- Neural Closed loop deep brain stimulation for freezing of Gait. Brain stimulation 2020
The turning and barrier course reveals gait parameters for detecting freezing of gait and measuring the efficacy of deep brain stimulation.
2020; 15 (4): e0231984
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a devastating motor symptom of Parkinson's disease that leads to falls, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Reliably eliciting FOG has been difficult in the clinical setting, which has limited discovery of pathophysiology and/or documentation of the efficacy of treatments, such as different frequencies of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). In this study we validated an instrumented gait task, the turning and barrier course (TBC), with the international standard FOG questionnaire question 3 (FOG-Q3, r = 0.74, p < 0.001). The TBC is easily assembled and mimics real-life environments that elicit FOG. People with Parkinson's disease who experience FOG (freezers) spent more time freezing during the TBC compared to during forward walking (p = 0.007). Freezers also exhibited greater arrhythmicity during non-freezing gait when performing the TBC compared to forward walking (p = 0.006); this difference in gait arrhythmicity between tasks was not detected in non-freezers or controls. Freezers' non-freezing gait was more arrhythmic than that of non-freezers or controls during all walking tasks (p < 0.05). A logistic regression model determined that a combination of gait arrhythmicity, stride time, shank angular range, and asymmetry had the greatest probability of classifying a step as FOG (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.754). Freezers' percent time freezing and non-freezing gait arrhythmicity decreased, and their shank angular velocity increased in the TBC during both 60 Hz and 140 Hz STN DBS (p < 0.05) to non-freezer values. The TBC is a standardized tool for eliciting FOG and demonstrating the efficacy of 60 Hz and 140 Hz STN DBS for gait impairment and FOG. The TBC revealed gait parameters that differentiated freezers from non-freezers and best predicted FOG; these may serve as relevant control variables for closed loop neurostimulation for FOG in Parkinson's disease.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0231984
View details for PubMedID 32348346
Neuromodulation targets pathological not physiological beta bursts during gait in Parkinson's disease.
Neurobiology of disease
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a devastating axial motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD) leading to falls, institutionalization, and even death. The response of FOG to dopaminergic medication and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is complex, variable, and yet to be optimized. Fundamental gaps in the knowledge of the underlying neurobiomechanical mechanisms of FOG render this symptom one of the unsolved challenges in the treatment of PD. Subcortical neural mechanisms of gait impairment and FOG in PD are largely unknown due to the challenge of accessing deep brain circuitry and measuring neural signals in real time in freely-moving subjects. Additionally, there is a lack of gait tasks that reliably elicit FOG. Since FOG is episodic, we hypothesized that dynamic features of subthalamic (STN) beta oscillations, or beta bursts, may contribute to the Freezer phenotype in PD during gait tasks that elicit FOG. We also investigated whether STN DBS at 60 Hz or 140 Hz affected beta burst dynamics and gait impairment differently in Freezers and Non-Freezers. Synchronized STN local field potentials, from an implanted, sensing neurostimulator (Activa PC + S, Medtronic, Inc.), and gait kinematics were recorded in 12 PD subjects, off-medication during forward walking and stepping-in-place tasks under the following randomly presented conditions: NO, 60 Hz, and 140 Hz DBS. Prolonged movement band beta burst durations differentiated Freezers from Non-Freezers, were a pathological neural feature of FOG and were shortened during DBS which improved gait. Normal gait parameters, accompanied by shorter bursts in Non-Freezers, were unchanged during DBS. The difference between the mean burst duration between hemispheres (STNs) of all individuals strongly correlated with the difference in stride time between their legs but there was no correlation between mean burst duration of each STN and stride time of the contralateral leg, suggesting an interaction between hemispheres influences gait. These results suggest that prolonged STN beta burst durations measured during gait is an important biomarker for FOG and that STN DBS modulated long not short burst durations, thereby acting to restore physiological sensorimotor information processing, while improving gait.
View details for PubMedID 30196050
Sixty hertz subthalamic deep brain stimulation improves freezing of gait with less attenuation of beta band power than 140Hz stimulation
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2018
View details for Web of Science ID 000453090802452
- Coordinated Reset Vibrotactile Stimulation Shows Prolonged Improvement in Parkinson's Disease MOVEMENT DISORDERS 2018; 33 (1): 179–80