Bio


Jeremy Bailenson is founding director of Stanford University’s Virtual Human Interaction Lab, Thomas More Storke Professor in the Department of Communication, Professor (by courtesy) of Education, Professor (by courtesy) Program in Symbolic Systems, a Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment, and a Faculty Leader at Stanford’s Center for Longevity. He earned a B.A. cum laude from the University of Michigan in 1994 and a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from Northwestern University in 1999. He spent four years at the University of California, Santa Barbara as a Post-Doctoral Fellow and then an Assistant Research Professor.

Bailenson studies the psychology of Virtual and Augmented Reality, in particular how virtual experiences lead to changes in perceptions of self and others. His lab builds and studies systems that allow people to meet in virtual space, and explores the changes in the nature of social interaction. His most recent research focuses on how virtual experiences can transform education, environmental conservation, empathy, and health. He is the recipient of the Dean’s Award for Distinguished Teaching at Stanford. In 2020, IEEE recognized his work with “The Virtual/Augmented Reality Technical Achievement Award”.

He has published more than 200 academic papers, spanning the fields of communication, computer science, education, environmental science, law, linguistics, marketing, medicine, political science, and psychology. His work has been continuously funded by the National Science Foundation for over 20 years.

Bailenson consults pro bono on Virtual Reality policy for government agencies including the State Department, the US Senate, Congress, the California Supreme Court, the Federal Communication Committee, the U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the National Research Council, and the National Institutes of Health.

His first book Infinite Reality, co-authored with Jim Blascovich, emerged as an Amazon Best-seller eight years after its initial publication, and was quoted by the U.S. Supreme Court. His new book, Experience on Demand, was reviewed by The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Nature, and The Times of London, and was an Amazon Best-seller.

He has written opinion pieces for Harvard Business Review, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, CNN, PBS NewsHour, Wired, National Geographic, Slate, The San Francisco Chronicle, and The Chronicle of Higher Education, and has produced or directed six Virtual Reality documentary experiences which were official selections at the Tribeca Film Festival. His lab’s research has exhibited publicly at museums and aquariums, including a permanent installation at the San Jose Tech Museum.

Administrative Appointments


  • Senior Fellow, Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University (2013 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Dean's Award for Distinguished Teaching for First Years of Teaching, Stanford University (2007)
  • Top-Paper Award, Communication and Technology division of the International Communication Association (2005)
  • Top-Paper Award, Communication and Technology division of the International Communication Association (2007)
  • Top-Paper Award, Nonverbal Communication Division of the National Communication Association (2009)
  • Top-Paper Award, International Society for Presence conference (2012)
  • Top-Paper nomination, Conference on Computer-Human Interaction (CHI) (2008)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Director of Graduate Studies, Doctoral Program in Communication (2010 - Present)
  • Director, Co-Terminal Master’s Degree Program in Media Studies, Department of Communication (2006 - 2009)
  • Director, Job Search in Mideast Studies for the Communication Department, Stanford University (2013 - 2013)
  • Director, Job Search in Environmental Communication, Stanford University (2013 - 2013)
  • Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Communication, Stanford University (2012 - Present)
  • Member, Dean’s Committee for Curriculum Review, Humanities and Social Sciences, Stanford University (2010 - Present)
  • Director, Co-terminal Masters Program, Department of Communication, Stanford University (2006 - Present)
  • Member, PhD Committee, Department of Communication, Stanford University (2007 - Present)
  • Member, Admissions Committee, Ph.D. Program, Department of Communication, Stanford University (2003 - Present)
  • Member, Departmental Committee on Mendenhall Reconstruction, Department of Communication, Departmental Committee on Mendenhall Reconstruction, Stanford University (2007 - 2007)
  • Member, Faculty, Symbolic Systems Program, Stanford University (2004 - Present)
  • Member, Advisory Board, Research Experience Program, Stanford University (2007 - Present)
  • Reviewer, Annual International Workshop on Presence (Program Committee)
  • Reviewer, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication
  • Reviewer, Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction
  • Reviewer, Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Graphics
  • Reviewer, Association for Computing Machinery Transactions on Applied Perception
  • Reviewer, Cognition
  • Reviewer, Communication Research
  • Reviewer, Communication Theory
  • Reviewer, Computers in Human Behavior
  • Reviewer, Cyberpsychology and Behavior
  • Reviewer, European Journal of Social Psychology
  • Reviewer, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Virtual Reality
  • Reviewer, Health Psychology
  • Reviewer, Human Communication Research
  • Reviewer, Human Robot Interaction (Program Committee)
  • Reviewer, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
  • Reviewer, International Communication Association
  • Reviewer, International Journal of Human Computer Studies
  • Reviewer, Intelligent Virtual Agents (Program Committee)
  • Reviewer, Journal of Applied Social Psychology
  • Reviewer, Journal of Consumer Research
  • Reviewer, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
  • Reviewer, Media Psychology (Editorial Board)
  • Reviewer, Memory and Cognition
  • Reviewer, Political Communication
  • Reviewer, Political Psychology
  • Associate Editor, PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
  • Reviewer, Psychiatry Research
  • Reviewer, Psychological Science
  • Reviewer, Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction
  • Reviewer, Virtual Reality
  • Grant Reviewer, United Kingdom Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
  • Grant Reviewer, MacArthur Fellows Program
  • Grant Reviewer, National Science Foundation (HCC)
  • Grant Reviewer, National Science Foundation (TESS)
  • Grant Reviewer, National Science Foundation (VOSS)
  • Grant Reviewer, Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research
  • Grant Reviewer, Stanford Humanities Center
  • Grant Reviewer, Stanford’s Media-X Center
  • Grant Reviewer, Swiss National Science Foundation
  • Grant Reviewer, United States Army

Program Affiliations


  • Science, Technology and Society
  • Stanford SystemX Alliance

Professional Education


  • B.A., University of Michigan, Cognitive Science (1994)
  • M.S., Cognitive Psychology, Northwestern University (1996)
  • Ph.D., Northwestern University, Cognitive Psychology (1999)

Research Interests


  • Brain and Learning Sciences
  • Technology and Education

2022-23 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Facial Appearance Dissatisfaction Explains Differences in Zoom Fatigue. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking Ratan, R., Miller, D. B., Bailenson, J. N. 2021

    Abstract

    Viewing self-video during videoconferences potentially causes negative self-focused attention that contributes to virtual meeting (VM) or "Zoom" fatigue. The present research examines this proposition, focusing on facial dissatisfaction-feeling unhappy about one's own facial appearance-as a potential psychological mechanism of VM fatigue. A study of survey responses from a panel of 613 adults found that VM fatigue was 14.9 percent higher for women than for men, and 11.1 percent higher for Asian than for White participants. These gender and race/ethnicity differences were found to be mediated by facial dissatisfaction. This study replicates earlier VM fatigue research, extends the theoretical understanding of facial dissatisfaction as a psychological mechanism of VM fatigue, and suggests that practical approaches to mitigating VM fatigue could include implementing technological features that reduce self-focused attention during VMs (e.g., employing avatars).

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2021.0112

    View details for PubMedID 34842445

  • Virtual Animals as Diegetic Attention Guidance Mechanisms in 360-Degree Experiences IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS Norouzi, N., Bruder, G., Erickson, A., Kim, K., Bailenson, J., Wisniewski, P., Hughes, C., Welch, G. 2021; 27 (11): 4321-4331

    Abstract

    360-degree experiences such as cinematic virtual reality and 360-degree videos are becoming increasingly popular. In most examples, viewers can freely explore the content by changing their orientation. However, in some cases, this increased freedom may lead to viewers missing important events within such experiences. Thus, a recent research thrust has focused on studying mechanisms for guiding viewers' attention while maintaining their sense of presence and fostering a positive user experience. One approach is the utilization of diegetic mechanisms, characterized by an internal consistency with respect to the narrative and the environment, for attention guidance. While such mechanisms are highly attractive, their uses and potential implementations are still not well understood. Additionally, acknowledging the user in 360-degree experiences has been linked to a higher sense of presence and connection. However, less is known when acknowledging behaviors are carried out by attention guiding mechanisms. To close these gaps, we conducted a within-subjects user study with five conditions of no guide and virtual arrows, birds, dogs, and dogs that acknowledge the user and the environment. Through our mixed-methods analysis, we found that the diegetic virtual animals resulted in a more positive user experience, all of which were at least as effective as the non-diegetic arrow in guiding users towards target events. The acknowledging dog received the most positive responses from our participants in terms of preference and user experience and significantly improved their sense of presence compared to the non-diegetic arrow. Lastly, three themes emerged from a qualitative analysis of our participants' feedback, indicating the importance of the guide's blending in, its acknowledging behavior, and participants' positive associations as the main factors for our participants' preferences.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TVCG.2021.3106490

    View details for Web of Science ID 000711642700023

    View details for PubMedID 34449376

  • Virtual reality perspective-taking at scale: Effect of avatar representation, choice, and head movement on prosocial behaviors NEW MEDIA & SOCIETY Herrera, F., Bailenson, J. N. 2021; 23 (8): 2189-2209
  • The sense of presence: lessons from virtual reality RELIGION BRAIN & BEHAVIOR Erickson-Davis, C., Luhrmann, T. M., Kurina, L. M., Weisman, K., Cornman, N., Corwin, A., Bailenson, J. 2021
  • Effect of Virtual Reality Perspective-Taking on Related and Unrelated Contexts. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking Mado, M., Herrera, F., Nowak, K., Bailenson, J. 2021

    Abstract

    Virtual reality perspective-taking (VRPT) experiences effectively increase both empathy and prosocial behaviors toward related social targets (e.g., cutting down a tree in virtual reality increases concern for the environment). This project tests the prediction that empathy is analogous to a muscle that increases with practice and can transfer to unrelated contexts instead of being a mental state that increases only for a specific context or target. This study examines the extent to which VRPT experiences can train empathic skills that are applied to unrelated social targets and contexts. Two thirds of the participants engaged in VRPT experiences either showing what it is like to become homeless or how ocean acidification affects the marine environment. A third of the participants were in the control condition and did not complete a VRPT task. Results replicate previous findings showing that VRPT tasks increase related context empathy and prosocial behaviors; however, the results on VRPTs effect on empathy and prosocial behaviors for unrelated contexts were mixed. The VRPT ocean acidification task was more effective at inducing empathy for the homeless, an unrelated social target, than the control condition, but the empathy-transfer effect did not occur from the homeless context to the ocean context. Replicating previous work, participants who experienced what it is like to become homeless signed a petition supporting the homeless at significantly higher rates than participants in the control condition. These findings show that transfer of empathy from one context to another is possible, but this transfer does not occur for all contexts.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2020.0802

    View details for PubMedID 34129372

  • Using Virtual Reality in Sea Level Rise Planning and Community Engagement-An Overview WATER Calil, J., Fauville, G., Queiroz, A., Leo, K. L., Newton Mann, A. G., Wise-West, T., Salvatore, P., Bailenson, J. N. 2021; 13 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.3390/w13091142

    View details for Web of Science ID 000650886200001

  • The Social Impact of Deepfakes CYBERPSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL NETWORKING Hancock, J. T., Bailenson, J. N. 2021; 24 (3): 149–52

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2021.29208.jth

    View details for Web of Science ID 000632152700002

    View details for PubMedID 33760669

  • The effect of water immersion on vection in virtual reality. Scientific reports Fauville, G., Queiroz, A. C., Woolsey, E. S., Kelly, J. W., Bailenson, J. N. 2021; 11 (1): 1022

    Abstract

    Research about vection (illusory self-motion) has investigated a wide range of sensory cues and employed various methods and equipment, including use of virtual reality (VR). However, there is currently no research in the field of vection on the impact of floating in water while experiencing VR. Aquatic immersion presents a new and interesting method to potentially enhance vection by reducing conflicting sensory information that is usually experienced when standing or sitting on a stable surface. This study compares vection, visually induced motion sickness, and presence among participants experiencing VR while standing on the ground or floating in water. Results show that vection was significantly enhanced for the participants in the Water condition, whose judgments of self-displacement were larger than those of participants in the Ground condition. No differences in visually induced motion sickness or presence were found between conditions. We discuss the implication of this new type of VR experience for the fields of VR and vection while also discussing future research questions that emerge from our findings.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-80100-y

    View details for PubMedID 33441803

  • Virtual reality and the psychology of climate change. Current opinion in psychology Markowitz, D. M., Bailenson, J. N. 2021; 42: 60–65

    Abstract

    Researchers and practitioners have used virtual reality (VR) as a tool to understand attitudes and behaviors around climate change for decades. As VR has become more immersive, mainstream, and commercially available, it has also become a medium for education about climate issues, a way to indirectly expose users to novel stimuli, and a tool to tell stories about antienvironmental activity. This review explicates the relationship between VR and climate change from a psychological perspective and offers recommendations to make virtual experiences engaging, available, and impactful for users. Climate change is perhaps the most urgent global issue of our lifetime with irreversible consequences. It therefore requires innovative experiential approaches to teach its effects and modify attitudes in support of proenvironmental actions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.03.009

    View details for PubMedID 33930832

  • Motion and Meaning: Sample-Level Nonlinear Analyses of Virtual Reality Tracking Data Miller, M., Jun, H., Bailenson, J. N., IEEE Comp Soc IEEE COMPUTER SOC. 2021: 147-152
  • Personal identifiability of user tracking data during observation of 360-degree VR video. Scientific reports Miller, M. R., Herrera, F., Jun, H., Landay, J. A., Bailenson, J. N. 2020; 10 (1): 17404

    Abstract

    Virtual reality (VR) is a technology that is gaining traction in the consumer market. With it comes an unprecedented ability to track body motions. These body motions are diagnostic of personal identity, medical conditions, and mental states. Previous work has focused on the identifiability of body motions in idealized situations in which some action is chosen by the study designer. In contrast, our work tests the identifiability of users under typical VR viewing circumstances, with no specially designed identifying task. Out of a pool of 511 participants, the system identifies 95% of users correctly when trained on less than 5min of tracking data per person. We argue these results show nonverbal data should be understood by the public and by researchers as personally identifying data.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-74486-y

    View details for PubMedID 33060713

  • Participatory research on using virtual reality to teach ocean acidification: a study in the marine education community ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Fauville, G., Queiroz, A. M., Hambrick, L., Brown, B. A., Bailenson, J. N. 2020
  • Exploring the heart rate as a chronemic cue in virtual settings: how perceptions of consistent and varied heart rates of a storyteller influence self-reported other-arousal, empathy and social presence MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY Li, B. J., Bailenson, J. N., Ogle, E., Zaki, J. 2020
  • Cultivating Empathy Through Virtual Reality: Advancing Conversations About Racism, Inequity, and Climate in Medicine. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Roswell, R. O., Cogburn, C. D., Tocco, J. n., Martinez, J. n., Bangeranye, C. n., Bailenson, J. N., Wright, M. n., Mieres, J. H., Smith, L. n. 2020

    Abstract

    Racism and bias are fundamental causes of health inequities, and they negatively affect the climate of academic medical institutions across the United States.In 2019, the Zucker School of Medicine and Northwell Health piloted a virtual reality (VR) racism experience as a component of professional development for medical school and health system leaders, faculty, and staff. Participants experienced a 60-minute, interactive, large-group session on microaggressions and, as individuals, a 20-minute VR module. These were followed by group reflection and debriefing. The sessions, developed in collaboration with a VR academic team, represented a response to institutional climate assessment surveys, which indicated the need for expanded professional training on cross-cultural communication and enhancing inclusion.In October 2019, 112 faculty and staff participated in the workshop. On a post-workshop survey, completed by 76 participants (67.9%), most respondents (90.8%) reported feeling engaged in the VR experience. Additionally, the majority agreed that VR was an effective tool for enhancing empathy (94.7%), that the session enhanced their own empathy for racial minorities (85.5%), and that their approach to communication would change (67.1%). In open-ended responses, participants frequently conveyed enthusiasm, powerful emotional and physiologic responses, and enhanced empathy. They also suggested more time for follow-up discussions.Next steps include assessing the scalability of the VR module, determining effective complementary engagements, and measuring the module's longitudinal effects on racial empathy, discrimination, and institutional climate. As VR becomes more common in medical education, developing VR modules to address other forms of discrimination (e.g., sexism, homophobia) could also benefit the institutional climates of medical schools and health systems as academic medicine continues to build towards health equity.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000003615

    View details for PubMedID 32701556

  • Effects of Behavioral and Anthropomorphic Realism on Social Influence with Virtual Humans in AR Jun, H., Bailenson, J., IEEE COMP SOC IEEE COMPUTER SOC. 2020: 41-44
  • Temporal RVL: A Depth Stream Compression Method Jun, H., Bailenson, J., IEEE IEEE COMPUTER SOC. 2020: 665–66
  • Facial expressions contribute more than body movements to conversational outcomes in avatar-mediated virtual environments. Scientific reports Oh Kruzic, C. n., Kruzic, D. n., Herrera, F. n., Bailenson, J. n. 2020; 10 (1): 20626

    Abstract

    This study focuses on the individual and joint contributions of two nonverbal channels (i.e., face and upper body) in avatar mediated-virtual environments. 140 dyads were randomly assigned to communicate with each other via platforms that differentially activated or deactivated facial and bodily nonverbal cues. The availability of facial expressions had a positive effect on interpersonal outcomes. More specifically, dyads that were able to see their partner's facial movements mapped onto their avatars liked each other more, formed more accurate impressions about their partners, and described their interaction experiences more positively compared to those unable to see facial movements. However, the latter was only true when their partner's bodily gestures were also available and not when only facial movements were available. Dyads showed greater nonverbal synchrony when they could see their partner's bodily and facial movements. This study also employed machine learning to explore whether nonverbal cues could predict interpersonal attraction. These classifiers predicted high and low interpersonal attraction at an accuracy rate of 65%. These findings highlight the relative significance of facial cues compared to bodily cues on interpersonal outcomes in virtual environments and lend insight into the potential of automatically tracked nonverbal cues to predict interpersonal attitudes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-76672-4

    View details for PubMedID 33244081

  • Case Report: Virtual Reality Behavioral Activation as an Intervention for Major Depressive Disorder. JMIR mental health Paul, M. n., Bullock, K. n., Bailenson, J. n. 2020

    Abstract

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a global problem with an increasing incidence and prevalence. There has additionally been an increase in depression due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Behavioral activation is considered an evidence-based treatment for MDD. However, there are many barriers that could hinder one's ability to engage in behavioral activation, with COVID-19 "shelter-in-place" and social distancing orders being current and large impediments. Virtual reality has been successfully used to help treat a variety of mental health conditions, but it has not yet been used as a method of administering behavioral activation to a clinical population. Using virtual reality to engage in behavioral activation could eliminate barriers that pandemic precautions place and help decrease symptoms of depression that are especially exacerbated in these times.The following case report examines the feasibility, acceptability, and tolerability of virtual reality behavioral activation for an adult with MDD during a global pandemic. This participant was part of a larger pilot study and the case serves as a description of the VR intervention.The participant engaged in a weekly 50-minute psychotherapy Zoom session for four weeks, in which a modified behavioral activation protocol was administered using a virtual reality headset. Data on mood ratings, homework compliance, and headset use were obtained from the headset. Acceptability, tolerability, and depression symptoms were obtained using self-report rating scales.The intervention was feasible, acceptable, and tolerable, as reported by this participant. The participant's depressive symptoms decreased by five-points on the PHQ-9 over a month, with a beginning score of a 10 (moderate depression) and a final score of a 5 (mild depression).The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04268316.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/24331

    View details for PubMedID 33031046

  • The future is now: Age-progressed images motivate community college students to prepare for their financial futures. Journal of experimental psychology. Applied Sims, T. n., Raposo, S. n., Bailenson, J. N., Carstensen, L. L. 2020

    Abstract

    Part of the challenge young people face when preparing for lifelong financial security is visualizing the far-off future. Age-progression technology has been shown to motivate young people to save for retirement. The current study applied age progression for motivating socioeconomically diverse community college students as part of a college planning course. We recruited 106 students enrolled in a mandatory "Transitioning to College" course and randomly assigned them to view age-progressed or same-aged digital avatars. Compared to controls, age-progressed participants gave more correct answers and exhibited higher confidence (i.e., fewer "don't know" responses) on a financial literacy test. Confidence mediated the effect of age progression on correct responses, but not the other way around, pointing to financial confidence as a precursor to effective financial education. Students also reported interest in attending more long-term financial planning workshops (e.g., investing and retirement) available through their college. No differences were observed in financial planning for the near term (e.g., student aid and credit cards). The current study demonstrates the viability of age progression as a practical, inexpensive, and scalable intervention. Findings also illustrate the significance of this intervention for reducing pervasive socioeconomic and age disparities in financial knowledge and enhancing long-term financial prospects across future generations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

    View details for DOI 10.1037/xap0000275

    View details for PubMedID 32597673

  • Call for Special Issue Papers: The Social Impact of Deep Fakes. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking Bailenson, J. n., Hancock, J. n. 2020; 23 (2): 69

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2019.29163.cfp5

    View details for PubMedID 32031893

  • Call for Special Issue Papers: The Social Impact of Deep Fakes. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking Bailenson, J. n., Hancock, J. n. 2020; 23 (1): 68

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2019.29163.cfp4

    View details for PubMedID 31976764

  • Virtual Reality-Delivered Mirror Visual Feedback and Exposure Therapy for FND: A Midpoint Report of a Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences Bullock, K., Won, A. S., Bailenson, J., Friedman, R. 2019: appineuropsych19030071

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to provide preliminary feasibility, safety, and efficacy data for a personalized virtual reality-delivered mirror visual feedback (VR-MVF) and exposure therapy (VR-ET) intervention for functional neurological disorder (FND).METHODS: Midpoint results of a single-blind, randomized controlled pilot are presented. Fourteen adults were randomly assigned to eight weekly 30-minute VR sessions-seven in the treatment arm and seven in the control arm. The treatment arm consisted of an immersive avatar-embodied VR-MVF treatment, plus optional weekly VR-ET starting at session 4 if participants had identifiable FND triggers. The control arm received equally immersive nonembodied sessions involving exploration of a virtual interactive space. Feasibility was measured by acceptability of randomization, completion rates, side effects, adverse events, and integrity of blinding procedures. Exploratory primary and secondary outcome measures were weekly symptom frequency and the Oxford Handicap Scale, respectively.RESULTS: Two early dropouts occurred in the treatment arm, resulting in an 86% completion rate (N=12/14). No side effects or adverse events were reported. Blind assessment at study end indicated that two of the seven treatment arm and three of the seven control arm participants incorrectly guessed their assignment. Changes in mean symptom frequency and disability were reported, but data will not be statistically analyzed until study end.CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report on MVF and VR for treatment of FND. Results generated thus far support feasibility and justify continuation of the study and further investigation into the efficacy of VR interventions for FND.

    View details for DOI 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.19030071

    View details for PubMedID 31687867

  • Social interaction in augmented reality PLOS ONE Miller, M., Jun, H., Herrera, F., Villa, J., Welch, G., Bailenson, J. N. 2019; 14 (5)
  • Investigating Augmented Reality Animals as Companions Norouzi, N., Bruder, G., Bailenson, J., Welch, G., IEEE IEEE COMPUTER SOC. 2019: 400–403
  • Call for Special Issue Papers: The Social Impact of Deep Fakes. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking Bailenson, J. n., Hancock, J. n. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2019.29163.cfp

    View details for PubMedID 31539268

  • Climate Change on Your Plate: A VR Seafood Buffet Experience Pimentel, D., Amaya, R., Halan, S., Kalyanaraman, S., Bailenson, J., IEEE IEEE. 2019: 1120–21
  • Virtual reality’s effect on children’s inhibitory control, social compliance, and sharing Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology Bailey, J. O., Bailenson, J. N., Obradović, J., Aguiar, N. R. 2019; 64: 1-11
  • Key Considerations for Incorporating Conversational AI in Psychotherapy. Frontiers in psychiatry Miner, A. S., Shah, N., Bullock, K. D., Arnow, B. A., Bailenson, J., Hancock, J. 2019; 10: 746

    Abstract

    Conversational artificial intelligence (AI) is changing the way mental health care is delivered. By gathering diagnostic information, facilitating treatment, and reviewing clinician behavior, conversational AI is poised to impact traditional approaches to delivering psychotherapy. While this transition is not disconnected from existing professional services, specific formulations of clinician-AI collaboration and migration paths between forms remain vague. In this viewpoint, we introduce four approaches to AI-human integration in mental health service delivery. To inform future research and policy, these four approaches are addressed through four dimensions of impact: access to care, quality, clinician-patient relationship, and patient self-disclosure and sharing. Although many research questions are yet to be investigated, we view safety, trust, and oversight as crucial first steps. If conversational AI isn't safe it should not be used, and if it isn't trusted, it won't be. In order to assess safety, trust, interfaces, procedures, and system level workflows, oversight and collaboration is needed between AI systems, patients, clinicians, and administrators.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00746

    View details for PubMedID 31681047

  • Close Relationships and Virtual Reality MIND, BRAIN AND TECHNOLOGY: LEARNING IN THE AGE OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Huang, S. A., Bailenson, J., Parsons, T. D., Lin, L., Cockerham, D. 2019: 49–65
  • Call for Special Issue Papers: The Social Impact of Deep Fakes. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking Bailenson, J. n., Hancock, J. n. 2019; 22 (11): 673

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2019.29163.cfp2

    View details for PubMedID 31697602

  • Call for Special Issue Papers: The Social Impact of Deep Fakes. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking Bailenson, J. n., Hancock, J. n. 2019; 22 (12): 749

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2019.29163.cfp3

    View details for PubMedID 31841651

  • Psychological and physiological effects of applying self-control to the mobile phone. PloS one Markowitz, D. M., Hancock, J. T., Bailenson, J. N., Reeves, B. n. 2019; 14 (11): e0224464

    Abstract

    This preregistered study examined the psychological and physiological consequences of exercising self-control with the mobile phone. A total of 125 participants were randomly assigned to sit in an unadorned room for six minutes and either (a) use their mobile phone, (b) sit alone with no phone, or (c) sit with their device but resist using it. Consistent with prior work, participants self-reported more concentration difficulty and more mind wandering with no device present compared to using the phone. Resisting the phone led to greater perceived concentration abilities than sitting without the device (not having external stimulation). Failing to replicate prior work, however, participants without external stimulation did not rate the experience as less enjoyable or more boring than having something to do. We also observed that skin conductance data were consistent across conditions for the first three-minutes of the experiment, after which participants who resisted the phone were less aroused than those who were without the phone. We discuss how the findings contribute to our understanding of exercising self-control with mobile media and how psychological consequences, such as increased mind wandering and focusing challenges, relate to periods of idleness or free thinking.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0224464

    View details for PubMedID 31682619

  • Stereotype Threat in Virtual Learning Environments: Effects of Avatar Gender and Sexist Behavior on Women's Math Learning Outcomes. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking Chang, F. n., Luo, M. n., Walton, G. n., Aguilar, L. n., Bailenson, J. n. 2019

    Abstract

    Women in math, science, and engineering (MSE) often face stereotype threat: they fear that their performance in MSE will confirm an existing negative stereotype-that women are bad at math-which in turn may impair their learning and performance in math. This research investigated if sexist nonverbal behavior of a male instructor could activate stereotype threat among women in a virtual classroom. In addition, the research examined if learners' avatar representation in virtual reality altered this nonverbal process. Specifically, a 2 (avatar gender: female vs. male) × 2 (instructor behavior: dominant sexist vs. nondominant or nonsexist) between-subjects experiment was used. Data from 76 female college students demonstrated that participants learned less and performed worse when interacting with a sexist male instructor compared with a nonsexist instructor in a virtual classroom. Participants learned and performed equally well when represented by female and male avatars. Our findings extend previous research in physical learning settings, suggesting that dominant-sexist behaviors may give rise to stereotype threat and undermine women's learning outcomes in virtual classrooms. Implications for gender achievement gaps and stereotype threat are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2019.0106

    View details for PubMedID 31580726

  • Social interaction in augmented reality. PloS one Miller, M. R., Jun, H., Herrera, F., Yu Villa, J., Welch, G., Bailenson, J. N. 2019; 14 (5): e0216290

    Abstract

    There have been decades of research on the usability and educational value of augmented reality. However, less is known about how augmented reality affects social interactions. The current paper presents three studies that test the social psychological effects of augmented reality. Study 1 examined participants' task performance in the presence of embodied agents and replicated the typical pattern of social facilitation and inhibition. Participants performed a simple task better, but a hard task worse, in the presence of an agent compared to when participants complete the tasks alone. Study 2 examined nonverbal behavior. Participants met an agent sitting in one of two chairs and were asked to choose one of the chairs to sit on. Participants wearing the headset never sat directly on the agent when given the choice of two seats, and while approaching, most of the participants chose the rotation direction to avoid turning their heads away from the agent. A separate group of participants chose a seat after removing the augmented reality headset, and the majority still avoided the seat previously occupied by the agent. Study 3 examined the social costs of using an augmented reality headset with others who are not using a headset. Participants talked in dyads, and augmented reality users reported less social connection to their partner compared to those not using augmented reality. Overall, these studies provide evidence suggesting that task performance, nonverbal behavior, and social connectedness are significantly affected by the presence or absence of virtual content.

    View details for PubMedID 31086381

  • The Effects of Immersion and Real-World Distractions on Virtual Social Interactions. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking Oh, C. n., Herrera, F. n., Bailenson, J. n. 2019; 22 (6): 365–72

    Abstract

    This study explores the independent and joint effects of immersion and real-world distractions (a ringing cell phone) on cognitive (i.e., recognition and recall), affective valence, and interpersonal outcomes (i.e., interpersonal liking and communication satisfaction) as well as general feelings of presence (social presence and telepresence) during a virtual experience. Participants interacted with a virtual agent in an immersive virtual environment or nonimmersive virtual environment under three different levels of real-world distractions (i.e., no distraction, passively being exposed to the sound of a ringing cell phone, and actively responding to ringing cell phone). Increased immersion had a positive effect on telepresence, but a negative effect on recognition and recall; immersion did not have a significant effect on social presence. Real-world distractions had a negative effect on recognition, recall, and social presence, but did not affect telepresence or affective valence. Participants who were actively distracted performed more poorly on the recall measure and reported lower levels of social presence than their passively distracted counterparts. These findings suggest that (a) increased immersion will not uniformly improve social virtual reality experiences and (b) more research is needed on whether and how real-world events should be integrated into virtual environments.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2018.0404

    View details for PubMedID 31188686

  • The Role of Virtual Reality in Autonomous Vehicles' Safety Nascimento, A. M., Queiroz, A. M., Vismari, L. F., Bailenson, J. N., Cugnasca, P. S., Camargo Junior, J. B., de Almeida, J. R., IEEE IEEE COMPUTER SOC. 2019: 50–57
  • Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips Facilitate Learning About Climate Change. Frontiers in psychology Markowitz, D. M., Laha, R., Perone, B. P., Pea, R. D., Bailenson, J. N. 2018; 9: 2364

    Abstract

    Across four studies, two controlled lab experiments and two field studies, we tested the efficacy of immersive Virtual Reality (VR) as an education medium for teaching the consequences of climate change, particularly ocean acidification. Over 270 participants from four different learning settings experienced an immersive underwater world designed to show the process and effects of rising sea water acidity. In all of our investigations, after experiencing immersive VR people demonstrated knowledge gains or inquisitiveness about climate science and in some cases, displayed more positive attitudes toward the environment after comparing pre- and post-test assessments. The analyses also revealed a potential post-hoc mechanism for the learning effects, as the more that people explored the spatial learning environment, the more they demonstrated a change in knowledge about ocean acidification. This work is unique by showing distinct learning gains or an interest in learning across a variety of participants (high school, college students, adults), measures (learning gain scores, tracking data about movement in the virtual world, qualitative responses from classroom teachers), and content (multiple versions varying in length and content about climate change were tested). Our findings explicate the opportunity to use immersive VR for environmental education and to drive information-seeking about important social issues such as climate change.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02364

    View details for PubMedID 30555387

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6284182

  • Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips Facilitate Learning About Climate Change FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY Markowitz, D. M., Laha, R., Perone, B. P., Pea, R. D., Bailenson, J. N. 2018; 9
  • Building long-term empathy: A large-scale comparison of traditional and virtual reality perspective-taking PLOS ONE Herrera, F., Bailenson, J., Weisz, E., Ogle, E., Zaki, J. 2018; 13 (10)
  • A Systematic Review of Social Presence: Definition, Antecedents, and Implications FRONTIERS IN ROBOTICS AND AI Oh, C. S., Bailenson, J. N., Welch, G. F. 2018; 5
  • A Systematic Review of Social Presence: Definition, Antecedents, and Implications. Frontiers in robotics and AI Oh, C. S., Bailenson, J. N., Welch, G. F. 2018; 5: 114

    Abstract

    Social presence, or the feeling of being there with a "real" person, is a crucial component of interactions that take place in virtual reality. This paper reviews the concept, antecedents, and implications of social presence, with a focus on the literature regarding the predictors of social presence. The article begins by exploring the concept of social presence, distinguishing it from two other dimensions of presence-telepresence and self-presence. After establishing the definition of social presence, the article offers a systematic review of 233 separate findings identified from 152 studies that investigate the factors (i.e., immersive qualities, contextual differences, and individual psychological traits) that predict social presence. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of heightened social presence and when it does and does not enhance one's experience in a virtual environment.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/frobt.2018.00114

    View details for PubMedID 33500993

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7805699

  • Virtual reality perspective-taking increases cognitive empathy for specific others PLOS ONE van Loon, A., Bailenson, J., Zaki, J., Bostick, J., Willer, R. 2018; 13 (8)
  • Protecting Nonverbal Data Tracked in Virtual Reality. JAMA pediatrics Bailenson, J. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 30083770

  • The ENGAGE study: Integrating neuroimaging, virtual reality and smartphone sensing to understand self-regulation for managing depression and obesity in a precision medicine model. Behaviour research and therapy Williams, L. M., Pines, A. n., Goldstein-Piekarski, A. N., Rosas, L. G., Kullar, M. n., Sacchet, M. D., Gevaert, O. n., Bailenson, J. n., Lavori, P. W., Dagum, P. n., Wandell, B. n., Correa, C. n., Greenleaf, W. n., Suppes, T. n., Perry, L. M., Smyth, J. M., Lewis, M. A., Venditti, E. M., Snowden, M. n., Simmons, J. M., Ma, J. n. 2018; 101: 58–70

    Abstract

    Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we present the conceptual framework and protocol for a novel study, "Engaging self-regulation targets to understand the mechanisms of behavior change and improve mood and weight outcomes (ENGAGE)". The ENGAGE study integrates neuroscience with behavioral science to better understand the self-regulation related mechanisms of behavior change for improving mood and weight outcomes among adults with comorbid depression and obesity. We collect assays of three self-regulation targets (emotion, cognition, and self-reflection) in multiple settings: neuroimaging and behavioral lab-based measures, virtual reality, and passive smartphone sampling. By connecting human neuroscience and behavioral science in this manner within the ENGAGE study, we develop a prototype for elucidating the underlying self-regulation mechanisms of behavior change outcomes and their application in optimizing intervention strategies for multiple chronic diseases.

    View details for PubMedID 29074231

  • Building long-term empathy: A large-scale comparison of traditional and virtual reality perspective-taking. PloS one Herrera, F., Bailenson, J., Weisz, E., Ogle, E., Zaki, J. 2018; 13 (10): e0204494

    Abstract

    Virtual Reality (VR) has been increasingly referred to as the "ultimate empathy machine" since it allows users to experience any situation from any point of view. However, empirical evidence supporting the claim that VR is a more effective method of eliciting empathy than traditional perspective-taking is limited. Two experiments were conducted in order to compare the short and long-term effects of a traditional perspective-taking task and a VR perspective-taking task (Study 1), and to explore the role of technological immersion when it comes to different types of mediated perspective-taking tasks (Study 2). Results of Study 1 show that over the course of eight weeks participants in both conditions reported feeling empathetic and connected to the homeless at similar rates, however, participants who became homeless in VR had more positive, longer-lasting attitudes toward the homeless and signed a petition supporting the homeless at a significantly higher rate than participants who performed a traditional perspective-taking task. Study 2 compared three different types of perspective-taking tasks with different levels of immersion (traditional vs. desktop computer vs. VR) and a control condition (where participants received fact-driven information about the homeless). Results show that participants who performed any type of perspective-taking task reported feeling more empathetic and connected to the homeless than the participants who only received information. Replicating the results from Study 1, there was no difference in self-report measures for any of the perspective-taking conditions, however, a significantly higher number of participants in the VR condition signed a petition supporting affordable housing for the homeless compared to the traditional and less immersive conditions. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

    View details for PubMedID 30332407

  • Virtual reality perspective-taking increases cognitive empathy for specific others. PloS one van Loon, A., Bailenson, J., Zaki, J., Bostick, J., Willer, R. 2018; 13 (8): e0202442

    Abstract

    Previous research shows that virtual reality perspective-taking experiences (VRPT) can increase prosocial behavior toward others. We extend this research by exploring whether this effect of VRPT is driven by increased empathy and whether the effect extends to ostensibly real-stakes behavioral games. In a pre-registered laboratory experiment (N = 180), participants interacted with an ostensible partner (a student from the same university as them) on a series of real-stakes economic games after (a) taking the perspective of the partner in a virtual reality, "day-in-the-life" simulation, (b) taking the perspective of a different person in a "day-in-the-life" simulation, or (c) doing a neutral activity in a virtual environment. The VRPT experience successfully increased participants' subsequent propensity to take the perspective of their partner (a facet of empathy), but only if the partner was the same person whose perspective participants assumed in the virtual reality simulation. Further, this effect of VRPT on perspective-taking was moderated by participants' reported feeling of immersion in the virtual environment. However, we found no effects of VRPT experience on behavior in the economic games.

    View details for PubMedID 30161144

  • Does a Digital Assistant Need a Body? The Influence of Visual Embodiment and Social Behavior on the Perception of Intelligent Virtual Agents in AR Kim, K., Boelling, L., Haesler, S., Bailenson, J. N., Bruder, G., Welch, G. F., Chu, D., Gabbard, J. L., Grubert, J., Regenbrecht, H. IEEE. 2018: 105–14
  • A Public Database of Immersive VR Videos with Corresponding Ratings of Arousal, Valence, and Correlations between Head Movements and Self Report Measures FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY Li, B. J., Bailenson, J. N., Pines, A., Greenleaf, W. J., Williams, L. M. 2017; 8: 2116

    Abstract

    Virtual reality (VR) has been proposed as a methodological tool to study the basic science of psychology and other fields. One key advantage of VR is that sharing of virtual content can lead to more robust replication and representative sampling. A database of standardized content will help fulfill this vision. There are two objectives to this study. First, we seek to establish and allow public access to a database of immersive VR video clips that can act as a potential resource for studies on emotion induction using virtual reality. Second, given the large sample size of participants needed to get reliable valence and arousal ratings for our video, we were able to explore the possible links between the head movements of the observer and the emotions he or she feels while viewing immersive VR. To accomplish our goals, we sourced for and tested 73 immersive VR clips which participants rated on valence and arousal dimensions using self-assessment manikins. We also tracked participants' rotational head movements as they watched the clips, allowing us to correlate head movements and affect. Based on past research, we predicted relationships between the standard deviation of head yaw and valence and arousal ratings. Results showed that the stimuli varied reasonably well along the dimensions of valence and arousal, with a slight underrepresentation of clips that are of negative valence and highly arousing. The standard deviation of yaw positively correlated with valence, while a significant positive relationship was found between head pitch and arousal. The immersive VR clips tested are available online as supplemental material.

    View details for PubMedID 29259571

  • Immersive Virtual Reality for Pediatric Pain. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Won, A. S., Bailey, J., Bailenson, J., Tataru, C., Yoon, I. A., Golianu, B. 2017; 4 (7)

    Abstract

    Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/children4070052

    View details for PubMedID 28644422

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5532544

  • Exploring the Influence of Haptic and Olfactory Cues of a Virtual Donut on Satiation and Eating Behavior PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Li, B. J., Bailenson, J. N. 2017; 26 (3): 337–54
  • Let the Avatar Brighten Your Smile: Effects of Enhancing Facial Expressions in Virtual Environments. PloS one Oh, S. Y., Bailenson, J., Krämer, N., Li, B. 2016; 11 (9): e0161794

    Abstract

    Previous studies demonstrated the positive effects of smiling on interpersonal outcomes. The present research examined if enhancing one's smile in a virtual environment could lead to a more positive communication experience. In the current study, participants' facial expressions were tracked and mapped on a digital avatar during a real-time dyadic conversation. The avatar's smile was rendered such that it was either a slightly enhanced version or a veridical version of the participant's actual smile. Linguistic analyses using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) revealed that participants who communicated with each other via avatars that exhibited enhanced smiles used more positive words to describe their interaction experience compared to those who communicated via avatars that displayed smiling behavior reflecting the participants' actual smiles. In addition, self-report measures showed that participants in the 'enhanced smile' condition felt more positive affect after the conversation and experienced stronger social presence compared to the 'normal smile' condition. These results are particularly striking when considering the fact that most participants (>90%) were unable to detect the smiling manipulation. This is the first study to demonstrate the positive effects of transforming unacquainted individuals' actual smiling behavior during a real-time avatar-networked conversation.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0161794

    View details for PubMedID 27603784

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5014416

  • Virtually old: Embodied perspective taking and the reduction of ageism under threat COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR Oh, S. Y., Bailenson, J., Weisz, E., Zaki, J. 2016; 60: 398-410
  • When Does Virtual Embodiment Change Our Minds? PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Bailey, J. O., Bailenson, J. N., Casasanto, D. 2016; 25 (3): 222-233
  • Oligodendrocyte heterogeneity in the mouse juvenile and adult central nervous system SCIENCE Brown, T. I., Carr, V. A., LaRocque, K. F., Favila, S. E., Gordon, A. M., Bowles, B., Bailenson, J. N., Wagner, A. D. 2016; 352 (6291): 1323-1326

    Abstract

    Mental representation of the future is a fundamental component of goal-directed behavior. Computational and animal models highlight prospective spatial coding in the hippocampus, mediated by interactions with the prefrontal cortex, as a putative mechanism for simulating future events. Using whole-brain high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and multi-voxel pattern classification, we tested whether the human hippocampus and interrelated cortical structures support prospective representation of navigational goals. Results demonstrated that hippocampal activity patterns code for future goals to which participants subsequently navigate, as well as for intervening locations along the route, consistent with trajectory-specific simulation. The strength of hippocampal goal representations covaried with goal-related coding in the prefrontal, medial temporal, and medial parietal cortex. Collectively, these data indicate that a hippocampal-cortical network supports prospective simulation of navigational events during goal-directed planning.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aaf0784

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377972000042

  • Prospective representation of navigational goals in the human hippocampus. Science Brown, T. I., Carr, V. A., LaRocque, K. F., Favila, S. E., Gordon, A. M., Bowles, B., Bailenson, J. N., Wagner, A. D. 2016; 352 (6291): 1323-1326

    Abstract

    Mental representation of the future is a fundamental component of goal-directed behavior. Computational and animal models highlight prospective spatial coding in the hippocampus, mediated by interactions with the prefrontal cortex, as a putative mechanism for simulating future events. Using whole-brain high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and multi-voxel pattern classification, we tested whether the human hippocampus and interrelated cortical structures support prospective representation of navigational goals. Results demonstrated that hippocampal activity patterns code for future goals to which participants subsequently navigate, as well as for intervening locations along the route, consistent with trajectory-specific simulation. The strength of hippocampal goal representations covaried with goal-related coding in the prefrontal, medial temporal, and medial parietal cortex. Collectively, these data indicate that a hippocampal-cortical network supports prospective simulation of navigational events during goal-directed planning.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aaf0784

    View details for PubMedID 27284194

  • Identifying Anxiety Through Tracked Head Movements in a Virtual Classroom CYBERPSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL NETWORKING Won, A. S., Perone, B., Friend, M., Bailenson, J. N. 2016; 19 (6): 380-387

    Abstract

    Virtual reality allows the controlled simulation of complex social settings, such as classrooms, and thus provides an opportunity to test a range of theories in the social sciences in a way that is both naturalistic and controlled. Importantly, virtual environments also allow the body movements of participants in the virtual world to be tracked and recorded. In the following article, we discuss how tracked head movements were correlated with participants' reports of anxiety in a simulation of a classroom. Participants who reported a high sense of awareness of and concern about the other virtual people in the room showed different patterns of head movement (more lateral head movement, indicating scanning behavior) from those who reported a low level of concern. We discuss the implications of this research for understanding nonverbal behavior associated with anxiety and for the design of online educational systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2015.0326

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378335500005

    View details for PubMedID 27327065

  • How Immersive Is Enough? A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Immersive Technology on User Presence MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY Cummings, J. J., Bailenson, J. N. 2016; 19 (2): 272-309
  • Evaluating Control Schemes for the Third Arm of an Avatar PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Laha, B., Bailenson, J. N., Won, A. S., Bailey, J. O. 2016; 25 (2): 129-147
  • Social robots and virtual agents as lecturers for video instruction COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR Li, J., Kizilcec, R., Bailenson, J., Ju, W. 2016; 55: 1222-1230
  • Developing a Novel Measure of Body Satisfaction Using Virtual Reality PLOS ONE Purvis, C. K., Jones, M., Bailey, J. O., Bailenson, J., Taylor, C. B. 2015; 10 (10)

    Abstract

    Body image disturbance (BID), considered a key feature in eating disorders, is a pervasive issue among young women. Accurate assessment of BID is critical, but the field is currently limited to self-report assessment methods. In the present study, we build upon existing research, and explore the utility of virtual reality (VR) to elicit and detect changes in BID across various immersive virtual environments. College-aged women with elevated weight and shape concerns (n = 38) and a non-weight and shape concerned control group (n = 40) were randomly exposed to four distinct virtual environments with high or low levels of body salience and social presence (i.e., presence of virtual others). Participants interacted with avatars of thin, normal weight, and overweight body size (BMI of approximately 18, 22, and 27 respectively) in virtual social settings (i.e., beach, party). We measured state-level body satisfaction (state BD) immediately after exposure to each environment. In addition, we measured participants' minimum interpersonal distance, visual attention, and approach preference toward avatars of each size. Women with higher baseline BID reported significantly higher state BD in all settings compared to controls. Both groups reported significantly higher state BD in a beach with avatars as compared to other environments. In addition, women with elevated BID approached closer to normal weight avatars and looked longer at thin avatars compared to women in the control group. Our findings indicate that VR may serve as a novel tool for measuring state-level BID, with applications for measuring treatment outcomes. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0140158

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363184600030

    View details for PubMedID 26469860

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4607468

  • Appearance and Task Success in Novel Avatars PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Won, A. S., Bailenson, J. N., Lanier, J. 2015; 24 (4): 335-346
  • Avatars Versus Agents: A Meta-Analysis Quantifying the Effect of Agency on Social Influence HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION Fox, J., Ahn, S. J., Janssen, J. H., Yeykelis, L., Segovia, K. Y., Bailenson, J. N. 2015; 30 (5): 401-432
  • The Instructor's Face in Video Instruction: Evidence From Two Large-Scale Field Studies JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Kizilcec, R. F., Bailenson, J. N., Gomez, C. J. 2015; 107 (3): 724-739

    View details for DOI 10.1037/edu0000013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359379600007

  • Two Virtual Reality Pilot Studies for the Treatment of Pediatric CRPS PAIN MEDICINE Won, A., Tataru, C. A., Cojocaru, C. M., Krane, E. J., Bailenson, J. N., Niswonger, S., Golianu, B. 2015; 16 (8): 1644–47

    View details for PubMedID 25930099

  • The Impact of Vivid Messages on Reducing Energy Consumption Related to Hot Water Use ENVIRONMENT AND BEHAVIOR Bailey, J. O., Bailenson, J. N., Flora, J., Armel, K. C., Voelker, D., Reeves, B. 2015; 47 (5): 570-592
  • The Relationship between Virtual Self Similarity and Social Anxiety. Frontiers in human neuroscience Aymerich-Franch, L., Kizilcec, R. F., Bailenson, J. N. 2014; 8: 944

    Abstract

    In virtual reality (VR), it is possible to embody avatars that are dissimilar to the physical self. We examined whether embodying a dissimilar self in VR would decrease anxiety in a public speaking situation. We report the results of an observational pilot study and two laboratory experiments. In the pilot study (N = 252), participants chose an avatar to use in a public speaking task. Trait public speaking anxiety correlated with avatar preference, such that anxious individuals preferred dissimilar self-representations. In Study 1 (N = 82), differences in anxiety during a speech in front of a virtual audience were compared among participants embodying an assigned avatar whose face was identical to their real self, an assigned avatar whose face was other than their real face, or embodied an avatar of their choice. Anxiety differences were not significant, but there was a trend for lower anxiety with the assigned dissimilar avatar compared to the avatar looking like the real self. Study 2 (N = 105) was designed to explicate that trend, and further investigated anxiety differences with an assigned self or dissimilar avatar. The assigned dissimilar avatar reduced anxiety relative to the assigned self avatar for one measure of anxiety. We discuss implications for theories of self-representation as well as for applied uses of VR to treat social anxiety.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00944

    View details for PubMedID 25477810

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4237051

  • The relationship between virtual self similarity and social anxiety FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Aymerich-Franch, L., Kizilcec, R. F., Bailenson, J. N. 2014; 8

    Abstract

    In virtual reality (VR), it is possible to embody avatars that are dissimilar to the physical self. We examined whether embodying a dissimilar self in VR would decrease anxiety in a public speaking situation. We report the results of an observational pilot study and two laboratory experiments. In the pilot study (N = 252), participants chose an avatar to use in a public speaking task. Trait public speaking anxiety correlated with avatar preference, such that anxious individuals preferred dissimilar self-representations. In Study 1 (N = 82), differences in anxiety during a speech in front of a virtual audience were compared among participants embodying an assigned avatar whose face was identical to their real self, an assigned avatar whose face was other than their real face, or embodied an avatar of their choice. Anxiety differences were not significant, but there was a trend for lower anxiety with the assigned dissimilar avatar compared to the avatar looking like the real self. Study 2 (N = 105) was designed to explicate that trend, and further investigated anxiety differences with an assigned self or dissimilar avatar. The assigned dissimilar avatar reduced anxiety relative to the assigned self avatar for one measure of anxiety. We discuss implications for theories of self-representation as well as for applied uses of VR to treat social anxiety.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00944

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345079700001

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4237051

  • Short- and long-term effects of embodied experiences in immersive virtual environments on environmental locus of control and behavior COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR Ahn, S. J., Bailenson, J. N., Park, D. 2014; 39: 235-245
  • Automatically Detected Nonverbal Behavior Predicts Creativity in Collaborating Dyads JOURNAL OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR Won, A. S., Bailenson, J. N., Stathatos, S. C., Dai, W. 2014; 38 (3): 389-408
  • Does the Mask Govern the Mind?: Effects of Arbitrary Gender Representation on Quantitative Task Performance in Avatar-Represented Virtual Groups CYBERPSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL NETWORKING Lee, J. R., Nass, C. I., Bailenson, J. N. 2014; 17 (4): 248-254

    Abstract

    Virtual environments employing avatars for self-representation-including the opportunity to represent or misrepresent social categories-raise interesting and intriguing questions as to how one's avatar-based social category shapes social identity dynamics, particularly when stereotypes prevalent in the offline world apply to the social categories visually represented by avatars. The present experiment investigated how social category representation via avatars (i.e., graphical representations of people in computer-mediated environments) affects stereotype-relevant task performance. In particular, building on and extending the Proteus effect model, we explored whether and how stereotype lift (i.e., a performance boost caused by the awareness of a domain-specific negative stereotype associated with outgroup members) occurred in virtual group settings in which avatar-based gender representation was arbitrary. Female and male participants (N=120) were randomly assigned either a female avatar or a male avatar through a process masked as a random drawing. They were then placed in a numerical minority status with respect to virtual gender-as the only virtual female (male) in a computer-mediated triad with two opposite-gendered avatars-and performed a mental arithmetic task either competitively or cooperatively. The data revealed that participants who were arbitrarily represented by a male avatar and competed against two ostensible female avatars showed strongest performance compared to others on the arithmetic task. This pattern occurred regardless of participants' actual gender, pointing to a virtual stereotype lift effect. Additional mediation tests showed that task motivation partially mediated the effect. Theoretical and practical implications for social identity dynamics in avatar-based virtual environments are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2013.0358

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333766100008

    View details for PubMedID 24479529

  • Automatic Detection of Nonverbal Behavior Predicts Learning in Dyadic Interactions IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AFFECTIVE COMPUTING Won, A. S., Bailenson, J. N., Janssen, J. H. 2014; 5 (2): 112-125
  • Social Attention in a Virtual Public Speaking Task in Higher Functioning Children With Autism AUTISM RESEARCH Jarrold, W., Mundy, P., Gwaltney, M., Bailenson, J., Hatt, N., McIntyre, N., Kim, K., Solomon, M., Novotny, S., Swain, L. 2013; 6 (5): 393-410

    Abstract

    Impairments in social attention play a major role in autism, but little is known about their role in development after preschool. In this study, a public speaking task was used to study social attention, its moderators, and its association with classroom learning in elementary and secondary students with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Thirty-seven students with HFASD and 54 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched peers without symptoms of ASD were assessed in a virtual classroom public speaking paradigm. This paradigm assessed the ability to attend to nine avatar peers seated at a table, while simultaneously answering self-referenced questions. Students with HFASD looked less frequently to avatar peers in the classroom while talking. However, social attention was moderated in the HFASD sample such that students with lower IQ, and/or more symptoms of social anxiety, and/or more attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive symptoms, displayed more atypical social attention. Group differences were more pronounced when the classroom contained social avatars versus nonsocial targets. Moreover, measures of social attention rather than nonsocial attention were significantly associated with parent report and objective measures of learning in the classroom. The data in this study support the hypothesis of the Social Attention Model of ASD that social attention disturbance remains part of the school-aged phenotype of autism that is related to syndrome-specific problems in social learning. More research of this kind would likely contribute to advances in the understanding of the development of the spectrum of autism and educational intervention approaches for affected school-aged children. Autism Res 2013, ●●: ●●-●●. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/aur.1302

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325933600010

    View details for PubMedID 23696132

  • Post-error expression of speed and force while performing a simple, monotonous task with a haptic pen BEHAVIOUR & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Alonso, M. B., Keyson, D. V., Jabon, M. E., Hummels, C. C., Hekkert, P. P., Bailenson, J. N. 2013; 32 (8): 778-782
  • The embodiment of sexualized virtual selves: The Proteus effect and experiences of self-objectification via avatars COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR Fox, J., Bailenson, J. N., Tricase, L. 2013; 29 (3): 930-938
  • Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior PLOS ONE Rosenberg, R. S., Baughman, S. L., Bailenson, J. N. 2013; 8 (1)

    Abstract

    Recent studies have shown that playing prosocial video games leads to greater subsequent prosocial behavior in the real world. However, immersive virtual reality allows people to occupy avatars that are different from them in a perceptually realistic manner. We examine how occupying an avatar with the superhero ability to fly increases helping behavior.Using a two-by-two design, participants were either given the power of flight (their arm movements were tracked to control their flight akin to Superman's flying ability) or rode as a passenger in a helicopter, and were assigned one of two tasks, either to help find a missing diabetic child in need of insulin or to tour a virtual city. Participants in the "super-flight" conditions helped the experimenter pick up spilled pens after their virtual experience significantly more than those who were virtual passengers in a helicopter.The results indicate that having the "superpower" of flight leads to greater helping behavior in the real world, regardless of how participants used that power. A possible mechanism for this result is that having the power of flight primed concepts and prototypes associated with superheroes (e.g., Superman). This research illustrates the potential of using experiences in virtual reality technology to increase prosocial behavior in the physical world.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0055003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315563800099

    View details for PubMedID 23383029

  • Designing virtual environments to measure behavioral correlates of state-level body satisfaction. Studies in health technology and informatics Purvis, C. K., Jones, M., Bailey, J., Bailenson, J., Taylor, C. B. 2013; 191: 168-172

    Abstract

    Virtual reality (VR) offers a unique method for eliciting state-variable fluctuations in body satisfaction and associated behaviors by allowing near-perfect control over environmental factors. Greater variability in momentary body satisfaction is associated with more problematic eating behavior and cognitive styles predictive of eating disorders. The field currently lacks a model for understanding environmental variables and everyday events that tend to influence fluctuations in state body satisfaction. This study proposes a model of state-level body satisfaction and presents a method for measuring changes as they occur. We aim to investigate body comparison, selective attention and body checking behaviors in relation to self-report levels of state body satisfaction. We additionally assess interpersonal correlates of state body satisfaction using VR to measure personal distance between subjects and avatars of varying body sizes. 80 female college students with varying levels of weight and shape concerns will be exposed to five virtual environments designed to elicit varying levels of body dissatisfaction: (a) an empty room; (b) an empty beach; (c) a beach populated with avatars; (d) an empty party scene; (e) a party scene populated with avatars. Self-report body satisfaction was measured immediately following each exposure. A tracking system automatically tracked subjects' head orientation and body translation to measure visual gaze and personal space behavior relative to each virtual human within the environment. Data collection is currently underway and expected to be completed by May 2013. Preliminary data and development of the VR model for state-variable assessment will be presented.

    View details for PubMedID 23792867

  • The effect of embodied experiences on selfother merging, attitude, and helping behavior Media Psychology Ahn, S. J., Le, A. M., Bailenson, J. N. 2013; 16 (1): 7 - 38
  • The Effect of Embodied Experience on Self-Other Merging Attitude, and Helping Behaviour MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY Ahn, S. J., Amanda Minh Tran Le, A. M., Bailenson, J. 2013; 16 (1): 7-38
  • Identity Manipulation—What Happens When Identity Presentation is Not Truthful The Social Net: Understanding Our Online Behavior Segovia, K. Y., Bailenson, J. N. edited by Amichai - Hamburger, Y. Oxford University Press. 2013: 45–61
  • Virtual imposters: Responses to avatars that do not look like their controllers SOCIAL INFLUENCE Segovia, K. Y., Bailenson, J. N. 2012; 7 (4): 285-303
  • Virtual human identification line-ups Craniofacial Identification Segovia, K. Y., Bailenson, J. N., Leonetti, C. edited by Wilkinson, C., Rynn, C. Cambridge University Press. 2012: 101–114
  • Effects of Facial and Voice Similarity on Presence in a Public Speaking Virtual Environment Aymerich-Franch, L., Karutz, C., Bailenson, J. N. 2012
  • Tracking Gestures to Detect Gender Won, A. S., Yu, L., Janssen, J. H., Bailenson, J. N. 2012
  • Avatars Leadership in Science and Technology: A Reference Handbook Ahn, S. J., Fox, J., Bailenson, J. N. edited by Bainbridge, W. S. SAGE Publications. 2012
  • Avatar Self-Identification as a Metric of Self-Presence Won, A. S., Bailansen, J. N. 2012
  • How immersive is enough? A foundation for a meta-analysis of the effect of immersive technology on measured presence Cummings, J. J., Bailenson, J. N., Fielder, M. J. 2012
  • Physiological Responses to Virtual Selves and Virtual Others Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation Fox, J., Bailenson, J. N., Ricciardi, T. 2012; 5 (1): 69 - 72
  • Doppelgangers - a new form of self? PSYCHOLOGIST Bailenson, J. N. 2012; 25 (1): 36-38
  • INCREASING SAVING BEHAVIOR THROUGH AGE-PROGRESSED RENDERINGS OF THE FUTURE SELF. JMR, Journal of marketing research Hershfield, H. E., Goldstein, D. G., Sharpe, W. F., Fox, J., Yeykelis, L., Carstensen, L. L., Bailenson, J. N. 2011; 48: S23-S37

    Abstract

    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.

    View details for DOI 10.1509/jmkr.48.SPL.S23

    View details for PubMedID 24634544

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3949005

  • Facial-Expression Analysis for Predicting Unsafe Driving Behavior IEEE PERVASIVE COMPUTING Jabon, M. E., Bailenson, J. N., Pontikakis, E., Takayama, L., Nass, C. 2011; 10 (4): 84-95
  • A MUSEUM OF VIRTUAL MEDIA NATURAL HISTORY Blascovich, J., Bailenson, J. 2011; 119 (8): 21-27
  • SELF-ENDORSING VERSUS OTHER-ENDORSING IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS The Effect on Brand Attitude and Purchase Intention JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING Ahn, S. J., Bailenson, J. N. 2011; 40 (2): 93-106
  • This Is Your Mind Online IEEE SPECTRUM Bailenson, J. N., Blascovich, J. 2011; 48 (6): 78-83
  • Automatically Analyzing Facial-Feature Movements to Identify Human Errors IEEE INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS Jabon, M. E., Ahn, S. J., Bailenson, J. N. 2011; 26 (2): 54-63
  • Increasing Saving Behavior Through Age-Progressed Renderings of the Future Self JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH Hershfield, H. E., Goldstein, D. G., Sharpe, W. F., Fox, J., Yeykelis, L., Carstensen, L. L., Bailenson, J. N. 2011; 48: S23-S37

    Abstract

    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296317200004

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3949005

  • Virtual Reality and Social Networks Will Be a Powerful Combination: Avatars will make social networks seductive IEEE Spectrum Bailenson, J. N., Blascovich, J. 2011
  • Virtual Reality and Social Networks Will Be a Powerful Combination: Avatars will make social networks seductive IEEE Spectrum Bailenson, J. N., Blascovich, J. 2011
  • Infinite Reality: Avatars, Eternal Life, New Worlds, and the Dawn of the Virtual Revolution Bailenson, J. N. Harper Collins, William Morrow division. 2011
  • The Expression of Personality in Virtual Worlds SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE Yee, N., Harris, H., Jabon, M., Bailenson, J. N. 2011; 2 (1): 5-12
  • Intimate Heartbeats: Opportunities for Affective Communication Technology IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AFFECTIVE COMPUTING Janssen, J. H., Bailenson, J. N., IJsselsteijn, W. A., Westerink, J. H. 2010; 1 (2): 72-80
  • Effects of Facial Similarity on User Responses to Embodied Agents ACM TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-HUMAN INTERACTION van Vugt, H. C., Bailenson, J. N., Hoorn, J. F., Konijn, E. A. 2010; 17 (2)
  • The use of doppelgangers to promote health behavior change CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation Fox, J., Bailenson, J. N. 2010; 3 (2): 16 - 17
  • Virtual Doppelgangers: Psychological Effects of Avatars who Ignore their Owners Online Worlds: Convergence of the Real and the Virtual Bailenson, J. N., Segovia, K. edited by Bainbridge, B. New York: Springer. 2010: 175–186
  • High-Tech view: The use of immersive virtual environments in jury trials Marquette Law Review Leonetti, C., Bailenson, J. N. 2010; 93: 1073 - 1120
  • Using Automated Facial Expression Analysis for Emotion and Behavior Prediction Handbook of Emotions and Mass Media Ahn, S. J., Bailenson, J. N., Fox, J., Jabon, M. E. edited by Doeveling, K., von Scheve, C., Konjin, E. A. London/New York: Routledge.. 2010
  • High-Tech view: The use of immersive virtual environments in jury trials Marquette Law Review Leonetti, C., Bailenson, J. N. 2010; 93: 1073 - 1120
  • The Evolution of Social Behavior over Time in Second Life PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Harris, H., Bailenson, J. N., Nielsen, A., Yee, N. 2009; 18 (6): 434-448
  • Leveraging Collaborative Virtual Environment Technology for Inter-Population Research on Persuasion in a Classroom Setting PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS McCall, C., Bunyan, D. P., Bailenson, J. N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A. C. 2009; 18 (5): 361-369
  • Virtual Virgins and Vamps: The Effects of Exposure to Female Characters' Sexualized Appearance and Gaze in an Immersive Virtual Environment SEX ROLES Fox, J., Bailenson, J. N. 2009; 61 (3-4): 147-157
  • Virtual Experiences, Physical Behaviors: The Effect of Presence on Imitation of an Eating Avatar PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Fox, J., Bailenson, J., Binney, J. 2009; 18 (4): 294-303
  • The Proteus Effect Implications of Transformed Digital Self-Representation on Online and Offline Behavior COMMUNICATION RESEARCH Yee, N., Bailenson, J. N., Ducheneaut, N. 2009; 36 (2): 285-312
  • Virtually True: Children's Acquisition of False Memories in Virtual Reality MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY Segovia, K. Y., Bailenson, J. N. 2009; 12 (4): 371-393
  • Virgins and vamps: The effects of exposure to agents’ sexualized appearance and gaze in an immersive virtual environment Sex Roles Fox, J. A., Bailenson, J. N. 2009; 61: 147 - 157
  • Virtual Reality: A Social Scientist’s Survival Guide Journal of Media Psychology Fox, J. A., Arena, D., Bailenson, J. N. 2009; 21 (3): 95 - 113
  • Morality in tele-immersive environments Segovia, K. Y., Bailenson, J. N., Monin, B. 2009
  • Virtually True: Children's Acquisitions of False Memories in Virtual Reality Media Psychology Segovia, K., Bailenson, J. N. 2009; 12: 371 - 393
  • The Difference Between Being and Seeing: The Relative Contribution of Self-Perception and Priming to Behavioral Changes via Digital Self-Representation MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY Yee, N., Bailenson, J. N. 2009; 12 (2): 195-209
  • The influence of racial embodiment on racial bias in immersive virtual environments SOCIAL INFLUENCE Groom, V., Bailenson, J. N., Nass, C. 2009; 4 (3): 231-248
  • Virtual Self-Modeling: The Effects of Vicarious Reinforcement and Identification on Exercise Behaviors MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY Fox, J., Bailenson, J. N. 2009; 12 (1): 1-25
  • A Method for Longitudinal Behavioral Data Collection in Second Life PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Yee, N., Bailenson, J. N. 2008; 17 (6): 594-596
  • Self-Representations in Immersive Virtual Environments JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bailenson, J. N., Blascovich, J., Guadagno, R. E. 2008; 38 (11): 2673-2690
  • The effect of interactivity on learning physical actions in virtual reality MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY Bailenson, J., Patel, K., Nielsen, A., Bajscy, R., Jung, S., Kurillo, G. 2008; 11 (3): 354-376
  • The effects of witness viewpoint distance, angle, and choice on eyewitness accuracy in police lineups conducted in immersivc virtual environments 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence Bailenson, J. M., Davies, A., Blascovich, J., Beall, A. C., McCall, C., Guadagno, R. E. M I T PRESS. 2008: 242–55
  • Real-time classification of evoked emotions using facial feature tracking and physiological responses INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES Bailenson, J. N., Pontikakis, E. D., Mauss, I. B., Gross, J. J., Jabon, M. E., Hutcherson, C. A., Nass, C., John, O. 2008; 66 (5): 303-317
  • Virtual interpersonal touch: Haptic interaction and copresence in collaborative virtual environments MULTIMEDIA TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N. 2008; 37 (1): 5-14
  • Detecting digital chameleons COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N., Patel, K., Beall, A. C. 2008; 24 (1): 66-87
  • Cognitive processing of visuals International encyclopedia of communication Bailenson, J. N., Ahn, S. J. edited by Donsbach, W. 2008: 5325–5327
  • Cognitive science The International Encyclopedia of Communication Bailenson, J. N., Fox, J. edited by Donsbach, W. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. 2008: 548–551
  • Transformed social interaction in mediated interpersonal communication Mediated interpersonal communication Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N., Blascovich, J., Guadgano, R. E. edited by Konijn, E., Tanis, M., Utz, M. S., Linden, A. 2008: 77–99
  • Psychology in communication processes International encyclopedia of communication Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N. edited by Donsbach, W. 2008: 3931–3937
  • Research uses of multi-user virtual environments The handbook of Internet research Schroeder, R., Bailensen, J. N. edited by Lee, R., Fielding, N., Blank, G. London: Sage. 2008: 327–342
  • Psychophysics of perceiving eye-gaze and head direction with peripheral vision: Implications for the dynamics of eye-gaze behavior PERCEPTION Loomis, J. M., Kelly, J. W., Pusch, M., Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C. 2008; 37 (9): 1443-1457

    Abstract

    Two psychophysical experiments are reported, one dealing with the visual perception of the head orientation of another person (the 'looker') and the other dealing with the perception of the looker's direction of eye gaze. The participant viewed the looker with different retinal eccentricities, ranging from foveal to far-peripheral viewing. On average, judgments of head orientation were reliable even out to the extremes of peripheral vision (90 degrees eccentricity), with better performance at the extremes when the participant was able to view the looker changing head orientation from one trial to the next. In sharp contrast, judgments of eye-gaze direction were reliable only out to 4 degrees eccentricity, signifying that the eye-gaze social signal is available to people only when they fixate near the looker's eyes. While not unexpected, this vast difference in availability of information about head direction and eye direction, both of which can serve as indicators of the looker's focus of attention, is important for understanding the dynamics of eye-gaze behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.1068/p5896

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260949900012

    View details for PubMedID 18986070

  • FACIAL SIMILARITY BETWEEN VOTERS AND CANDIDATES CAUSES INFLUENCE PUBLIC OPINION QUARTERLY Bailenson, J. N., Iyengar, S., Yee, N., Collins, N. A. 2008; 72 (5): 935-961

    View details for DOI 10.1093/poq/nfn054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263833700007

  • The use of immersive virtual reality in the learning sciences: Digital transformations of teachers, students, and social context JOURNAL OF THE LEARNING SCIENCES Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A. C., Lundblad, N., Jin, M. 2008; 17 (1): 102-141
  • Virtual interpersonal touch and digital chameleons JOURNAL OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N. 2007; 31 (4): 225-242
  • The Proteus Effect: The effect of transformed self-representation on behavior HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH Yee, N., Bailenson, J. 2007; 33 (3): 271-290
  • The unbearable likeness of being digital: The persistence of nonverbal social norms in online virtual environments CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR Yee, N., Bailenson, J. N., Urbanek, M., Chang, F., Merget, D. 2007; 10 (1): 115-121

    Abstract

    Every day, millions of users interact in real-time via avatars in online environments, such as massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). These online environments could potentially be unique research platforms for the social sciences and clinical therapy, but it is crucial to first establish that social behavior and norms in virtual environments are comparable to those in the physical world. In an observational study of Second Life, a virtual community, we collected data from avatars in order to explore whether social norms of gender, interpersonal distance (IPD), and eye gaze transfer into virtual environments even though the modality of movement is entirely different (i.e., via keyboard and mouse as opposed to eyes and legs). Our results showed that established findings of IPD and eye gaze transfer into virtual environments: (1) male-male dyads have larger IPDs than female-female dyads, (2) male-male dyads maintain less eye contact than female-female dyads, and (3) decreases in IPD are compensated with gaze avoidance as predicted by the Equilibrium Theory. We discuss implications for users of online games as well as for social scientists who seek to conduct research in virtual environments.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/cpb.2006.9984

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244713800016

    View details for PubMedID 17305457

  • Virtual humans and persuasion: The effects of agency and behavioral realism MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY Guadagno, R. E., Blascovich, J., Bailenson, J. N., McCall, C. 2007; 10 (1): 1-22
  • Sciencepunk: The influence of informed science fiction on virtual reality research SciFi in the Mind's Eye: Reading Science Through Science Fiction Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N., Kim, A., Tecarro, J. edited by Bisson, T., Grebowicz, M. Open Court Publishing. 2007
  • The mere belief of social interaction improves learning Okita, S. Y., Bailenson, J., Schwartz, D. L. 2007
  • Virtual interpersonal touch: Haptic interaction and copresence in collaborative virtual environments International Journal of Multimedia Tools and Applications Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N. 2007; 37 (1): 5 - 14
  • A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of the Inclusion and Realism of Human-Like Faces on User Experiences in Interfaces Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Yee, N., Bailenson, J. N., Rickertsen, K. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 1–10
  • Virtual interpersonal touch: Expressing and recognizing emotions through haptic devices HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N., Brave, S., Merget, D., Koslow, D. 2007; 22 (3): 325-353
  • A longitudinal study, of task performance, head movements, subjective report, simulator sickness, and transformed social interaction in collaborative virtual environments International VR Design and Usability Workshop Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N. M I T PRESS. 2006: 699–716
  • The effect of behavioral realism and form realism of real-time avatar faces on verbal disclosure, nonverbal disclosure, emotion recognition, and copresence in dyadic interaction 8th Annual International Workshop on Presence Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N., Merget, D., Schroeder, R. M I T PRESS. 2006: 359–72
  • Transformed facial similarity as a political cue: A preliminary investigation POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY Bailenson, J. N., Garland, P., Iyengar, S., Yee, N. 2006; 27 (3): 373-385
  • Perceiving visual emotions with speech 6th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents Deng, Z., Bailenson, J., Lewis, J. P., Neumann, U. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN. 2006: 107–120
  • Transformed social interaction: Exploring the digital plasticity of avatars Avatars at work and play: Collaboration and interaction in shared virtual environments Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C. edited by Schroeder, R., Axelsson, A. Springer-Verlag. 2006: 1–16
  • The effects of fully immersive virtual reality on the learning of physical tasks Patel, K., Bailenson, J. N., Hack-Jung, S., Diankov, R., Bajcsy, R. 2006
  • Transformed Social Interaction in Collaborative Virtual Environments Digital Media: Transformations in Human Communication Bailenson, J. N. edited by Messaris, P., Humphreys , L. New York: Peter Lang. 2006: 255–264
  • Courtroom applications of virtual environments, immersive virtual environments, and collaborative virtual environments Law and Policy Bailenson, J. N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A. C., Noveck, B. 2006; 28: 249 - 270
  • Digital chameleons - Automatic assimilation of nonverbal gestures in immersive virtual environments PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N. 2005; 16 (10): 814-819

    Abstract

    Previous research demonstrated social influence resulting from mimicry (the chameleon effect); a confederate who mimicked participants was more highly regarded than a confederate who did not, despite the fact that participants did not explicitly notice the mimicry. In the current study, participants interacted with an embodied artificial intelligence agent in immersive virtual reality. The agent either mimicked a participant's head movements at a 4-s delay or utilized prerecorded movements of another participant as it verbally presented an argument. Mimicking agents were more persuasive and received more positive trait ratings than nonmimickers, despite participants' inability to explicitly detect the mimicry. These data are uniquely powerful because they demonstrate the ability to use automatic, indiscriminate mimicking (i.e., a computer algorithm blindly applied to all movements) to gain social influence. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate social influence effects with a nonhuman, nonverbal mimicker.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232101200012

    View details for PubMedID 16181445

  • Transformed social interaction, augmented gaze, and social influence in immersive virtual environments HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Loomis, J., Blascovich, J., Turk, M. 2005; 31 (4): 511-537
  • The independent and interactive effects of embodied-agent appearance and behavior on self-report, cognitive, and behavioral markers of copresence in immersive virtual environments PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Bailenson, J. N., Swinth, K., Hoyt, C., Persky, S., Dimov, A., Blascovich, J. 2005; 14 (4): 379-393
  • Using immersive virtual environment technology to simulate police lineups Virtual decisions: Digital simulations for teaching reasoning in the social sciences and humanities Blascovich, J., Bailenson, J. N. edited by Cohen, Portney, Rehberger, Thorsen Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc.. 2005
  • Transformed social interaction: Decoupling representation from behavior and form in collaborative virtual environments PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Loomis, J., Blascovich, J., Turk, M. 2004; 13 (4): 428-441
  • Examining virtual busts: Are photogrammetrically generated head models effective for person identification? PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Blascovich, J., Rex, C. 2004; 13 (4): 416-427
  • Comparing behavioral and self-report measures of embodied agents' social presence in immersive virtual environments Bailenson, J. N., Aharoni, E., Beall, A. C., Guadagno, R. E., Dimov, A., Blascovich, J. 2004
  • Multimodal transformed social interaction Turk, M., Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Blascovich, J., Guadagno, R. 2004
  • Avatars Encyclopedia of human-computer interaction Bailenson, J. N., Blascovich, J. edited by Bainbridge, W. S. Berkshire Publishing Group. 2004: 64–68
  • Interpersonal distance in immersive virtual environments PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN Bailenson, J. N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A. C., Loomis, J. M. 2003; 29 (7): 819-833

    Abstract

    Digital immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) enables behavioral scientists to conduct ecologically realistic experiments with near-perfect experimental control. The authors employed IVET to study the interpersonal distance maintained between participants and virtual humans. In Study 1, participants traversed a three-dimensional virtual room in which a virtual human stood. In Study 2, a virtual human approached participants. In both studies, participant gender, virtual human gender, virtual human gaze behavior, and whether virtual humans were allegedly controlled by humans (i.e., avatars) or computers (i.e., agents) were varied. Results indicated that participants maintained greater distance from virtual humans when approaching their fronts compared to their backs. In addition, participants gave more personal space to virtual agents who engaged them in mutual gaze. Moreover, when virtual humans invaded their personal space, participants moved farthest from virtual human agents. The advantages and disadvantages of IVET for the study of human behavior are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0146167203253270

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183496700002

    View details for PubMedID 15018671

  • Non-zero-sum mutual gaze in collaborative virtual environments Beall, A. C., Bailenson, J. N., Loomis, J., Blascovich, J., Rex, C. 2003
  • Using virtual heads for person identification: An empirical study comparing photographs to photogrammetricallygenerated models Journal of Forensic Identification Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Blascovich, J. 2003; 53: 722 - 728
  • Gaze and task performance in shared virtual environments JOURNAL OF VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER ANIMATION Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Blascovich, J. 2002; 13 (5): 313-320

    View details for DOI 10.1002/vis.297

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180205800006

  • A bird's eye view: biological categorization and reasoning within and across cultures COGNITION Bailenson, J. N., Shum, M. S., Atran, S., MEDIN, D. L., Coley, J. D. 2002; 84 (1): 1-53

    Abstract

    Many psychological studies of categorization and reasoning use undergraduates to make claims about human conceptualization. Generalizability of findings to other populations is often assumed but rarely tested. Even when comparative studies are conducted, it may be challenging to interpret differences. As a partial remedy, in the present studies we adopt a 'triangulation strategy' to evaluate the ways expertise and culturally different belief systems can lead to different ways of conceptualizing the biological world. We use three groups (US bird experts, US undergraduates, and ordinary Itza' Maya) and two sets of birds (North American and Central American). Categorization tasks show considerable similarity among the three groups' taxonomic sorts, but also systematic differences. Notably, US expert categorization is more similar to Itza' than to US novice categorization. The differences are magnified on inductive reasoning tasks where only undergraduates show patterns of judgment that are largely consistent with current models of category-based taxonomic inference. The Maya commonly employ causal and ecological reasoning rather than taxonomic reasoning. Experts use a mixture of strategies (including causal and ecological reasoning), only some of which current models explain. US and Itza' informants differed markedly when reasoning about passerines (songbirds), reflecting the somewhat different role that songbirds play in the two cultures. The results call into question the importance of similarity-based notions of typicality and central tendency in natural categorization and reasoning. These findings also show that relative expertise leads to a convergence of thought that transcends cultural boundaries and shared experiences.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175548600001

    View details for PubMedID 12062146

  • Mutual gaze and task performance in shared virtual environments Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Blascovich, J. 2002; 13: 1 - 8
  • Immersive virtual environment technology: Just another methodological tool for social psychology? PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., Beall, A. C., Swinth, K. R., Hoyt, C. L., Bailenson, J. N. 2002; 13 (2): 146-149
  • Immersive virtual environment technology as a methodological tool for social psychology PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., Beall, A. C., Swinth, K. R., Hoyt, C. L., Bailenson, J. N. 2002; 13 (2): 103-124
  • Equilibrium theory revisited: Mutual gaze and personal space in virtual environments PRESENCE-TELEOPERATORS AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Bailenson, J. N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A. C., Loomis, J. M. 2001; 10 (6): 583-598
  • Contrast ratio: Shifting burden of proof in informal arguments DISCOURSE PROCESSES Bailenson, J. 2001; 32 (1): 29-41
  • Intelligent agents who wear your face: Users' reactions to the virtual self Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Blascovich, J., Weisbuch, M., Raimmundo, R. 2001
  • The initial segment strategy: A heuristic for route selection MEMORY & COGNITION Bailenson, J. N., Shum, M. S., Uttal, D. H. 2000; 28 (2): 306-318

    Abstract

    People often choose one route when traveling from point A to point B and a different route when traveling from point B to point A. To explain these route asymmetries, we propose that people rely on a heuristic (the initial segment strategy, or ISS) during route planning. This heuristic involves basing decisions disproportionately on the straightness of the initial segments of the routes. Asymmetries arise because the characteristics that favor selection of a particular route in one direction will usually differ from those that favor selection when traveling in the opposite direction. Results from five experiments supported these claims. In the first three experiments, we found that subjects' decisions were asymmetric and involved a preference for initially straight routes. In Experiment 4, we confirmed that the ISS is a heuristic by demonstrating that people rely on it more when under time pressure. However, people can choose the optimal route when instructed to do so. In Experiment 5, we generalized the findings by having subjects select routes on maps of college campuses. Taken together, the results indicate that the ISS can account for asymmetries in route choices on both real and artificial maps.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086649500014

    View details for PubMedID 10790984

  • Conversational argument strength and burden of proof Doctoral dissertation, Department of Psychology Northwestern University Bailenson, J. N. 2000
  • Reasoning dialogues CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Rips, L. J., Brem, S. K., Bailenson, J. N. 1999; 8 (6): 172-177
  • Road climbing: Principles governing asymmetric route choices on maps JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Bailenson, J. N., Shum, M. S., Uttal, D. H. 1998; 18 (3): 251-264
  • Road climbing: A route choice heuristic 20th Annual Conference of the Cognitive-Science-Society Shum, M. S., Bailenson, J. N., Hwang, S. I., Piland, L. R., Uttal, D. H. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC PUBL. 1998: 963–967
  • Road climbing: Principles of route choice Shum, M. S., Bailenson, J., Hwang, S., Piland, L., Uttal, D. 1998
  • Claim strength and burden of proof in interactive arguments 19th Annual Conference of the Cognitive-Science-Society Bailenson, J. N. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC PUBL. 1997: 13–18
  • Mechanism-based explanations of causal attribution: An explanation of conjunction and discounting effect Cognitive Psychology Ahn, W., Bailenson, J. 1996; 31: 82 - 123
  • Informal reasoning and burden of proof APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Bailenson, J. N., Rips, L. J. 1996; 10: S3-S16
  • Causal attribution as mechanism-based story construction: An explanation of conjunction and discounting effects Ahn, W., Bailenson, J., Gordon, B. 1994