Perfluoroalkyl-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Multifunctional Additive for Promoting the Energetic Performance of Aluminum.
Aluminum (Al) is a widely used metal fuel for energetic applications ranging from space propulsion and exploration, and materials processing, to power generation for nano- and microdevices due to its high energy density and earth abundance. Recently, the ignition and combustion performance of Al particles were found to be improved by graphene-based additives, such as graphene oxide (GO) and graphene fluoride (GF), as their reactions provide heat to accelerate Al oxidation, gas to reduce particle agglomeration, and fluorine-containing species to remove Al2O3. However, GF is not only expensive but also hydrophobic with poor mixing compatibility with Al particles. Herein, we report a multifunctional graphene-based additive for Al combustion, i.e., perfluoroalkyl-functionalized graphene oxide (CFGO), which integrates the benefits of GO and GF in one material. We compared the effects of CFGO to GO and GF on the ignition and combustion properties of nAl particles using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, temperature-jump ignition), Xe flash ignition, and constant-volume combustion test. These experiments confirm that CFGO generates fluorine-containing species, heat, and gases, which collectively lower the ignition threshold, augment the energy release rate, and reduce the combustion product agglomeration of nanosized Al particles, outperforming both GO and GF as additives. This work shows the great potential of using multifunctionalized graphene as an integrated additive for enhancing the ignition and combustion of metals.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.2c05271
View details for PubMedID 36099637
Ignition and combustion of Perfluoroalkyl-functionalized aluminum nanoparticles and nanothermite
COMBUSTION AND FLAME
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.combustflame.2022.112170
View details for Web of Science ID 000831314000007
Efficient and Stable Acidic Water Oxidation Enabled by Low-Concentration, High-Valence Iridium Sites
ACS ENERGY LETTERS
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsenergylett.2c00578
View details for Web of Science ID 000821179900001
Effect of Fluoroalkylsilane Surface Functionalization on Boron Combustion.
ACS applied materials & interfaces
Boron has been regarded as a promising high-energy fuel due to its high volumetric and gravimetric heating values. However, it remains challenging for boron to attain its theoretical heat of combustion because of the existence of its native boron oxide layer and its high melting and boiling temperatures that delay ignition and inhibit complete combustion. Boron combustion is known to be enhanced by physically adding fluorine-containing chemicals, such as fluoropolymer or metal fluorides, to remove surface boron oxides. Herein, we chemically functionalize the surface of boron particles with three different fluoroalkylsilanes: FPTS-B (F3-B), FOTS-B (F13-B), and FDTS-B (F17-B). We evaluated the ignition and combustion properties of those three functionalized boron particles as well as pristine ones. The boron particles functionalized with the longest fluorocarbon chain (F17) exhibit the most powerful energetic performance, the highest heat of combustion, and the strongest BO2 emission among all samples. These results suggest that the surface functionalization with fluoroalkylsilanes is an efficient strategy to enhance boron ignition and combustion.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsami.2c00347
View details for PubMedID 35467848
Enhancing Mechanical and Combustion Performance of Boron/Polymer Composites via Boron Particle Functionalization.
ACS applied materials & interfaces
High-speed air-breathing propulsion systems, such as solid fuel ramjets (SFRJ), are important for space exploration and national security. The development of SFRJ requires high-performance solid fuels with excellent mechanical and combustion properties. One of the current solid fuel candidates is composed of high-energy particles (e.g., boron (B)) and polymeric binder (e.g., hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)). However, the opposite polarities of the boron surface and HTPB lead to poor B particle dispersion and distribution within HTPB. Herein, we demonstrate that the surface functionalization of B particles with nonpolar oleoyl chloride greatly improves the dispersion and distribution of B particles within HTPB. The improved particle dispersion is quantitatively visualized through X-ray computed tomography imaging, and the particle/matrix interaction is evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis. The surface-functionalized B particles can be uniformly dispersed up to 40 wt % in HTPB, the highest mass loading reported to date. The surface-functionalized B (40 wt %)/HTPB composite exhibits a 63.3% higher Young's modulus, 87.5% higher tensile strength, 16.2% higher toughness, and 16.8% higher heat of combustion than pristine B (40 wt %)/HTPB. The surface functionalization of B particles provides an effective strategy for improving the efficacy and safety of B/HTPB solid fuels for future high-speed air-breathing vehicles.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsami.1c06727
View details for PubMedID 34110148