women in 2014.Over 6 weeks in 2014, this study followed a convenience sample of 1431 neonates born to women using a public-private ambulance service for a 'pregnancy-related' problem. Initial calls were deemed 'pregnancy related' if categorised by EMS dispatchers as 'pregnancy', 'childbirth', 'miscarriage' or 'labour pains'. Interfacility transfers, patients absent on ambulance arrival, refusal of care and neonates born to women beyond 7 days of using the service were excluded.death at 2, 7 and 42 days after delivery.Among 1684 women, 1411 gave birth to 1431 newborns within 7 days of initial ambulance transport. Median maternal age at delivery was 23 years (IQR 21-25). Most mothers were from rural/tribal areas (92.5%) and lower social (79.9%) and economic status (69.9%). Follow-up rates at 2, 7 and 42 days were 99.8%, 99.3% and 94.1%, respectively. Cumulative mortality rates at 2, 7 and 42 days follow-up were 43, 53 and 62 per 1000 births, respectively. The perinatal mortality rate (PMR) was 53 per 1000. Preterm birth (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.67 to 5.00), twin deliveries (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.10 to 7.15) and caesarean section (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.23) were the strongest predictors of mortality.The perinatal mortality rate associated with this cohort of patients with high-acuity conditions of pregnancy was nearly two times the most recent rate for India as a whole (28 per 1000 births). EMS data have the potential to provide more robust estimates of PMR, reduce inequities in timely access to healthcare and increase facility-based care through service of marginalised populations.
View details for PubMedID 29654018
Comparison of online and classroom-based formats for teaching emergency medicine to medical students in Uganda
AEM Education and Training
2018; 2 (1)
View details for DOI 10.1002/aet2.10066
Comparison of Live Versus Online Instruction of a Novel Soft Skills Course in Mongolia
2017; 9 (11): e1900
Background Soft skills are essential for employee success in the global marketplace; however, many developing countries lack content experts to provide the requisite instruction to an emerging workforce. One possible solution is to use an online, open-access curriculum. To date, no studies on soft skills curricula using an online learning platform have been undertaken in Mongolia. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an online versus classroom platform to deliver a novel soft skills course in Mongolia. Methods A series of eight lectures along with corresponding surveys and multiple choice question tests were developed and translated into the Mongolian language. Two different delivery modalities, online and traditional classroom lectures, were then compared for knowledge gain, comfort level, and satisfaction. Knowledge gain and comfort level were assessed pre- and post-course, while satisfaction was assessed only post-course. Results Enrollment in the online and classroom courses was 89 students and 291 students, respectively. Sixty-two online students (68% female) and 114 classroom students (77% female) completed the entire course and took the post-test. The online cohort had higher pre-test scores than the classroom cohort (46.4% and 37.3%, respectively, p < 0.01). The online cohort's overall knowledge gain was not significant (0.4%, p=0.87), but the classroom cohort's knowledge gain was significant (13.9%, p < 0.01). Both the online and classroom cohorts demonstrated significant improvement in overall comfort level for all soft skills topics (p < 0.01). Both cohorts were also highly satisfied with the course, as assessed on a Likert scale (4.59 for online, 4.40 for classroom). Conclusion The study compared two cohorts of Mongolian college students who took either an online or classroom-based soft skills course, and it was found that knowledge gain was significantly higher for the classroom group, while comfort and satisfaction with individual course topics was comparable.
View details for PubMedID 29399428
Global Health and Emergency Care: Defining Clinical Research Priorities.
Academic emergency medicine
Despite recent strides in the development of global emergency medicine (EM), the field continues to lag in applying a scientific approach to identifying critical knowledge gaps and advancing evidence-based solutions to clinical and public health problems seen in emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. Here, progress on the global EM research agenda created at the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference is evaluated and critical areas for future development in emergency care research internationally are identified.A retrospective review of all studies compiled in the Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) database from 2013 through 2015 was conducted. Articles were categorized and analyzed using descriptive quantitative measures and structured data matrices. The Global Emergency Medicine Think Tank Clinical Research Working Group at the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine 2016 Annual Meeting then further conceptualized and defined global EM research priorities utilizing consensus-based decision making.Research trends in global EM research published between 2013 and 2015 show a predominance of observational studies relative to interventional or descriptive studies, with the majority of research conducted in the inpatient setting in comparison to the ED or prehospital setting. Studies on communicable diseases and injury were the most prevalent, with a relative dearth of research on chronic noncommunicable diseases. The Global Emergency Medicine Think Tank Clinical Research Working Group identified conceptual frameworks to define high-impact research priorities, including the traditional approach of using global burden of disease to define priorities and the impact of EM on individual clinical care and public health opportunities. EM research is also described through a population lens approach, including gender, pediatrics, and migrant and refugee health.Despite recent strides in global EM research and a proliferation of scholarly output in the field, further work is required to advocate for and inform research priorities in global EM. The priorities outlined in this paper aim to guide future research in the field, with the goal of advancing the development of EM worldwide.
View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.13158
View details for PubMedID 28103632
- Addressing Social Determinants of Health from the Emergency Department through Social Emergency Medicine. The western journal of emergency medicine 2016; 17 (4): 487-489
Using an emergency response infrastructure to help women who experience gender-based violence in Gujarat India
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
2016; 94 (5): 388-392
Many women who experience gender-based violence may never seek any formal help because they do not feel safe or confident that they will receive help if they try.A public-private-academic partnership in Gujarat, India, established a toll-free telephone helpline - called 181 Abhayam - for women experiencing gender-based violence. The partnership used existing emergency response service infrastructure to link women to phone counselling, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and government programmes.In India, the lifetime prevalence of gender-based violence is 37.2%, but less than 1% of women will ever seek help beyond their family or friends. Before implementation of the helpline, there were no toll-free helplines or centralized coordinating systems for government programmes, NGOs and emergency response services.In February 2014, the helpline was launched across Gujarat. In the first 10 months, the helpline assisted 9767 individuals, of which 8654 identified themselves as women. Of all calls, 79% (7694) required an intervention by phone or in person on the day they called and 43% (4190) of calls were by or for women experiencing violence.Despite previous data that showed women experiencing gender-based violence rarely sought help from formal sources, women in Gujarat did use the helpline for concerns across the spectrum of gender-based violence. However, for evaluating the impact of the helpline, the operational definitions of concern categories need to be further clarified. The initial triage system for incoming calls was advantageous for handling high call volumes, but may have contributed to dropped calls.
View details for DOI 10.2471/BLT.15.163741
View details for PubMedID 27147769
Social determinants of health from the emergency department: The practice of social emergency medicine
View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2016.5.30240
Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India.
2016; 8 (7)
Many low- and middle-income countries depend on emergency medical technicians (EMTs), nurses, midwives, and layperson community health workers with limited training to provide a majority of emergency medical, trauma, and obstetric care in the prehospital setting. To improve timely patient care and expand provider scope of practice, nations leverage cellular phones and call centers for real-time online medical direction. However, there exist several barriers to adequate communication that impact the provision of emergency care. We sought to identify obstacles in the cellular communication process among GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) EMTs in Gujarat, India.A convenience sample of practicing EMTs in Gujarat, India were surveyed regarding the barriers to call initiation and completion.108 EMTs completed the survey. Overall, ninety-seven (89.8%) EMTs responded that the most common reason they did not initiate a call with the call center physician was insufficient time. Forty-six (42%) EMTs reported that they were unable to call the physician one or more times during a typical workweek (approximately 5-6 twelve-hour shifts/week) due to their hands being occupied performing direct patient care. Fifty-eight (54%) EMTs reported that they were unable to reach the call center physician, despite attempts, at least once a week.This study identified multiple barriers to communication, including insufficient time to call for advice and inability to reach call center physicians. Identification of simple interventions and best practices may improve communication and ensure timely and appropriate prehospital care.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.676
View details for PubMedID 27551654
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4977222
Characteristics and outcomes of women using emergency medical services for third-trimester pregnancy-related problems in India: a prospective observational study.
2016; 6 (7)
Characterise the demographics, management and outcomes of obstetric patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS).Prospective observational study.Five Indian states using a centralised EMS agency that transported 3.1 million pregnant women in 2014.This study enrolled a convenience sample of 1684 women in third trimester of pregnancy calling with a 'pregnancy-related' problem for free-of-charge ambulance transport. Calls were deemed 'pregnancy related' if categorised by EMS dispatchers as 'pregnancy', 'childbirth', 'miscarriage' or 'labour pains'. Interfacility transfers, patients absent on ambulance arrival and patients refusing care were excluded.Emergency medical technician (EMT) interventions, method of delivery and death.The median age enrolled was 23 years (IQR 21-25). Women were primarily from rural or tribal areas (1550/1684 (92.0%)) and lower economic strata (1177/1684 (69.9%)). Time from initial call to hospital arrival was longer for rural/tribal compared with urban patients (66 min (IQR 51-84) vs 56 min (IQR 42-73), respectively, p<0.0001). EMTs assisted delivery in 44 women, delivering the placenta in 33/44 (75%), performing transabdominal uterine massage in 29/33 (87.9%) and administering oxytocin in none (0%). There were 1411 recorded deliveries. Most women delivered at a hospital (1212/1411 (85.9%)), however 126/1411 (8.9%) delivered at home following hospital discharge. Follow-up rates at 48 hours, 7 days and 42 days were 95.0%, 94.4% and 94.1%, respectively. Four women died, all within 48 hours. The caesarean section rate was 8.2% (116/1411). On multivariate regression analysis, women transported to private hospitals versus government primary health centres were less likely to deliver by caesarean section (OR 0.14 (0.05-0.43)) CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women from vulnerable Indian populations use free-of-charge EMS for impending delivery, making it integral to the healthcare system. Future research and health system planning should focus on strengthening and expanding EMS as a component of emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC).
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011459
View details for PubMedID 27449891
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4964166
Implementing an Innovative Prehospital Care Provider Training Course in Nine Cambodian Provinces.
2016; 8 (6)
Despite significant improvements in health outcomes nationally, many Cambodians continue to experience morbidity and mortality due to inadequate access to quality emergency medical services. Over recent decades, the Cambodian healthcare system and civil infrastructure have advanced markedly and now possess many of the components required to establish a well functioning emergency medical system. These components include enhanced access to emergency transportation through large scale road development efforts, widspread availability of emergency communication channels via the spread of cellphone and internet technology, and increased access to health services for poor patients through the implementation of health financing schemes. However, the system still lacks a number of key elements, one of which is trained prehospital care providers. Working in partnership with local providers, our team created an innovative, Cambodia-specific prehospital care provider training course to help fill this gap. Participants received training on prehospital care skills and knowledge most applicable to the Cambodian healthcare system, which was divided into four modules: Basic Prehospital Care Skills and Adult Medical Emergencies, Traumatic Emergencies, Obstetric Emergencies, and Neonatal/Pediatric Emergencies. The course was implemented in nine of Cambodia's most populous provinces, concurrent with a number of overarching emergency medical service system improvement efforts. Overall, the course was administered to 1,083 Cambodian providers during a 27-month period, with 947 attending the entire course and passing the course completion exam.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.656
View details for PubMedID 27489749
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4963230
Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.676
- Image diagnosis: Perilunate and lunate dislocations. The Permanente journal 2012; 16 (1): 70-71