- Regulation of Neuronal Survival and Axon Growth by a Perinuclear cAMP Compartment JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 2019; 39 (28): 5466–80
Regulation of Neuronal Survival and Axon Growth by a Perinuclear cAMP Compartment.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) signaling is known to be critical in neuronal survival and axon growth. Increasingly the subcellular compartmentation of cAMP signaling has been appreciated, but outside of dendritic synaptic regulation, few cAMP compartments have been defined in terms of molecular composition or function in neurons. Specificity in cAMP signaling is conferred in large part by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) that localize protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling enzymes to discrete intracellular compartments. We now reveal that cAMP signaling within a perinuclear neuronal compartment organized by the large multivalent scaffold protein mAKAPα promotes neuronal survival and axon growth. mAKAPα signalosome function is explored using new molecular tools designed to specifically alter local cAMP levels as studied by live cell FRET imaging. In addition, enhancement of mAKAPα-associated cAMP signaling by isoform-specific displacement of bound phosphodiesterase is demonstrated to increase retinal ganglion cell survival in vivo in mice of both sexes following optic nerve crush injury. These findings define a novel neuronal compartment that confers cAMP regulation of neuroprotection and axon growth and that may be therapeutically targeted in disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTcAMP is a second messenger responsible for the regulation of diverse cellular processes including neuronal neurite extension and survival following injury. Signal transduction by cAMP is highly compartmentalized in large part due to the formation of discrete, localized multimolecular signaling complexes by A-kinase anchoring proteins. Although the concept of cAMP compartmentation is well-established, the function and identity of these compartments remain poorly understood in neurons. In this study, we provide evidence for a neuronal perinuclear cAMP compartment organized by the scaffold protein mAKAPα that is necessary and sufficient for the induction of neurite outgrowth in vitro and for the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vivo following optic nerve injury.
View details for PubMedID 31097623
Muscle A-kinase-anchoring protein-beta-bound calcineurin toggles active and repressive transcriptional complexes of myocyte enhancer factor 2D.
The Journal of biological chemistry
Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors are key regulators of the development and adult phenotype of diverse tissues including skeletal and cardiac muscles. Controlled by multiple post-translational modifications, MEF2D is an effector for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN, PP2B, and PPP3). CaN-catalyzed dephosphorylation promotes the desumoylation and acetylation of MEF2D increasing its transcriptional activity. Both MEF2D and CaN bind the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein beta (mAKAPbeta), which is localized to the nuclear envelope, such that C2C12 skeletal myoblast differentiation and neonatal rat ventricular myocyte hypertrophy are inhibited by mAKAPbeta signalosome targeting. Using immunoprecipitation and DNA-binding assays, we now show that the formation of mAKAPbeta signalosomes is required for MEF2D dephosphorylation, desumoylation, and acetylation in C2C12 cells. Reduced MEF2D phosphorylation was coupled to a switch from type IIa histone deacetylase to p300 histone acetylase binding that correlated with increased MEF2D-dependent gene expression and ventricular myocyte hypertrophy. Together these results highlight the importance of mAKAPbeta signalosomes for regulating MEF2D activity in striated muscle, affirming mAKAPbeta as a nodal regulator in the myocyte intracellular signaling network.
View details for PubMedID 30523159
Bidirectional regulation of HDAC5 by mAKAP beta signalosomes in cardiac myocytes
JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR CARDIOLOGY
2018; 118: 13–25
Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are transcriptional repressors whose nuclear export in the cardiac myocyte is associated with the induction of pathological gene expression and cardiac remodeling. Class IIa HDACs are regulated by multiple, functionally opposing post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation by protein kinase D (PKD) that promotes nuclear export and phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) that promotes nuclear import. We have previously shown that the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein β (mAKAPβ) orchestrates signaling in the cardiac myocyte required for pathological cardiac remodeling, including serving as a scaffold for both PKD and PKA. We now show that mAKAPβ is a scaffold for HDAC5 in cardiac myocytes, forming signalosomes containing HDAC5, PKD, and PKA. Inhibition of mAKAPβ expression attenuated the phosphorylation of HDAC5 by PKD and PKA in response to α- and β-adrenergic receptor stimulation, respectively. Importantly, disruption of mAKAPβ-HDAC5 anchoring prevented the induction of HDAC5 nuclear export by α-adrenergic receptor signaling and PKD phosphorylation. In addition, disruption of mAKAPβ-PKA anchoring prevented the inhibition by β-adrenergic receptor stimulation of α-adrenergic-induced HDAC5 nuclear export. Together, these data establish that mAKAPβ signalosomes serve to bidirectionally regulate the nuclear-cytoplasmic localization of class IIa HDACs. Thus, the mAKAPβ scaffold serves as a node in the myocyte regulatory network controlling both the repression and activation of pathological gene expression in health and disease, respectively.
View details for PubMedID 29522762
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5940533
Muscle A-Kinase Anchoring Protein-a is an Injury-Specific Signaling Scaffold Required for Neurotrophic- and Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Mediated Survival.
2015; 2 (12): 1880-1887
Neurotrophic factor and cAMP-dependent signaling promote the survival and neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after injury. However, the mechanisms conferring neuroprotection and neuroregeneration downstream to these signals are unclear. We now reveal that the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein-α (mAKAPα) is required for the survival and axon growth of cultured primary RGCs. Although genetic deletion of mAKAPα early in prenatal RGC development did not affect RGC survival into adulthood, nor promoted the death of RGCs in the uninjured adult retina, loss of mAKAPα in the adult increased RGC death after optic nerve crush. Importantly, mAKAPα was required for the neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) after injury. These results identify mAKAPα as a scaffold for signaling in the stressed neuron that is required for RGC neuroprotection after optic nerve injury.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.10.025
View details for PubMedID 26844267