- Pediatric Hospital Medicine
Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatrics
Faculty Coach, Pediatric Residency Program (2019 - Present)
Co-Chair, Working Parents Employee Resource Group, Stanford Medicine (2019 - Present)
Director, Connect Team (Inpatient Complex Care Consult Service), Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2017 - 2020)
Honors & Awards
Faculty Research Fellow, Clayman Institute for Gender Research, Stanford (2020-2021)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Fellow, American Academy of Pediatrics (2013 - Present)
Medical Education: New York Medical College Registrar (2010) NY
Residency: Montefiore Medical Center - Albert Einstein College of Medicine (2013) NY
Internship: Montefiore Medical Center - Albert Einstein College of Medicine (2011) NY
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2013)
Board Certification, American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hospital Medicine (2019)
MD, New York Medical College (2010)
MS, Georgetown University, Physiology (2006)
BA, Columbia University, Biology, Art History (2004)
Words Matter: Examining Gender Differences in the Language Used to Evaluate Pediatrics Residents.
BACKGROUND: Gender disparities in academic medicine continue to be pervasive. Written evaluations of residents may provide insight into perceptions of residents by faculty, which may influence letters of recommendation for positions beyond residency and reinforce perceived stereotype threat experienced by trainees.OBJECTIVE: To examine language used in faculty evaluations of pediatrics residents to determine if there are differences in language used with respect to gender of resident.DESIGN/METHODS: All faculty evaluations of residents in 3 consecutive intern classes from 2016-2018 were collected and redacted for name and gender identifiers. We performed a qualitative analysis of written comments in 2 mandatory free text sections. The study team initially coded text collectively, generating a code book, then individually to apply the coding scheme. Next, evaluations were unblinded to gender. Code applications were aggregated by resident, and frequencies of code application by resident were compared by standardized mean differences (SMD) to detect imbalances between genders.RESULTS: A total of 448 evaluations were analyzed: 88 evaluations of 17 male residents, and 360 evaluations of 70 female residents. Codes more frequently applied to women included "enthusiasm," and "caring," while codes more frequently applied to men included "intelligence," and "prepared." A conceptual model was created to reflect potential impacts of these differences using a lens of social role theory.CONCLUSION: We identified differences in the way male and female residents are evaluated by faculty, which may have negative downstream effects on female residents, who may experience negative self-perception, differential development of clinical skills, and divergent career opportunities as a result.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2022.02.004
View details for PubMedID 35158087
Fertility Benefits at Top U.S. Medical Schools.
Journal of women's health (2002)
Background: Female physicians have a higher prevalence of infertility compared with the general population. Physician well-being can be significantly impacted by the physical and emotional challenges associated with this, including the high cost of fertility treatments, which are often not covered by health insurance. There are limited data on the current state of fertility coverage available for physicians. This study examines fertility insurance benefits offered for faculty at top U.S. medical schools. Methods: Between March and April 2021, we reviewed fertility benefits at medical schools ranked in the top 14 for research as identified by the US News & World Report 2021. The summary plan descriptions of benefits were collected from each institution's human resources (HR) website and direct phone call to HR representatives. We examined descriptions of coverage for fertility services including evaluation, treatments, medications, maximum lifetime coverage, and whether a formal diagnosis of infertility was required for benefit eligibility. Results: Fourteen institutions offer benefits for fertility evaluation and 13 offer benefits for treatment. Of the 13 institutions that offer treatment coverage, 11 cover in vitro fertilization, with 6 having limits on the number of cycles. Twelve offer medication coverage. Ten institutions specified maximum lifetime coverage for treatments and medications, ranging from $10,000 to $100,000. Only 1 school provided coverage for elective fertility preservation, and none covered surrogacy expenses. Half of the schools are in states where fertility benefits are mandated. Conclusion: There is wide variation in fertility benefits offered at top medical schools across the country. Many schools offered coverage for fertility evaluation and treatments; however, majority had restrictions and limitations to the benefits, suggesting that there is still inadequate coverage provided. This study's selected sample also does not reflect other medical schools across the country, which may not be as well-resourced in their provision of fertility benefits.
View details for DOI 10.1089/jwh.2021.0486
View details for PubMedID 35041526
How Perceived Burnout alters Frontline Educators' Assessments in the Clinical Learning Environment.
OBJECTIVES: This study explores frontline educators' experience with learner burnout in the clinical learning environment (CLE) and how perceived burnout may impact assessment.METHODS: A survey was sent to 105 Pediatric Hospital Medicine faculty and fellows at seven sites across the United States representing diverse CLEs. They were invited to participate in a 11-question web-based survey that was developed, edited, and revised in step-wise fashion. It consisted of 5-point Likert scale, forced-choice and dichotomous questions. Data from the web-based survey were compiled for descriptive purposes and analyzed for trends.RESULTS: The response rate was 53%. Most respondents (83%) perceive learner burnout at least once per year, but median comfort in identifying burnout was 3 (scale 1-5, 3=neutral). Factors associated with comfort were education as primary niche (p =.01) and having wellness training (p =.045). In terms of the impact of perceived learner burnout impacts on assessment, 88% report impact on feedback sessions and 60% reported impact on summative assessment; most are more lenient. Stated belief in whether perceived burnout should or should not impact assessment had 60% sensitivity and 84% specificity in predicting whether it does.CONCLUSIONS: Frontline educators routinely perceive learner burnout in the CLE and it often impacts educators' assessment of a learner. The discrepancy between the expected and actual impact may suggests amplification of known barriers to accurate assessment in the CLE. Comfort associated with wellness training suggests that interventions targeting frontline educators in the CLE may improve their ability to simultaneously support and assess learners.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2021.12.014
View details for PubMedID 34929385
Functional and structural analysis of cytokine selective IL6ST defects that cause recessive hyper-IgE syndrome.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
BACKGROUND: Biallelic variants in IL6ST cause a recessive form of hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) characterized by high IgE, eosinophilia, defective acute phase response, susceptibility to bacterial infections and skeletal abnormalities due to cytokine selective loss-of-function in GP130 with defective IL-6 and IL-11, variable OSM and IL-27 but sparing LIF signaling.OBJECTIVE: To understand the functional and structural impact of recessive HIES-associated IL6ST variants.METHODS: We investigated a patient with HIES using exome, genome and RNA sequencing. Functional assays assessed IL-6, IL-11, IL-27, OSM, LIF, CT-1, CLC, and CNTF signaling. Molecular dynamic simulations and structural modeling of GP130 cytokine receptor complexes were performed.RESULTS: We identify a patient with compound heterozygous novel missense variants in IL6ST (p.Ala517Pro, and exon-skipping null variant p.Gly484_Pro518delinsArg). The p.Ala517Pro variant results in a more profound IL-6 and IL-11 dominated signaling defect compared to the previously identified recessive IL6ST variants p.Asn404Tyr, and p.Pro498Leu. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the p.Ala517Pro and p.Asn404Tyr variants result in increased flexibility of the extracellular membrane-proximal domains of GP130. We propose a structural model that explains the cytokine selectivity of pathogenic IL6ST variants that result in recessive HIES. The variants destabilize the hexameric cytokine receptor complexes whereas the trimeric LIF-GP130-LIFR complex remains stable by an additional membrane-proximal interaction. Deletion of this membrane-proximal interaction site in GP130 consequently causes additional defective LIF signaling and Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome.CONCLUSION: Our data provide a structural basis to understand clinical phenotypes in patients with IL6ST variants.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.02.044
View details for PubMedID 33771552
Parent Perceptions and Experiences Regarding Medication Education at Time of Hospital Discharge for Children With Medical Complexity.
2020; 10 (8): 679–86
BACKGROUND: Children with medical complexity (CMC) often require complex medication regimens. Medication education on hospital discharge should provide a critical safety check before medication management transitions from hospital to family. Current discharge processes may not meet the needs of CMC and their families. The objective of this study is to describe parent perspectives and priorities regarding discharge medication education for CMC.METHODS: We performed a qualitative, focus-group-based study, using ethnography. Parents of hospitalized CMC were recruited to participate in 1 of 4 focus groups; 2 were in Spanish. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and then coded and organized into themes by using thematic analysis.RESULTS: Twenty-four parents participated in focus groups, including 12 native English speakers and 12 native Spanish speakers. Parents reported a range of 0 to 18 medications taken by their children (median 4). Multiple themes emerged regarding parental ideals for discharge medication education: (1) information quality, including desire for complete, consistent information, in preferred language; (2) information delivery, including education timing, and delivery by experts; (3) personalization of information, including accounting for literacy of parents and level of information desired; and (4) self-efficacy, or education resulting in parents' confidence to conduct medical plans at home.CONCLUSIONS: Parents of CMC have a range of needs and preferences regarding discharge medication education. They share a desire for high-quality education provided by experts, enabling them to leave the hospital confident in their ability to care for their children once home. These perspectives could inform initiatives to improve discharge medication education for all patients, including CMC.
View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2020-0078
View details for PubMedID 32737165
Trends in Intravenous Magnesium Use and Outcomes for Status Asthmaticus in Children's Hospitals from 2010 to 2017.
Journal of hospital medicine
Intravenous (IV) magnesium is used as an adjunct therapy in management of status asthmaticus with a goal of reducing intubation rate. A recent review suggests that IV magnesium use in status asthmaticus reduces admission rates. This is contrary to the observation of practicing emergency room physicians. The goal of this study was to assess trends in IV magnesium use for status asthmaticus in US children's hospitals over 8 years through a retrospective analysis of children younger than 18 years using the Pediatric Health Information System database. Outcomes were IV magnesium use, inpatient and intensive care unit admission rate, geometric mean length of stay, and 7-day all-cause readmission rate. IV magnesium use for asthma hospitalization more than doubled over 8 years (17% vs. 36%; P < .001). Yearly trends were not significantly associated with hospital or intensive care unit admission rate or 7-day all-cause readmissions, although length of stay was reduced (P < .001).
View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3405
View details for PubMedID 32584247
- Collective Action and Effective Dialogue to Address Gender Bias in Medicine. Journal of hospital medicine 2019; 14 (10): 630–32
Achievable Benchmarks of Care for Pediatric Readmissions.
Journal of hospital medicine
2019; 14: E1–E7
BACKGROUND: Most inpatient care for children occurs outside tertiary children's hospitals, yet these facilities often dictate quality metrics. Our objective was to calculate the mean readmission rates and the Achievable Benchmarks of Care (ABCs) for pediatric diagnoses by different hospital types: metropolitan teaching, metropolitan nonteaching, and nonmetropolitan hospitals.METHODS: We used a cross-sectional retrospective study of 30-day, all-cause, same-hospital readmission of patients less than 18 years old using the 2014 Healthcare Utilization Project National Readmission Database. For each hospital type, we calculated the mean readmission rates and corresponding ABCs for the 17 most common readmission diagnoses. We define outlier as any hospital whose readmission rate fell outside the 95% CI for an ABC within their hospital type.RESULTS: We analyzed 690,949 discharges at 525 metropolitan teaching hospitals (550,039 discharges), 552 metropolitan nonteaching hospitals (97,207 discharges), and 587 nonmetropolitan hospitals (43,703 discharges). Variation in readmission rates existed among hospital types; however, sickle cell disease (SCD) had the highest readmission rate and ABC across all hospital types: metropolitan teaching hospitals 15.7% (ABC 7.0%), metropolitan nonteaching 14.7% (ABC 2.6%), and nonmetropolitan 12.8% (ABC not calculated). For diagnoses in which ABCs were available, outliers were prominent in bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and SCD.CONCLUSIONS: ABCs based on hospital type may serve as a better metric to explain case-mix variation among different hospital types in pediatric inpatient care. The mean rates and ABCs for SCD and mental health disorders were much higher and with more outlier hospitals, which indicate high-value targets for quality improvement.
View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3201
View details for PubMedID 31112497
Provider Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Bronchiolitis and Pneumonia Guidelines.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Practice guidelines have been published for bronchiolitis and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but little is known about pediatricians' knowledge of and attitudes toward these guidelines since their publication.METHODS: We surveyed pediatric providers at 6 children's hospitals in the New York City area. Two vignettes, an infant with bronchiolitis and a child with CAP, were provided, and respondents were asked about management. Associations between respondent characteristics and their reported practices were examined using chi2 and Fisher's exact tests. Associations between questions probing knowledge and attitude barriers relevant to guideline adherence and reported practices were examined using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel relative risk estimates.RESULTS: Of 283 respondents, 58% were trainees; 57% of attending physician respondents had finished training within 10 years. Overall, 76% and 45% of respondents reported they had read the bronchiolitis and CAP guidelines, respectively. For the bronchiolitis vignette, 40% reported ordering a chest radiograph (CXR), and 38% prescribed bronchodilators (neither recommended). For the CAP vignette, 38% prescribed ceftriaxone (not recommended). Study site, level of training, and practice locations were associated with nonrecommended practices. Site-adjusted knowledge and attitude barriers were used to identify that those who agreed CXRs were useful in managing bronchiolitis were more likely to order CXRs, and those who felt bronchodilators shortened length of stay were more likely to prescribe them. Concerns about ampicillin resistance and lack of confidence using local susceptibility patterns to guide prescribing were associated with ordering ceftriaxone.CONCLUSIONS: Provider-level factors and knowledge gaps were associated with ordering nonrecommended treatments for bronchiolitis and CAP.
View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2018-0211
View details for PubMedID 30610012
Impact of Discharge Components on Readmission Rates for Children Hospitalized with Asthma
JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
2018; 195: 175-+
To describe hospital-based asthma-specific discharge components at children's hospitals and determine the association of these discharge components with pediatric asthma readmission rates.This is a multicenter retrospective cohort study of pediatric asthma hospitalizations in 2015 at children's hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System. Children ages 5 to 17 years were included. An electronic survey assessing 13 asthma-specific discharge components was sent to quality leaders at all 49 hospitals. Correlations of combinations of asthma-specific discharge components and adjusted readmission rates were calculated.The survey response rate was 92% (45 of 49 hospitals). Thirty-day and 3-month adjusted readmission rates varied across hospitals, ranging from 1.9% to 3.9% for 30-day readmissions and 5.7% to 9.1% for 3-month readmissions. No individual or combination discharge components were associated with lower 30-day adjusted readmission rates. The only single-component significantly associated with a lower rate of readmission at 3 months was having comprehensive content of education (P < .029). Increasing intensity of discharge components in bundles was associated with reduced adjusted 3-month readmission rates, but this did not reach statistical significance. This was seen in a 2-discharge component bundle including content of education and communication with the primary medical doctor, as well as a 3-discharge component bundle, which included content of education, medications in-hand, and home-based environmental mitigation.Children's hospitals demonstrate a range of asthma-specific discharge components. Although we found no significant associations for specific hospital-level discharge components and asthma readmission rates at 30 days, certain combinations of discharge components may support hospitals to reduce healthcare utilization at 3 months.
View details for PubMedID 29395170
Long length of hospital stay in children with medical complexity.
Journal of hospital medicine
2016; 11 (11): 750-756
Hospitalizations of children with medical complexity (CMC) account for one-half of hospital days in children, with lengths of stays (LOS) that are typically longer than those for children without medical complexity. The objective was to assess the impact of, risk factors for, and variation across children's hospitals regarding long LOS (≥10 days) hospitalizations in CMC.A retrospective study of 954,018 CMC hospitalizations, excluding admissions for neonatal and cancer care, during 2013 to 2014 in 44 children's hospitals. CMC were identified using 3M's Clinical Risk Group categories 6, 7, and 9, representing children with multiple and/or catastrophic chronic conditions. Multivariable regression was used to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with LOS ≥10 days. Hospital-level risk-adjusted rates of long LOS generated from these models were compared using a covariance test of the hospitals' random effect.Among CMC, LOS ≥10 days accounted for 14.9% (n = 142,082) of all admissions and 61.8% ($13.7 billion) of hospital costs. The characteristics most strongly associated with LOS ≥10 days were use of intensive care unit (ICU) (odds ratio [OR]: 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-3.5), respiratory complex chronic condition (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 2.6-2.7), and transfer from another medical facility (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 2.0-2.1). After adjusting for severity, there was significant (P < 0.001) variation in the prevalence of LOS ≥10 days for CMC across children's hospitals (range, 10.3%-21.8%).Long hospitalizations for CMC are costly. Their prevalence varies significantly by type of chronic condition and across children's hospitals. Efforts to reduce hospital costs in CMC might benefit from a focus on prolonged LOS. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:750-756. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.2633
View details for PubMedID 27378587
Comparative Effectiveness of Dexamethasone versus Prednisone in Children Hospitalized with Asthma
JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
2015; 167 (3): 639-?
To study the comparative effectiveness of dexamethasone vs prednisone/prednisolone in children hospitalized with asthma exacerbation not requiring intensive care.This multicenter retrospective cohort study, using the Pediatric Health Information System, included children aged 4-17 years who were hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of asthma between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012. Children with chronic complex condition and/or initial intensive care unit (ICU) management were excluded. Propensity score matching was used to detect differences in length of stay (LOS), readmissions, ICU transfer, and cost between groups.40,257 hospitalizations met inclusion criteria; 1166 (2.9%) received only dexamethasone. In the matched cohort (N = 1284 representing 34 hospitals), the LOS was significantly shorter in the dexamethasone group compared with the prednisone/prednisolone group. The proportion of subjects with a LOS of 3 days or more was 6.7% in the dexamethasone group and 12% in the prednisone/prednisolone group (P = .002). Differences in all-cause readmission at 7- and 30 days were not statistically significant. The dexamethasone group had lower costs of index admission ($2621 vs $2838; P < .001) and total episode of care (including readmissions) ($2624 vs $2856; P < .001) compared with the prednisone/prednisolone group. There were no clinical significant differences in ICU transfer or readmissions between groups.Dexamethasone may be considered an alternative to prednisone/prednisolone for children hospitalized with asthma exacerbation not requiring admission to intensive care.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.06.038
View details for Web of Science ID 000363540200029
View details for PubMedID 26319919
Association of National Guidelines With Tonsillectomy Perioperative Care and Outcomes
2015; 136 (1): 53-60
To investigate the association of the 2011 American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery guidelines with perioperative care processes and outcomes in children undergoing tonsillectomy.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of otherwise healthy children undergoing tonsillectomy between January 2009 and January 2013 at 29 US children's hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System. We measured evidence-based processes suggested by the guidelines (perioperative dexamethasone and no antibiotic use) and outcomes (30-day tonsillectomy complication-related revisits). We analyzed rates aggregated over the preguideline and postguideline periods and then by month over time by using interrupted time series.Of 111,813 children who underwent tonsillectomy, 54,043 and 57,770 did so in the preguideline and postguideline periods, respectively. Dexamethasone use increased from 74.6% to 77.4% (P < .001) in the preguideline to postguideline period, as did its rate of change in use (percentage change per month, -0.02% to 0.29%; P < .001). Antibiotic use decreased from 34.7% to 21.8% (P < .001), as did its rate of change in use (percentage change per month, -0.17% to -0.56%; P < .001). Revisits for bleeding remained stable; however, total revisits to the hospital for tonsillectomy complications increased from 8.2% to 9.0% (P < .001) because of an increase in revisits for pain. Hospital-level results were similar.The guidelines were associated with some improvement in evidence-based perioperative care processes but no improvement in outcomes. Dexamethasone use increased slightly, and antibiotic use decreased substantially. Revisits for tonsillectomy-related complications increased modestly over time because of revisits for pain.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2015-0127
View details for Web of Science ID 000357296000047
View details for PubMedID 26101361
Treatment of hypovitaminosis D in infants and toddlers
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
2008; 93 (7): 2716-2721
Hypovitaminosis D appears to be on the rise in young children, with implications for skeletal and overall health.The objective of the study was to compare the safety and efficacy of vitamin D2 daily, vitamin D2 weekly, and vitamin D3 daily, combined with supplemental calcium, in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and lowering PTH concentrations.This was a 6-wk randomized controlled trial.The study was conducted at an urban pediatric clinic in Boston.Forty otherwise healthy infants and toddlers with hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml] participated in the study.Participants were assigned to one of three regimens: 2,000 IU oral vitamin D2 daily, 50,000 IU vitamin D2 weekly, or 2,000 IU vitamin D3 daily. Each was also prescribed elemental calcium (50 mg/kg.d). Infants received treatment for 6 wk.Before and after treatment, serum measurements of 25(OH)D, PTH, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were taken.All treatments approximately tripled the 25(OH)D concentration. Preplanned comparisons were nonsignificant: daily vitamin D2 vs. weekly vitamin D2 (12% difference in effect, P = 0.66) and daily D2 vs. daily D3 (7%, P = 0.82). The mean serum calcium change was small and similar in the three groups. There was no significant difference in PTH suppression.Short-term vitamin D2 2,000 IU daily, vitamin D2 50,000 IU weekly, or vitamin D3 2,000 IU daily yield equivalent outcomes in the treatment of hypovitaminosis D among young children. Therefore, pediatric providers can individualize the treatment regimen for a given patient to ensure compliance, given that no difference in efficacy or safety was noted among these three common treatment regimens.
View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2007-2790
View details for Web of Science ID 000257513700045
View details for PubMedID 18413426
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2729207